anatomic divisions central nervous system peripheral nervous system Anatomic Divisions of the PNS afferent or sensory division

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "anatomic divisions central nervous system peripheral nervous system Anatomic Divisions of the PNS afferent or sensory division"

Transcription

1 Chapter 12 Functional Organization of the Nervous System I. Two anatomic divisions: CNS and PNS A. central nervous system (CNS) 1. consists of the brain and spinal cord and is encased in bone. 2. Surrounded / protected by meninges and CSF 3. Fxn: Highly sophisticated; Processes, integrates, stores, and responds to information from PNS. Produces ideas and emotions, that are not the automatic consequences of information input. B. peripheral nervous system (PNS) 1. PNS consists of nervous tissue outside of the CNS, a. consists of nerves and ganglia. (1) ganglia are collections of nerve bodies located outside the CNS b. 43 pairs of nerves originating in the CNS make up the PNS (1) 12 cranial nerves (2) 31 pair of spinal nerves. 2. Fxn: The PNS detects stimuli and transmits to and receives information from the CNS. 3. Anatomic Divisions of the PNS (sensory and motor) a. afferent or sensory division (1) transmits action potentials to the from sensory organs to the CNS (2) consists of single neurons with cell bodies in ganglia. (a) ganglia are located outside the spinal cord or within cranial nerves. b. efferent or motor division (1) carries action potential away from the CNS (2) effects muscle or glands. 4. Functional subdivisions of PNS (somatic motor and ANS) a. somatic motor nervous system (1) It consists of single neurons that have their cell bodies located within the CNS. (2) innervates skeletal muscle (3) under voluntary control. (4) axon extends to neuromuscular junction on muscle b. autonomic nervous system (ANS) (1) innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands. (2) called involuntary nervous system with two neurons between the CNS and effector organs. The first neuron has its cell body in CNS, and the second neuron has its cell body within autonomic ganglia and extends to effector organ. Two (functional) divisions of ANS: Sympathetic -T1-L2 - ganglian are near spinal cord Parasympathetic - Cranial nerves and S2- S4 - ganglia are in or near organ affected. 1

2 II. Cells of the nervous system A. Cell types: Neurons and Neuroglia (nerve glue) B. Neurons 1. Neurons receive stimuli and transmit action potentials. 2. Form complex networks. 3. three main components a. cell body (soma) (1) single large nucleus with prominent nucleolus (2) is the primary site of protein synthesis and contains an extensive endoplasmic reticulum. (3) contains large numbers of intermediate filaments / microtubules b. dendrites (lat. tree) (1) generally short, highly branched cytoplasmic extensions of the cell body (2) contain dendritic spines and are tapered toward end (3) usually conduct electric signals toward the cell body. (4) respond to neurotransmitter c. Axons (lat. axel) (1) eminate form axon hillock (2) cytoplasmic extensions of the cell body (axoplasm) (3) that transmit action potentials to other cells. (4) uniform diameter / straight C. Types of Neurons 1. Multipolar neurons a. several dendrites and a single axon. b. Association and motor neurons are multipolar. 2. Bipolar neurons a. a single axon and dendrite b. found as components of sensory organs. 3. Unipolar neurons a. have a single axon. b. Most sensory neurons are unipolar. D. Neuroglia 1. Neuroglia are nonneural cells that support and aid the neurons of the CNS and PNS. 2. CNS neuroglia a. Astrocytes - provide structural support for neurons and blood vessels and forms the bloodbrain barrier that regulates the movements of substances between the blood and the CNS. b. Microglia -macrophages that phagocytize microorganisms, foreign substances, or necrotic tissue. c. Ependymal cells - line the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. Some are specialized to produce cerebrospinal fluid. d. Oligodendrocytes - form myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons of the CNS. 3. (PNS neuroglia) a. Schwann cells, (neurolemmocytes) - form myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons of the PNS. b. Satellite cells support and nourish neuron cell bodies within ganglia. E. Axon Sheaths 1. Unmyelinated axons rest in invaginations of oligodendrocytes (CNS) or Schwann cells (PNS). They conduct action potentials slowly. 2. Myelinated axons are wrapped by several layers of cell membrane from oligodendrocytes (CNS) 2

