Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition (L2C2), Institut des Sciences

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition (L2C2), Institut des Sciences"

Transcription

1 Intelligence and reasoning are not one and the same Ira A. Noveck and Jérôme Prado Laboratoire sur le Langage, le Cerveau et la Cognition (L2C2), Institut des Sciences Cognitives, CNRS-Université de Lyon, France Abstract: Lest the conjunction intelligence and reasoning seduce the reader into supposing that the two are of a piece, we point out that analyses made at the superset level concerning intelligence do not readily align with or outperform the scientific advances made via investigations of reasoning, which at best can be viewed as a subset of intelligent behaviour. One of Piaget s better known tasks is the class-inclusion problem, in which participants are shown, for example, five daisies and three tulips and asked, Are there more flowers or more daisies? Although the task s intended normative response is flowers, many (usually younger) participants say that there are more daisies and arguably because they understand flowers to mean flowers-that-are-not-daisies (for a recent review, see Politzer 2004). The target article s reference to intelligence and reasoning harks back to 1

2 Piaget s task, because the oft-used conjunction leaves the impression that the two represent a single area of study, when in fact the domain Intelligence is very large (the target article covers chess playing, Go, IQ tests, etc.) and perhaps includes reasoning. We argue that the presentation of Intelligence in this way is infelicitous, much like the option flowers in the class inclusion problem. More specifically, we ask the two following questions: First, are there advantages in studying a large area of cognitive performance over investigating one subpart (i.e., reasoning) alone? Second, do approaches that rely on individual differences (and primarily correlations among subtests) provide conclusions and insights that have greater validity or greater predictability than those drawn from investigations of a subset (i.e., reasoning)? It is our view that the answer to both questions is negative. For better or worse, investigations into reasoning take a structural approach. The field breaks down reasoning into its component parts, both conceptually and empirically. Thus, reasoning researchers make the distinction between deductive and inductive reasoning (where the former concerns valid conclusions and the latter, conclusions that are more or less probable). Once in the deductive domain, which will remain our example, one then aims to determine the role played by factors such as logical validity, semantic content, development, as well as perceptual or belief biases that affect participants responses. Generally speaking, reasoning researchers make the assumption that findings are universal. For example, it is generally accepted that Modus Tollens (if p then q; not-q//therefore, not-p) is more difficult to carry out than Modus Ponens (if p then q; p//therefore q). The literature on the neuroimaging of reasoning, which is covering the same ground as its cognitive forebears, also aims to depict the way the 2

3 above factors play out, but with respect to the brain mechanisms or structures that are shown to be responsible for these universal effects. Neuroimaging not only has provided some specific findings that are inaccessible to classic cognitive paradigms but has informed theory making. For example, Prado and Noveck (2006;2007) demonstrated how participants are more prone to errors and are slowed down when features mentioned in a rule mismatch those in a test item (e.g., note how a test item depicting a P-in-a-circle verifies the rule If there is not an H then there is not a square while providing two mismatches). The neuroimaging experiment (Prado & Noveck, in press) revealed that an increase in mismatching leads to greater activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right mid-dorsolateral PFC. This indicates that mismatching, rather than negationinterpretation, is likely critical to correct performance. Interestingly, this restricted network is basically the same as the one reported when prior beliefs interfere in evaluating logically valid conclusions (see Goel et al. 2000; Goel & Dolan 2003). This is also in line with growing evidence showing that the right lateral PFC is specifically involved in inhibiting a prepotent response (see Aron et al. 2004) and that its nonactivation in children (8 12 years) is linked to less effective attentional control when compared with adults (Bunge et al. 2002). By making distinctions between an attentional control system described above and the parietal-frontal system that is implicated in fundamental logical inferences such as Modus Ponens (Noveck et al. 2004), one gets an informed account of the way reasoning is distributed in the frontal and parietal lobes. This dual-system approach also describes some other novel findings. For example, it can explain (a) why solutions to 3

