Effects of physical exercise on working memory and prefrontal cortex function in post-stroke patients

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1 Effects of physicl exercise on working memory nd prefrontl cortex function in post-stroke ptients M Moriy, C Aoki, K Sktni Grdute School of Helth Sciences Reserch, Mjor of Physicl Therpy, TeikyoHeisei University, Jpn NEWCAT Reserch Institute, Deprtment of Electricl nd Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Jpn Astrct: Recent studies found tht moderte exercise enhnced prefrontl cortex ctivity ssocited with improved performnce of working memory in older dults. However, it is unknown out the exercise effect on the prefrontl cortex ctivity in post-stroke ptients. The im of this study ws to exmine the cute effect of physicl exercise on prefrontl cortex ctivity in post-stroke ptients using ner-infrred spectroscopy (NIRS). We studied 11 post-stroke ptients. The ptients performed Sternerg-type working memory tsks efore nd fter moderte intensity eroic exercise (40 % of mximl oxygen uptke) with cycling ergometer for 15 min. We mesured the NIRS response t the prefrontl cortex during the working memory tsk. We evluted ehviorl performnce (response time nd ccurcy) of the working memory tsk. We found tht physicl exercise improved ehviorl performnce of the working memory tsk compred with control condition(p<0.01). In ddition, NIRS nlysis found tht physicl exercise enhnced the prefrontl cortex ctivtion, prticulrly right prefrontl cortex(p<0.05), during the working memory tsk compred with control condition. These findings suggest tht the moderte intensity eroic exercise enhnced the prefrontl cortex ctivity ssocited with working memory performnce in post-stroke ptients. Acknowledgements: This reserch ws supported in prt y Strtegic Reserch Foundtion Grnt-ided Project for Privte Universities (S ) from the Ministry of Eduction, Culture, Sports, Sciences nd Technology of Jpn, nd grnts from Iing Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Jpn) nd Southern Tohoku Generl Hospitl (Fukushim, Jpn).

2 Reltion etween prefrontl cortex ctivity nd respirtory rte during mentl stress tsks: ner infrred spectroscopy study Y Murym, L Hu, K Sktni, NEWCAT Reserch Institute, Deprtment of Electricl nd Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Jpn Deprtment of Neurologicl Surgery, School of Medicine, Nihon University, Jpn Astrct: Ner infrred spectroscopy (NIRS) studies hve demonstrted tht mentl stress tsks cuses ctivtion of the prefrontl cortex (PFC) ssocited with increses of hert rte (HR) [1-3]. Interestingly, the suject with right dominnt ctivity of the PFC exhiited lrger increses of HR compred with tht with left dominnt ctivity. The utonomic nervous system regulted HR nd respirtory rte (RR), however, the reltion etween the PFC ctivity nd RR during mentl stress tsks is not yet known. In the present study, we evluted the reltion etween the PFC ctivity nd RR during mentl rithmetic (MA) tsks employing NIRS. We studied 20 norml mle dults (20~22 yers old). Employing 2 chnnel NIRS, we mesured hemogloin (H) concentrtion chnges in the ilterl PFC during MA tsks. In order to evlute symmetry of the PFC ctivity, we clculted the lterlity index (LI); tht is, (R-L)/(R+L) of oxyhemogloin concentrtion chnges. Positive scores of LI indicte right dominnt ctivity while negtive scores indicte left dominnt ctivity. For mesurements of RR, we employed Kinect, which is motion sensor mde y Microsoft. The MA tsks incresed oxy-h in the ilterl PFC nd RR (p<0.001). In ddition, there ws significnt correltion etween LI nd RR (r=0.582, p<0.02) (Figure). These results indicte tht the MA-induced ctivity in the right PFC ws lrger thn tht in the left PFC ctivity in the suject with high RR increses, suggesting tht the right PFC hs greter role in cererl regultion of RR during mentl stress. Acknowledgements: This reserch ws supported in prt y Strtegic Reserch Foundtion Grnt-ided Project for Privte Universities (S ) from the Ministry of Eduction, Culture, Sports, Sciences Respirtory rte (times/min) r=0.582 p< nd Technology of Jpn, nd grnts from Iing Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Jpn) nd Southern Tohoku Generl Hospitl (Fukushim, Jpn). References: [1] M Tnid, et l. Reltion etween symmetry of prefrontl cortex ctivities nd the utonomic nervous system during mentl rithmetic tsk: ner infrred spectroscopy study. Neurosci Lett. 369:69-74 (2004) [2] M Tnid, et l. Reltion etween mentl stress-induced prefrontl cortex ctivity nd skin conditions: ner infrred spectroscopy study. Brin Res. 1184: (2007) [3] K Sktni Opticl dignosis of mentl stress. Adv Exp Med Bio. 737:89-95 (2012) LI