3 or Schwann cells (PNS). Spaces between the wrappings are the nodes of Ranvier, and action potentials are conducted rapidly be saltatory conduction from one node of Ranvier to the next. F. Nerve Fibers are classified by size 1. Type A - large diameter a. (15-22 m/sec) motor and sensory nerves - rapid response 2. Type B - medium diameter a. (3-15 m/sec) autonomic nervous system - heart lung 3. Type C- small diameter a. (2 m/sec) autonomic NS - digestion. III. Organization of Nervous Tissue A. CNS Structure - Nervous tissue can be grouped into white an gray matter. 1. White matter is made up of myelinated axons and functions to propagate actions potentials. a. White matter forms nerve tracts in the CNS and nerves in the PNS (1) Association fibers (2) commissural fibers (3) projection fibers 2. Gray matter is collections of neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated axons. a. Gray matter forms cortex and nuclei in the CNS and ganglia in the PNS. b. Within gray matter axons synapse with neuron cell bodies, (1) This is functionally the site of integration in the nervous system. 3. In the brain, gray matter is found on the outside of the cortex and white matter makes up the nerve tracts within the brain. 4. In the spinal cord, gray matter if found internal (anterior/posterior horn) and white matter is surrounds the gray matter on the outside. B. PNS structure 1. Bundles of axons and their sheaths from nerves. The endoneurium surroundes individual axons. Fascicles are groups of axons that are bound together by the perineurium. The epineurium holds groups of fascicles together to form the nerve. IV. The Synapse A. Anatomy of the synapse. 1. presynaptic terminals - The enlarged ends of the axon that contain synaptic vesicles. 2. postsynaptic membranes - contain receptors for the neurotransmitter and are found on other neurons, muscles or glands. 3. synaptic cleft - the space that separates the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. B. Synaptic transmission 1. An action potential arriving at the presynaptic terminal causes Ca++ gates to open 2. Ca++ ion diffuse into the synaptic terminal 3. Ca++ causes synaptic vessicles containing the neurotransmitter to bind to the synaptic membrane releasing the neurotransmitter, 4. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the receptors of the postsynaptic membrane. 5. Binding of a ligand to the receptor invokes a response in the postsynaptic cell. C. Neurotransmitter inactivation (three methods): 1. The neurotransmitter is broken down by an enzyme a. Eg. acetylcholinesterase 2. The neurotransmitter is taken up by the presynaptic terminal. 3

4 a. Epinerpherine is taken up repackaged in vessicles and reused or inactivated within the presynaptic terminal by monoamine oxidase (MAO). 3. The neurotransmitter diffuses out of the synaptic cleft. D. Receptor molecules in synapses 1. Receptors for neurotransmitters are specific. 2. A neurotransmitter can bind to several different receptor types a. Therefore a neurotransmitter can be stimulatory (depolarize) in one synapse and inhibitory (hyperpolarize) in another, depending on the type of receptor present. 3. Some presynaptic terminals have receptors. a. Release of norepinepherine (NE) can bind to presynaptic receptors which decrease the release of NE. (modifies its own release). E. Neurotransmitter and Neuromodulators 1. Neurotransmitters are substances released at a synapse that affect another cell. 2. Once thought that each neuron contained only one neurotransmitter. a. Some neurons can secrete more than one type of neurotransmitter. b. A neuron makes use of the same combination of chemical messengers at all of its synapses. c. Contrary to book, neurons can release one neurotransmitter in greater abundance compared to another neurotransmitter. (1) Size of versicle and frequency of action potential. 3. Neuromodulators influence the likelihood that an action potential in a presynaptic terminal will result in an action potential in a postsynaptic cell. a. Can influence the release of other neurotransmitters. 4. Types of Neurotransmitters. Substance Location Effect Example 1. Small molecule transmitters substances Acetylcholine 2. Biogenic Amines Used by motor neurons in spinal cord and at all nerve skeletal muscle junctions. Widespread use throughout the brain and in ANS Excite or inhibit Alzheimer s disease - decrease in Ach release Myasthenia gravis - decrease in ACH receptors. Dopamine Norepinephrine Epinephrine Serotonin Histamine Cateholamines (DNE) from tyrosine. excite exictatory / inhibitory exictatory / inhibitory Inhibitory inhibitory Parkinson s - dopamine schizophrenia/vomiting. Amphetamines / cocaine - increase epi. Mood anxiety sleep arousal from sleep and thermoregulation 3. Amino Acids GABA Glycine Glutamate and aspartate major inhibitory trans. Inhibitory exitatory Used to treat epilepsy blocked by strychnine drugs prevent seizures. 4. Neuropeptides (Over 50 have been identifed.) 4