4 insight tasks, which arguably benefit from having less attentional control, are more accessible to those who have lesions in the frontal cortex (Reverberi et al. 2005), and (b) why right lateral PFC activity is predictive of successful logical performance (Goel & Dolan 2003). Providing explanations for such nonintuitive findings is the hallmark of scientific advances. Most importantly, this indicates that correct performance on higherlevel tasks has little to do with the better use of normative rules; it has more to do with avoiding biases while using such rules. In contrast, studies that investigate cerebral correlates of Intelligence point to a large number of regions, but they hardly describe the role played by each. The upshot is that differences among individuals are linked to an entire system that fails to distinguish between its functionally distinguishable parts (e.g., rule access and perceptual integration). In fact, when intelligence research does aim to isolate factors, it largely confirms what is found through more structural approaches (e.g., Gray et al. 2003). The worry is that infelicitous analyses of brain function could lead to infelicitous theoretical claims (e.g., about evolution). Although reasoning research has benefited from descriptions of individual differences (e.g., see Jackson & Griggs 1988; Stanovich & West 2000), such descriptions do not amount to a central strategy in investigations of reasoning (at least as far as WAISbased tests are concerned). There are two viable reasons for this. First, quality of education and economic background are critical for better performance on standardized tests of intelligence (see Georgas et al. 2003; Shuttleworth-Edwards et al. 2004). This makes measures of intelligence unstable across populations. Second, as Georgas et al. (2003) report, of the 11 subtests that account for performance on the WISC-III, the two 4

5 subtests that imply reasoning (and not necessarily deductive reasoning) Mazes and Picture Completion are among the least predictive of variance across the 12 large populations (and 15,999 people) studied. In other words, reasoning per se has a limited impact on standardized tests of intelligence. References Aron, A. R., Robbins, T. W. & Poldrack, R. A. (2004) Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8(4): [IAN] Bunge, S. A., Dudukovic, N. M., Thomason, M. E., Vaidya, C. J. & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002) Immature frontal lobe contributions to cognitive control in children: Evidence from fmri. Neuron 33(2): [IAN] Georgas, J., Weiss, L. G., Van de Vijver, F. J. R. & Saklofske, D. H., eds. (2003) Culture and children s intelligence: Cross cultural analysis of the WISC III. Academic Press. [IAN] Goel, V., Buchel, C., Frith, C. & Dolan, R. J. (2000) Dissociation of mechanisms underlying syllogistic reasoning. NeuroImage 12(5): [IAN] Goel, V. & Dolan, R. J. (2003) Explaining modulation of reasoning by belief. Cognition 87(1):B [IAN] Gray, J. R., Chabris, C. F. & Braver, T. S. (2003) Neural mechanisms of general fluid intelligence. Nature Neuroscience 6(3): [IAN] Jackson, S. L. & Griggs, R. A. (1988) Education and the selection task. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26(4): [IAN] Noveck, I., Goel, V. & Smith, K. (2004) The neural basis of conditional reasoning with 5

6 arbitrary content. Cortex 40: [IAN] Politzer, G. (2004) Reasoning, judgement & pragmatics. In: Experimental pragmatics, eds. I. A. Noveck & D. Sperber. Palgrave Macmillan. [IAN] Prado, J. & Noveck, I. A. (2006) How reaction times elucidate the matching bias and the way negations are processed. Thinking and Reasoning 12(3): [IAN] (2007). Overcoming perceptual features in logical reasoning: A parametric fmri study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19: [IAN] Reverberi, C., Toraldo, A., D Agostini, S. & Skrap, M. (2005) Better without (lateral) frontal cortex? Insight problems solved by frontal patients. Brain 128(12): [IAN] Shuttleworth-Edwards, A. B., Kemp, R. D., Rust, A. L., Muirhead, J. G. L., Hartman, N. P. & Radloff, S. E. (2004) Cross-cultural effects on IQ test performance: A review and preliminary normative indications on WAIS-III test performance. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 26(7): [IAN] Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (2000) Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(5): [IAN] 6

Time perception, cognitive correlates, age and emotions

Time perception, cognitive correlates, age and emotions Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 187 ( 2015 ) 695 699 PSIWORLD 2014 Time perception, cognitive correlates, age and emotions Cristian Vasile*

More information

Recent Advances in Relational Complexity Theory & its Application to Cognitive Development

Recent Advances in Relational Complexity Theory & its Application to Cognitive Development Recent Advances in Relational Complexity Theory & its Application to Cognitive Development Glenda Andrews & Graeme S. Halford Griffith University Australia Changing conceptions of thinking In Piagetian

More information

Rajeev Raizada: Statement of research interests

Rajeev Raizada: Statement of research interests Rajeev Raizada: Statement of research interests Overall goal: explore how the structure of neural representations gives rise to behavioural abilities and disabilities There tends to be a split in the field