3 Effects of ntioxidnt supplements (BioPQQ TM ) on cererl lood flow nd oxygen metolism in the prefrontl cortex M. Nkno, Y Murym, L Hu, K. Ikemoto, T. Uetke c, K Sktni, d Niigt Reserch Lortory, Mitsuishi Gs Chemicl Co., Inc., Jpn, NEWCAT Reserch Institute, Deprtment of Electricl nd Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Jpn c CX Medicl Jpn Co., Inc., Jpn, d Deprtment of Neurologicl Surgery, School of Medicine, Nihon University, Jpn Astrct: Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is quinone compound identified from methnol-utilizing cteri s cofctor for redox enzymes [1]. In ISOTT2014, we reported tht PQQ disodium slt (BioPQQ TM ) improved cognitive functions in humn evluted y Stroop test [2]. However, the physiologicl mechnism of PQQ on cognitive functions is not yet cler. In the present study, we mesured chnges of the regionl cererl lood flow (rcbf) nd oxygen metolism in the prefrontl cortex (PFC) efore nd fter dministrtion of PQQ using timeresolved ner infrred spectroscopy (tnirs). We studied 20 helthy sujects etween 50 nd 70 yers old. Sujects were orlly given 20mg of BioPQQ TM per dy or plceo for 12-weeks. We mesured hemogloin (H) concentrtions nd oxygen sturtion (SO2) in the ilterl PFC t resting condition using tnirs. We found tht seline concentrtions of oxyhemogloin nd totl hemogloin in the right PFC incresed significntly fter dministrtion of PQQ (p<0.05). In contrst, SO2 decresed in the ilterl PFC (p<0.05). The results suggest tht PQQ incresed right PFC ctivity ssocited with increses of rcbf nd oxygen metolism, resulted in the enhncement of cognitive functions. Acknowledgements: This reserch ws supported in prt y Strtegic Reserch Foundtion Grnt-ided Project for Privte Universities (S ) from the Ministry of Eduction, Culture, Sports, Sciences nd Technology of Jpn, nd grnts from Iing Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Jpn) nd Southern Tohoku Generl Hospitl (Fukushim, Jpn). References [1] SA Slisury, et l. Nture 280, (1979) [2] Y Ito, et l. Adv Exp Med Biol (in press)

4 Effects of positive nd negtive mood induction on the prefrontl cortex ctivity mesured y ner infrred spectroscopy A. Compre, A. Brugner, R. Adorni, nd K. Sktni Deprtment of Humn & Socil Science, University of Bergmo, Itly Deprtment of Electricl nd Electronic Engineering, Nihon University, Jpn Astrct The neurophysiologicl mechnism of positive versus negtive emotions is insufficiently understood. In the present study, we exmined the effect of event recll tsks on the prefrontl cortex (PFC) using ner infrred spectroscopy (NIRS). 9 helthy dults were instructed to recll episodes of their life ssocited with positive (hppiness) nd negtive (nger) emotion, oth silently nd verlly. PFC ctivity ws mesured during the experiments using 2 chnnel NIRS. Concentrtion chnges of oxyhemogloin (oxy-h) were nlyzed using ANOVA. Hert rte (HR) chnges were lso mesured using n ECG monitoring system. NIRS showed n incresed oxy-h in the ilterl PFC during silent nd verl recll tsks of oth positive nd negtive episodes. The verge chnges of oxy-h in the right nd left PFC during silent recll tsks of negtive episodes were lrger thn those during silent recll tsks of positive episodes (p=0.01). There ws no difference in verge chnges of oxy-h etween silent nd verl recll tsks of negtive episodes (p=0.95), while verge chnges of oxy-h during verl recll tsks of positive episodes were lrger thn those during silent recll tsk of positive episodes (p=0.02). Interestingly, silent recll tsks of negtive episodes tended to cuse lrger chnges of oxy-h in the right PFC thn those of positive events (p=0.07). Finlly, oth verl nd silent recll tsks of positive nd negtive episodes incresed HR; however, verl recll tsks cused lrger increses of HR thn silent recll tsks (p=0.01). HR chnges in negtive episodes were slightly lrger thn those in positive episodes; lthough there ws no sttisticl significnce. The present results suggest tht recll of negtive episodes ffect neuronl ctivity of the PFC, which plys key role in cognitive control of emotions, more thn positive episodes. Autonomic results goes in the sme direction, suggesting trend of mjor ctivtion during negtive episode recll.

5 Correltion etween NIRS nd EEG Signls during Mentl Arithmetic Tsk Evluted y Self-Orgnizing Mp K Oym, K Sktni Deprtment of Computer Science, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Jpn NEWCAT Reserch Institute, Deprtment of Electricl nd Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Jpn Astrct: Simultneous monitoring of rin ctivity y ner-infrred spectroscopy (NIRS) nd electroencephlogrphy (EEG) llows the sptiotemporl reconstruction of the hemodynmic response in terms of the concentrtion chnges in oxy-hemogloin (HO) nd deoxy-hemogloin (HR) ssocited with recorded rin ctivity such s cognitive functions. However, the results otined y EEG-NIRS mesurements re often different depending on grnulrity of time frme to cpture snpshot of NIRS nd EEG signls such s mentl rithmetic tsk in minute nd deep reth for few seconds. This study pproch compres indices of mentl worklod in etween NIRS nd EEG y nlysis of self-orgnizing mp (SOM) nd correltion etween chnges in oxy-h of NIRS nd event-relted de-synchroniztion nd synchroniztion (ERD/ERS) of EEG. SOM is used for selection of indices in NIRS nd EEG signls y visuliztion of high-dimensionl dt nd clssifiction of sttes during mentl rithmetic tsk. We conducted n experiment for identifiction of trnsition etween mentl rithmetic tsk nd eing t rest with 10 prticipnts. We found the highest correltion (p < 0.01) t trnsition of tsks etween temporl chnges of EEG power spectr in the rnge of 8Hz-9Hz nd difference etween oxy-h on the left prefrontl re nd right prefrontl re in 2 minutes of time frme. Ech stte of mentl rithmetic tsk cn e found using NIRS nd EEG. Acknowledgements: This work ws supported in prt y JSPS Grnt-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) Grnt Numer nd Strtegic Reserch Foundtion Grnt-ided Project for Privte Universities (S ) from the Ministry of Eduction, Culture, Sports, Sciences nd Technology of Jpn, nd grnts from Iing Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Jpn).

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