5 Opioids regulate pain, reproduction, thermoregulation and maternal behaviors Endorphins / enkephalins Tachykinins regulate sex, Substance P, Gastrins Neurohypophyseal Secretins Insulins regulate sex and maternal behaviors regulate blood sugar levels and growth CCK, Galanin vassopressin, oxytocin, neurophysins glucagon, VIP, Growth Hormone RH, histidine insulin, insulin-like growth factors V. Excitatory and Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials A. A combination of neurotransmitters causes either a depolarization (excitatory)or hyperpolarization (inhibitory)of the postsynaptic membrane. B. Depolarization 1. caused by an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) an increase in membrane permeability to Na+ ions 2. Caused by. 3. If depolarization reaches threshold then an action potential is generated. 4. Novocain decreases permiability to Na+. C. Hyperpolarization 1. caused by an increase in membrane permeability to chloride ions or potassium ions is an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). a. Cl- moves into cell making inside more negative. b. K+ moves out of cell making inside more negative. D. Presynaptic inhibitions and facilitation 1. Axoaxonic synapses on presynaptic terminal can alter the amount of neurotransmitter released. a. Presynaptic inhibition decreases neurotransmitter release. b. Presynaptic facilitation increases neurotransmitter release. 2. The greater the amount of neurotransmitter the greater the IPSP or EPSP E. Spatial and temporal summation 1. Presynaptic action potentials through neurotransmitters produce local potentials in postsynaptic neurons. a. Summation: A series of presynaptic action potentials causes a series of local potentials in the postsynaptic neurons that act at the axon hillock to generate an action potential if the local potentials are strong enough. These local potentials can summate to produce an action potential at the axon hillock. 2. Two type of summation a. Spatial summation occurs when two are more presynaptic terminals simultaneously stimulate a postsynaptic neuron. (1) b. Temporal summation occurs when two are more action potentials arrive in succession at a single presynaptic terminal. 3. Inhibitory and excitatory presynaptic neurons can converge an a postsynaptic neuron. The 5

6 activity of the postsynaptic neuron is determined be the integration of the EPSPs and IPSPs produced in the postsynaptic neuron. VI. Reflexes A. A reflex arc is the functional unit of the nervous system. 1. Sensory receptors respond to stimuli and produce action potentials in afferent neurons. 2. Afferent neurons propagate action potentials to the CNS. 3. Association neurons in the CNS synapse with afferent neurons and with efferent neurons. 4. Efferent neurons carry action potentials from the CNS to the effector organ. 5. Effector organs such as muscles or glands respond to the action potential. B. Reflexes do not require conscious thought, and they produce a consistent and predictable result. C. Reflexes are homeostatic. They remove the body from painful stimuli, keep the body from falling, maintain blood pressure, ph, CO 2 levels, and water intake. D. Reflexes are integrated within the brain and spinal cord. Higher brain centers can suppress or exaggerate reflexes. VII. Neuronal pathways and Circuits. A. Organization of the neurons varies from simple to extremely complex. 1. Branching / synaptology can be complex to simple. 2. There are three basic patterns of neuronal circuitry: convergent, divergent and oscilating B. Convergent pathways have many neurons synapsing (converge) with only a few neurons. 1. Eg. Spinal cord convergence of CNS circuits and sensory neuron in reflex arc. C. Divergent pathways have a few neurons synapsing with many neurons. 1. Information in one circuit can be spread to several other circuits. 2. Eg. Sensory nerve sends information to 1)an interneuron the goes out to the motor neurons and 2) another neuron that goes to the brain. D. Oscillating circuits have collateral branches of postsynaptic neurons synapsing with presynaptic neurons or themselves (fig ). 1. Lets citcuits produce action potentials more than once (after discharge) a. Prolongs response (positive feedback circuit) b. Stimulation continues until: (1) fatigue is reached (2) inhibited by another neuron. c. CNS control of respiration (breathing in and out) is controlled by an oscillating circuit. 6

The Nervous System. Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output

The Nervous System. Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output The Nervous System Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output The Nervous System 2 Parts of the Nervous System 1. central

More information

Functions of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System Chapter 11 Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue 11-1 Functions of the Nervous System 1. Sensory input. Monitor internal and external stimuli 2. Integration. Brain and spinal cord process sensory input

More information

Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue. Nervous System. Basic Divisions of the Nervous System C H A P T E R 12.

Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue. Nervous System. Basic Divisions of the Nervous System C H A P T E R 12. C H A P T E R 12 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Nervous System Sensory input Integration Motor output Figure 12.1 Basic Divisions of the Nervous System Brain CNS Spinal cord Nerves

More information

Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters

Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters Nervous System Master controlling and communicating system of the body Interacts with the endocrine system to control and coordinate the body s responses to changes in its environment, as well as growth,

More information

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi The Nervous System & Nervous tissue Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of the Nervous System 1. Nervous system and endocrine system are the chief control centers in maintaining body homeostasis. 2. Nervous

More information

Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells

Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue The Nervous System Components Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Responsible for Sensory perceptions,

More information

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites.