More information

Explainer: This is your brain

Explainer: This is your brain Explainer: This is your brain By The Conversation, adapted by Newsela staff on 03.24.17 Word Count 803 TOP: There are many different parts of the brain with their own specific function. There are times

More information

Artificial Intelligence and Human Thinking. Robert Kowalski Imperial College London

Artificial Intelligence and Human Thinking. Robert Kowalski Imperial College London Artificial Intelligence and Human Thinking Robert Kowalski Imperial College London 1 Artificial Intelligence and Human Thinking The Abductive Logic Programming (ALP) agent model as a unifying framework

More information

Attention, Binding, and Consciousness

Attention, Binding, and Consciousness Attention, Binding, and Consciousness 1. Perceptual binding, dynamic binding 2. Neural Correlates of Consciousness: Binocular rivalry 3. Attention vs. consciousness 4. Binding revisited: Split-brain, split-consciousness

More information

Response to Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience by Vul et al. summary information for the press

Response to Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience by Vul et al. summary information for the press Response to Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience by Vul et al. summary information for the press Mbemba Jabbi 1, Christian Keysers 2, Tania Singer 3, Klaas Enno Stephan 3, (authors listed in alphabetical

More information

Resistance to forgetting associated with hippocampus-mediated. reactivation during new learning

Resistance to forgetting associated with hippocampus-mediated. reactivation during new learning Resistance to Forgetting 1 Resistance to forgetting associated with hippocampus-mediated reactivation during new learning Brice A. Kuhl, Arpeet T. Shah, Sarah DuBrow, & Anthony D. Wagner Resistance to

More information

Generalization and Theory-Building in Software Engineering Research

Generalization and Theory-Building in Software Engineering Research Generalization and Theory-Building in Software Engineering Research Magne Jørgensen, Dag Sjøberg Simula Research Laboratory {magne.jorgensen, dagsj}@simula.no Abstract The main purpose of this paper is

More information

A model of parallel time estimation

A model of parallel time estimation A model of parallel time estimation Hedderik van Rijn 1 and Niels Taatgen 1,2 1 Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Groningen Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS Groningen 2 Department of Psychology,

More information

The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory

The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory Cognition 63 (1997) 1 28 The effect of premise order in conditional reasoning: a test of the mental model theory Vittorio Girotto *, Alberto Mazzocco, Alessandra Tasso a, b b a CREPCO CNRS and University

More information

ARTICLE IN PRESS. Neuropsychologia xxx (2009) xxx xxx. Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. Neuropsychologia

ARTICLE IN PRESS. Neuropsychologia xxx (2009) xxx xxx. Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. Neuropsychologia Neuropsychologia xxx (2009) xxx xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Neuropsychologia journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/neuropsychologia Cortical bases of elementary deductive reasoning:

More information

Improving the Methodology for Assessing Mild Cognitive Impairment Across the Lifespan

Improving the Methodology for Assessing Mild Cognitive Impairment Across the Lifespan Improving the Methodology for Assessing Mild Cognitive Impairment Across the Lifespan Grant L. Iverson, Ph.D, Professor Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Harvard Medical School & Red Sox

More information

Integrating Mental Processes: Thinking and Problem Solving

Integrating Mental Processes: Thinking and Problem Solving Integrating Mental Processes: Thinking and Problem Solving Recruitment of executive attention is normally associated with a subjective feeling of mental effort. Lionel Naccache, Stanislas Dehaene, Laurent

More information

A Direct Object of Perception

A Direct Object of Perception E-LOGOS Electronic Journal for Philosophy 2015, Vol. 22(1) 28 36 ISSN 1211-0442 (DOI 10.18267/j.e-logos.411),Peer-reviewed article Journal homepage: e-logos.vse.cz A Direct Object of Perception Mika Suojanen

More information

Experimental Design. Outline. Outline. A very simple experiment. Activation for movement versus rest

Experimental Design. Outline. Outline. A very simple experiment. Activation for movement versus rest Experimental Design Kate Watkins Department of Experimental Psychology University of Oxford With thanks to: Heidi Johansen-Berg Joe Devlin Outline Choices for experimental paradigm Subtraction / hierarchical

More information

Wason's Cards: What is Wrong?