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites. 10.1: Introduction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial

More information

NEURAL TISSUE (NEUROPHYSIOLOGY) PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA

NEURAL TISSUE (NEUROPHYSIOLOGY) PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA Neural Tissue Contains 2 kinds of cells: neurons: cells that send and receive signals neuroglia (glial cells): cells that support and protect neurons Neuron Types Sensory

More information

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure Chapter 10 Nervous System I Divisions of the Nervous System Cell Types of Neural Tissue neurons neuroglial cells Central Nervous System brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System nerves cranial nerves

More information

The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body

The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body Functions: -Sensory input -Integration -Motor output Organization of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) -Brain

More information

Chapter 17. Nervous System Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands. !

Chapter 17. Nervous System Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands. ! Chapter 17 Sensory receptor Sensory input Integration Nervous System Motor output Brain and spinal cord Effector cells Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Central nervous system (CNS) 28.1 Nervous systems

More information

Collin County Community College BIOL Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System

Collin County Community College BIOL Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System Collin County Community College BIOL 2401 Week 5 Nervous System 1 Nervous System The process of homeostasis makes sure that the activities that occur in the body are maintained within normal physiological

More information

1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System

1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I OBJECTIVES 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Cranial

More information

Chapter 7. The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement

Chapter 7. The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement Chapter 7 The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways

More information

Chapter 7. Objectives

Chapter 7. Objectives Chapter 7 The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways

More information

The Nervous System. Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine.

The Nervous System. Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine. The Nervous System Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine Http://10.10.10.151 Part 1. Summary of the nervous system The Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain + Spinal Cord Peripheral

More information

Tips. Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures. Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg

Tips. Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures. Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg Tips Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures Lectures will be posted after class Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg The Nervous System N E U

More information

BIOH111. o Cell Module o Tissue Module o Integumentary system o Skeletal system o Muscle system o Nervous system o Endocrine system

BIOH111. o Cell Module o Tissue Module o Integumentary system o Skeletal system o Muscle system o Nervous system o Endocrine system BIOH111 o Cell Module o Tissue Module o Integumentary system o Skeletal system o Muscle system o Nervous system o Endocrine system Endeavour College of Natural Health endeavour.edu.au 1 TEXTBOOK AND REQUIRED/RECOMMENDED

More information

1/20/ : Overview of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System

1/20/ : Overview of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System 10.1: Overview of the Nervous System Chapter 10 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission

More information

Chapter 11: Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Chapter 11: Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Objectives: 1. List the basic functions of the nervous system. 2. Explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous system.

More information

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Dr. Chris Doumen Week 5 2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Introduction Neural Tissue TextBook Readings Pages 388 through 397. Make use of the figures in your textbook ; a picture is worth a thousand words! Work

More information

BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology

BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology Roster Business Course Introduction and Syllabus Notecard Name E-mail Why you are taking the course Something interesting you did over break Lecture Tips Use the Study

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

Nervous System. Electrical Signals.III Signal Transmission at Synapses Neurotransmitters.V Neural Circuits.VI

Nervous System. Electrical Signals.III Signal Transmission at Synapses Neurotransmitters.V Neural Circuits.VI Nervous System Overview.I Histology.II Electrical Signals.III Signal Transmission at Synapses Neurotransmitters.V Neural Circuits.VI Repairs.VII Pathology.VIII.IV 1 Controls and integrates all body activities

More information

! BIOL 2401! Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System

! BIOL 2401! Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System Collin County Community College! BIOL 2401! Week 5 Nervous System 1 Nervous System The process of homeostasis makes sure that the activities that occur in the body are maintained within normal physiological

More information

Endocrine System Nervous System

Endocrine System Nervous System Cells Endocrine System Nervous System Tissues Controls Organs Nervous System vs Endocrine System Electrical signals (graded potentials and action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters) Fast

More information

Portions from Chapter 6 CHAPTER 7. The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses. Chapter 7 Outline. and Supporting Cells

Portions from Chapter 6 CHAPTER 7. The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses. Chapter 7 Outline. and Supporting Cells CHAPTER 7 The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses Chapter 7 Outline Neurons and Supporting Cells Activity in Axons The Synapse Acetylcholine as a Neurotransmitter Monoamines as Neurotransmitters Other