Wason's Cards: What is Wrong? Wason's Cards: What is Wrong? Pei Wang Computer and Information Sciences, Temple University This paper proposes a new interpretation

More information

Working Memory (Goal Maintenance and Interference Control) Edward E. Smith Columbia University

Working Memory (Goal Maintenance and Interference Control) Edward E. Smith Columbia University Working Memory (Goal Maintenance and Interference Control) Edward E. Smith Columbia University Outline Goal Maintenance Interference resolution: distraction, proactive interference, and directed forgetting

More information

Working Memory Span and Everyday Conditional Reasoning: A Trend Analysis

Working Memory Span and Everyday Conditional Reasoning: A Trend Analysis Working Memory Span and Everyday Conditional Reasoning: A Trend Analysis Wim De Neys (Wim.Deneys@psy.kuleuven.ac.be) Walter Schaeken (Walter.Schaeken@psy.kuleuven.ac.be) Géry d Ydewalle (Géry.dYdewalle@psy.kuleuven.ac.be)

More information

The concept of neural network in neuropsychology

The concept of neural network in neuropsychology Cognitive Neuroscience History of Neural Networks in Neuropsychology The concept of neural network in neuropsychology Neuroscience has been very successful at explaining the neural basis of low-level sensory

More information

Response to the ASA s statement on p-values: context, process, and purpose

Response to the ASA s statement on p-values: context, process, and purpose Response to the ASA s statement on p-values: context, process, purpose Edward L. Ionides Alexer Giessing Yaacov Ritov Scott E. Page Departments of Complex Systems, Political Science Economics, University

More information

Chronometric evidence for memory retrieval in causal conditional reasoning: The case of the association strength effect

Chronometric evidence for memory retrieval in causal conditional reasoning: The case of the association strength effect Memory & Cognition 2005, 33 (4), 734-741 Chronometric evidence for memory retrieval in causal conditional reasoning: The case of the association strength effect NELLY GROSSET and PIERRE BARROUILLET Université

More information

Satiation in name and face recognition

Satiation in name and face recognition Memory & Cognition 2000, 28 (5), 783-788 Satiation in name and face recognition MICHAEL B. LEWIS and HADYN D. ELLIS Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales Massive repetition of a word can lead to a loss of

More information

BLOCK S OVERFLOW ARGUMENT

BLOCK S OVERFLOW ARGUMENT BLOCK S OVERFLOW ARGUMENT BY PETER CARRUTHERS Abstract: This article challenges Block s overflow argument for the conclusion that phenomenal consciousness and access-consciousness are distinct. It shows

More information

Neuroscience of Consciousness II

Neuroscience of Consciousness II 1 C83MAB: Mind and Brain Neuroscience of Consciousness II Tobias Bast, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham 2 Consciousness State of consciousness - Being awake/alert/attentive/responsive Contents

More information

On the empirical status of the matching law : Comment on McDowell (2013)

On the empirical status of the matching law : Comment on McDowell (2013) On the empirical status of the matching law : Comment on McDowell (2013) Pier-Olivier Caron To cite this version: Pier-Olivier Caron. On the empirical status of the matching law : Comment on McDowell (2013):

More information

How to Build a Cognitive Task

How to Build a Cognitive Task Clinically-Relevant How to Build a Cognitive Task Jonathan D. Cohen Princeton Neuroscience Institute Psychology Department Princeton University Department of Psychiatry University of Pittsburgh Example

More information

Chapter 2, Wondrous Strange: The Neuropsychology of Abnormal Beliefs

Chapter 2, Wondrous Strange: The Neuropsychology of Abnormal Beliefs PHIL 5983: Irrational Belief Seminar Prof. Funkhouser 1/30/13 Pathologies of Belief, Chapters 2-4 Chapter 2, Wondrous Strange: The Neuropsychology of Abnormal Beliefs 1. * Delusions are bizarre and not

More information

INADEQUACIES OF SIGNIFICANCE TESTS IN

INADEQUACIES OF SIGNIFICANCE TESTS IN INADEQUACIES OF SIGNIFICANCE TESTS IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH M. S. Lalithamma Masoomeh Khosravi Tests of statistical significance are a common tool of quantitative research. The goal of these tests is to

More information

Whose psychological concepts?