More information

Body control systems. Nervous system. Organization of Nervous Systems. The Nervous System. Two types of cells. Organization of Nervous System

Body control systems. Nervous system. Organization of Nervous Systems. The Nervous System. Two types of cells. Organization of Nervous System Body control systems Nervous system Nervous system Quick Sends message directly to target organ Endocrine system Sends a hormone as a messenger to the target organ Slower acting Longer lasting response

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Somatic (SNS) Fibers - transmit impulses from CNS to control voluntary action of skeletal muscle

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Somatic (SNS) Fibers - transmit impulses from CNS to control voluntary action of skeletal muscle NERVOUS SYSTEM The master controlling and communicating system of the body --- cells communicate via electrical and chemical signals. Signals are rapid, specific and cause almost immediate responses. Functions

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8

NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 CAN AN INJURED SPINAL CORD BE FIXED? Injuries to the spinal cord disrupt communication between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body

More information

Axon Nerve impulse. Axoplasm Receptor. Axomembrane Stimuli. Schwann cell Effector. Myelin Cell body

Axon Nerve impulse. Axoplasm Receptor. Axomembrane Stimuli. Schwann cell Effector. Myelin Cell body Nervous System Review 1. Explain a reflex arc. 2. Know the structure, function and location of a sensory neuron, interneuron, and motor neuron 3. What is (a) Neuron Axon Nerve impulse Axoplasm Receptor

More information

Introduction to Neurobiology

Introduction to Neurobiology Biology 240 General Zoology Introduction to Neurobiology Nervous System functions: communication of information via nerve signals integration and processing of information control of physiological and

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Neurons & Impulses

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Neurons & Impulses THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Neurons & Impulses Organization of the Nervous System: Two Major Portions: The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). CNS = Brain/Spinal Cord PNS = Nerves-provide

More information

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5 P1 OF 5 The nervous system controls/coordinates the activities of cells, tissues, & organs. The endocrine system also plays a role in control/coordination. The nervous system is more dominant. Its mechanisms

More information

The Nervous System. Overall Function

The Nervous System. Overall Function The Nervous System The Nervous System Overall Function COMMUNICATION Works with the endocrine system in regulating body functioning, but the nervous system is specialized for SPEED Neurons A neuron is

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue 9/12/11 Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Overview of the nervous system Cells of the nervous system Electrophysiology of neurons Synapses Neural integration Subdivisions of the Nervous System 1 Subdivisions of

More information

Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system. Myelinated neurons Nerve signal transmission Nerve Synapse

Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system. Myelinated neurons Nerve signal transmission Nerve Synapse Outline Nervous System - Neurons Biol 105 Lecture Packet 9 Chapter 7 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system Nervous system cells Myelinated neurons Nerve signal

More information

action potential afferent neuron Weblike; specifically, the weblike middle layer of the three meninges. arachnoid astrocytes autonomic nervous system

action potential afferent neuron Weblike; specifically, the weblike middle layer of the three meninges. arachnoid astrocytes autonomic nervous system action potential A large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber. afferent neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses

More information

Anatomy and Physiology 1 Chapters 12 and 13 self quiz Pro, Dima Darwish,MD.

Anatomy and Physiology 1 Chapters 12 and 13 self quiz Pro, Dima Darwish,MD. Anatomy and Physiology 1 Chapters 12 and 13 self quiz Pro, Dima Darwish,MD. 1) Which of the following is a function of the nervous system? A) sense the internal and external environments B) integrate sensory

More information

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts:

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts: Animals: Nervous system Neuron and connection of neurons Outline 1. Key concepts 2. An Overview and Evolution 3. Human Nervous System 4. The Neurons 5. The Electrical Signals 6. Communication between Neurons

More information

Chapter 12 The Nervous System INTRODUCTION TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Central Nervous System (CNS): STRUCTURE BRAIN SPINAL CORD NERVES

Chapter 12 The Nervous System INTRODUCTION TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Central Nervous System (CNS): STRUCTURE BRAIN SPINAL CORD NERVES Chapter 12 The Nervous System PowerPoint by John McGill Supplemental Notes by Beth Wyatt INTRODUCTION TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE BRAIN SPINAL CORD NERVES Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain Spinal

More information

CHAPTER 12 LECTURE OUTLINE I. OVERVIEW OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. The nervous system, along with the endocrine system, helps to keep controlled

CHAPTER 12 LECTURE OUTLINE I. OVERVIEW OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. The nervous system, along with the endocrine system, helps to keep controlled CHAPTER 12 LECTURE OUTLINE I. OVERVIEW OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. The nervous system, along with the endocrine system, helps to keep controlled conditions within limits that maintain health and helps to

More information

Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!)

Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!) Bio 201 Tissues and Skin 1 March 21, 2011 Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!) 1. The study of the normal functioning and disorders of the

More information

Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM

Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM Topic from General functions of the nervous system Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical & functional perspectives Gross & microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 48 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions

More information

Overview of Nervous System

Overview of Nervous System Overview of Nervous System endocrine and nervous system maintain internal coordination endocrine system - communicates by means of chemical messengers (hormones) secreted into to the blood nervous system

More information

Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization

Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization Diversity of Neural Signaling The diversity of neuron structure and function allows neurons to play many roles. 3 basic function of all neurons: Receive

More information

STOP. The Nervous System How you know when to. doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable. The Neuron. Different Types of Neurons

STOP. The Nervous System How you know when to. doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable. The Neuron. Different Types of Neurons The Nervous System How you know when to STOP doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable Complexity of the Brain The brain contains approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons, and

More information

13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology. Dendrite

13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology. Dendrite 13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology Dendrite Histology (Cells) of the Nervous System 2 major categories of cells are found in the nervous system: 1. Nerve cells (neurons) carry

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 CHAPTER 10 BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I

NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 CHAPTER 10 BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 Ch 10 A This set Ch 10 B CHAPTER 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 BASIC STRUCTURE and FUNCTION Dr. Lawrence G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy of McGraw-Hill.

More information

Overview of the Nervous System A. Subdivisions of the Nervous System: 1. The two major subdivisions of the nervous system:

Overview of the Nervous System A. Subdivisions of the Nervous System: 1. The two major subdivisions of the nervous system: BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 Ch 10 A This set Ch 10 B CHAPTER 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 BASIC STRUCTURE and FUNCTION Dr. Lawrence G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy of McGraw-Hill.

More information

Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2

Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2 NAME PER DATE Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2 Matching: 1. afferent nerves 2. autonomic nervous system 3. cell body 4. central nervous system (CNS) 5. dendrites 6. efferent nerves 7. myelin sheath

More information

Chapter 8 Nervous System

Chapter 8 Nervous System Chapter 8 Nervous System Two message centers: Functions of these systems: 1. * 2. * Overview of the Nervous System Parts: General Functions: Functions Sensory input: Sensation via nerves Integration: interpretation

More information

The 7 th lecture. Anatomy and Physiology For the. 1 st Class. By Dr. Ala a Hassan Mirza

The 7 th lecture. Anatomy and Physiology For the. 1 st Class. By Dr. Ala a Hassan Mirza The 7 th lecture In Anatomy and Physiology For the 1 st Class By Dr. Ala a Hassan Mirza Nervous System (part I) The Nerve Tissue and the Nervous System The Tissues of the Body There are 4 types of tissues

More information

A. Subdivisions of the Nervous System: 1. The two major subdivisions of the nervous system:

A. Subdivisions of the Nervous System: 1. The two major subdivisions of the nervous system: BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 Ch 10 A Ch 10 B CHAPTER 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 BASIC STRUCTURE and FUNCTION Dr. Lawrence G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy of McGraw-Hill.

More information

Nervous System Organization

Nervous System Organization The Nervous System Chapter 44 All animals must be able to respond to environmental stimuli -Sensory receptors = Detect stimulus -Motor effectors = Respond to it -The nervous system links the two -Consists

More information

Biology 12 Human Biology - The Nervous System Name. Main reference: Biology Concepts and Connects Sixth edition Chapter 28

Biology 12 Human Biology - The Nervous System Name. Main reference: Biology Concepts and Connects Sixth edition Chapter 28 Biology 12 Human Biology - The Nervous System Name Main reference: Biology Concepts and Connects Sixth edition Chapter 28 Vocabulary acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), action potential,

More information

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now?

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now? Bio11: The Nervous System Body control systems Nervous system Quick Sends message directly to target organ Endocrine system Sends a hormone as a messenger to the target organ Can target several organs

More information

Nervous System (Part A-1) Module 8 -Chapter 14

Nervous System (Part A-1) Module 8 -Chapter 14 Nervous System (Part A-1) Module 8 -Chapter 14 Overview Susie Turner, M.D. 1/9/13 Cellular structure of the nervous system Neurons Neuroglia Nervous System Divisions Central nervous system Peripheral nervous

More information

The Nervous System : communication

The Nervous System : communication The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information

More information

Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 11: Neural Tissue & The Nervous System

Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 11: Neural Tissue & The Nervous System Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 11: Neural Tissue & The Nervous System Question No. 1 of 10 The human body contains different types of tissue. The tissue is formed into organs and organ systems.

More information

You can follow the path of the neural signal. The sensory neurons detect a stimulus in your finger and send that information to the CNS.

You can follow the path of the neural signal. The sensory neurons detect a stimulus in your finger and send that information to the CNS. 1 Nervous system maintains coordination through the use of electrical and chemical processes. There are three aspects: sensory, motor, and integrative, which we will discuss throughout the system. The

More information

Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons

Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons Invertebrates Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons Radial Symmetry - Nerve net Cnideria Bilateral Symmetry double, ventral, solid nerve cord brain (cephalization) Vertebrates Dorsal, single, hollow,

More information

vesicles filled with neurotransmitters

vesicles filled with neurotransmitters Nervous Tissue Controls and integrates all body activities within limits that maintain life Three basic functions sensing changes with sensory receptors fullness of stomach or sun on your face interpreting

More information

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES CHAPTER 3 1 LEARNING GOALS Discuss how the nervous system communicates internally. Describe the structure and function of neurons Describe how the neuron transmits information Describe

More information

The Nervous System : communication

The Nervous System : communication The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information

More information

Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer

Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer Name Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Period Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer 1. What is

More information

Notes are online at The Neuron

Notes are online at  The Neuron Notes are online at http://cogsci.ucsd.edu/~clovett/neuronotescogs17.pdf A. What is a neuron? The Neuron 1. A neuron is a type of cell that receives and transmits information in the Central Nervous System

More information

Nervous System 2. Quick Video

Nervous System 2. Quick Video Nervous System 2 McMurray/Tarshish Intro Psych Quick Video https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=4gdjcd68sge 1 10/16/15 Divisions of Nervous System Nervous system divisions CNS PNS Sensory (in) Motor (out)

More information

Chapter 7 Nervous System

Chapter 7 Nervous System Chapter 7 Nervous System Two message centers: Functions of these systems: 1. * 2. * Overview of the Nervous System Parts: General Functions: Functions Sensory input: Sensation via nerves Integration: interpretation

More information

Neurotransmitters. Chemical transmission of a nerve signal by neurotransmitters at a synapse

Neurotransmitters. Chemical transmission of a nerve signal by neurotransmitters at a synapse Neurotransmitters A chemical released by one neuron that affects another neuron or an effector organ (e.g., muscle, gland, blood vessel). Neurotransmitters are small molecules that serve as messengers

More information

Ch 7. The Nervous System

Ch 7. The Nervous System Ch 7 The Nervous System SLOs 7.1 7.2 Describe the different types of neurons and supporting cells, and identify their functions. Identify the myelin sheath and describe how it is formed in the CNS and

More information

Neural and Hormonal Systems

Neural and Hormonal Systems PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Neural and Hormonal Systems Module 4 2 Neural and Hormonal Systems Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate

More information

Week 7 and 8 Master Worksheet

Week 7 and 8 Master Worksheet The Nervous System Week 7 and 8 Master Worksheet 1. Complete the chart regarding the 3 functions of the nervous system: Sensory input What does it do? Integration Motor output 2. Complete the chart: Component

More information

Nervous System and Brain Review. Bio 3201

Nervous System and Brain Review. Bio 3201 Nervous System and Brain Review Bio 3201 Dont worry about: glial cells Oligodendrocytes Satelite cells etc Nervous System - Vital to maintaining homeostasis in organisms - Comprised of : brain, spinal

More information

Chapter 28 Nervous Systems

Chapter 28 Nervous Systems Chapter 28 Nervous Systems PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J.

More information

My green thumb came only as a result of the mistakes I made while learning to see things from the plant s point of view. -H. Fred Ale Nervous System 1

My green thumb came only as a result of the mistakes I made while learning to see things from the plant s point of view. -H. Fred Ale Nervous System 1 My green thumb came only as a result of the mistakes I made while learning to see things from the plant s point of view. -H. Fred Ale Nervous System 1 Classroom Rules You'll get one warning, then you'll

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Chapter 48-49

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Chapter 48-49 NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter 48-49 Nervous System Function: coordinates and controls bodily functions with nerves and electrical impulses The system is composed of different types of nerve cells called neurons

More information

Department of medical physiology 1 st week

Department of medical physiology 1 st week Department of medical physiology 1 st week Semester: summer Study program: Dental medicine Lecture: RNDr. Soňa Grešová, PhD. Department of medical physiology 1 st week 1. General neurophysiology 2. Central

More information

Neural Tissue. Chapter 12 Part A

Neural Tissue. Chapter 12 Part A Neural Tissue Chapter 12 Part A Homeostasis Homeostasis refers to maintaining internal environment. How does body maintain homeostasis?? 1. Each cell, tissue or organ maintain their own internal environment

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Homeostasis Strand Introduction In general, a nervous system has three overlapping functions : 1. Sensory input conduction of signals from sensory receptors to integration centres 2.

More information

Neural Tissue. Chapter 12 Part B

Neural Tissue. Chapter 12 Part B Neural Tissue Chapter 12 Part B CNS Tumors - Neurons stop dividing at age 4 but glial cells retain the capacity to divide. - Primary CNS tumors in adults- division of abnormal neuroglia rather than from

More information

Body control systems. Let s start at the top: the human brain. The Cerebrum. The human brain. What parts of your brain are you using right now?

Body control systems. Let s start at the top: the human brain. The Cerebrum. The human brain. What parts of your brain are you using right now? What parts of your brain are you using right now? Body control systems Quick Sends message directly to target organ Endocrine system Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Movement and conscious thought; Frontal speech

More information

6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis

6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis 6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis IB Biology SL Part 1 - Nerves Outcomes Part 1 6.5.1State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves, and is composed

More information

NEURONS Chapter Neurons: specialized cells of the nervous system 2. Nerves: bundles of neuron axons 3. Nervous systems

NEURONS Chapter Neurons: specialized cells of the nervous system 2. Nerves: bundles of neuron axons 3. Nervous systems NEURONS Chapter 12 Figure 12.1 Neuronal and hormonal signaling both convey information over long distances 1. Nervous system A. nervous tissue B. conducts electrical impulses C. rapid communication 2.

More information

Nervous System Worksheet

Nervous System Worksheet Nervous System Worksheet Name Section A: Intro to Nervous System The Nervous System regulates and coordinates activities within the body. It detects, interprets and responds to changes that occur internally

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 CHAPTER 10 BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I

NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 CHAPTER 10 BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 Ch 10 A Ch 10 B This set CHAPTER 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 BASIC STRUCTURE and FUNCTION Dr. Lawrence G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy of McGraw-Hill.

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment

Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment Name: Class: Date: Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which part of a neuron receives an impulse

More information

Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling

Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling 7.1. Overview of the Nervous System (Figure 7.1) 7.2. Cells of the Nervous System o Neurons are excitable cells which can generate action potentials o 90%

More information

NOTES CHAPTER 9 (Brief) The Nervous System LECTURE NOTES

NOTES CHAPTER 9 (Brief) The Nervous System LECTURE NOTES NOTES CHAPTER 9 (Brief) The Nervous System LECTURE NOTES I. Divisions of the Nervous System two major divisions A. Central Nervous System (CNS) 1. brain 2. spinal cord B. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

More information

The Brain & Homeostasis. The Brain & Technology. CAT, PET, and MRI Scans

The Brain & Homeostasis. The Brain & Technology. CAT, PET, and MRI Scans The Brain & Homeostasis Today, scientists have a lot of information about what happens in the different parts of the brain; however they are still trying to understand how the brain functions. We know

More information

Communication within a Neuron

Communication within a Neuron Neuronal Communication, Ph.D. Communication within a Neuron Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons The Membrane Potential The Action Potential Conduction of the Action Potential 1 The withdrawal reflex

More information

Section: Chapter 5: Multiple Choice. 1. The structure of synapses is best viewed with a(n):

Section: Chapter 5: Multiple Choice. 1. The structure of synapses is best viewed with a(n): Section: Chapter 5: Multiple Choice 1. The structure of synapses is best viewed with a(n): p.155 electron microscope. light microscope. confocal microscope. nissle-stained microscopic procedure. 2. Electron

More information

Functions of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System The Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System 1. Control center for all body activities 2. Responds and adapts to changes that occur both inside and outside the body (Ex: pain, temperature, pregnancy)

More information

Bio11 schedule. Chapter 13 and 14. The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Organization of Nervous Systems. Nerves. Nervous and Sensory Systems

Bio11 schedule. Chapter 13 and 14. The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Organization of Nervous Systems. Nerves. Nervous and Sensory Systems Bio11 schedule Lecture Nervous system and senses Lab Current events reports (10 pts) Urinalysis Lecture exam 2 Thursday Feb 24 Same format as before Study guide will be posted Your total points so far

More information