Whose psychological concepts? 1 Whose psychological concepts? Jan Smedslund The Structure of Psychological Common Sense Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1997. 111 pp. ISBN 0-8058-2903-2. $24.95 Review by Bertram F. Malle Socrates charge against

More information

Integration of diverse information in working memory within the frontal lobe

Integration of diverse information in working memory within the frontal lobe articles Integration of diverse information in working memory within the frontal lobe V. Prabhakaran 1, K. Narayanan 2, Z. Zhao 2 and J. D. E. Gabrieli 1,2 1 Program in Neurosciences and 2 Dept. of Psychology,

More information

Correlation Between Intelligence Test Scores and Executive Function Measures

Correlation Between Intelligence Test Scores and Executive Function Measures Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 31 36, 2000 Copyright 1999 National Academy of Neuropsychology Printed in the USA. All rights reserved 0887-6177/00 $ see front matter PII S0887-6177(98)00159-0

More information

Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making

Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making A Unifying Computational Neuroscience Approach Edmund T. Rolls University of Oxford Department of Experimental Psychology Oxford England OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents

More information

Intelligence & Thought Quiz

Intelligence & Thought Quiz 1) The most representative example of a category is called a(n) A) prototype. B) schema. C) availability heuristic. D) algorithm. E) mental set. 2) A(n) involves arranging concepts from general to specific.

More information

Scams: Influencing the Aging Brain

Scams: Influencing the Aging Brain Neuropsychology: study of the brain and how it relates to cognition, emotion, and behavior Neuropsychological Assessment: a comprehensive evaluation of how the brain is functioning. Examines cognitive

More information

Necessity, possibility and belief: A study of syllogistic reasoning

Necessity, possibility and belief: A study of syllogistic reasoning THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 2001, 54A (3), 935 958 Necessity, possibility and belief: A study of syllogistic reasoning Jonathan St. B.T. Evans, Simon J. Handley, and Catherine N.J.

More information

School of Nursing, University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

School of Nursing, University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Data analysis in qualitative research School of Nursing, University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Unquestionably, data analysis is the most complex and mysterious of all of the

More information

INTERVIEWS II: THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES 5. CLINICAL APPROACH TO INTERVIEWING PART 1

INTERVIEWS II: THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES 5. CLINICAL APPROACH TO INTERVIEWING PART 1 INTERVIEWS II: THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES 5. CLINICAL APPROACH TO INTERVIEWING PART 1 5.1 Clinical Interviews: Background Information The clinical interview is a technique pioneered by Jean Piaget, in 1975,

More information

birds were used. Every two weeks during treatment, all thirty-two items were probed. A final probe was collected six to seven weeks post-treatment.

birds were used. Every two weeks during treatment, all thirty-two items were probed. A final probe was collected six to seven weeks post-treatment. The Complexity Account of Treatment Efficacy (CATE) predicts that selective training of complex targets will produce generalization to less complex targets that are operationally defined as possessing

More information

Implicit Conflict Detection During Decision Making

Implicit Conflict Detection During Decision Making Implicit Conflict Detection During Decision Making Wim De Neys (Wim.Deneys@psy.kuleuven.be) Department of Psychology, K.U.Leuven, Tiensestraat 102 3000 Leuven, Belgium Abstract Popular dual process theories

More information

Advanced mathematics and deductive reasoning skills: testing the Theory of Formal Discipline

Advanced mathematics and deductive reasoning skills: testing the Theory of Formal Discipline Loughborough University Institutional Repository Advanced mathematics and deductive reasoning skills: testing the Theory of Formal Discipline This item was submitted to Loughborough University's Institutional

More information

THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX. Connections. Dorsolateral FrontalCortex (DFPC) Inputs

THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX. Connections. Dorsolateral FrontalCortex (DFPC) Inputs THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX Connections Dorsolateral FrontalCortex (DFPC) Inputs The DPFC receives inputs predominantly from somatosensory, visual and auditory cortical association areas in the parietal, occipital

More information

Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory

Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory Pernille J Olesen, Helena Westerberg & Torkel Klingberg Working memory capacity has traditionally been thought to be constant.

More information

Article Intelligence as a Developing Function: A Neuroconstructivist Approach

Article Intelligence as a Developing Function: A Neuroconstructivist Approach Article Intelligence as a Developing Function: A Neuroconstructivist Approach Luca Rinaldi 1,2, * and Annette Karmiloff-Smith 3 1 Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia

More information

Systems Neuroscience November 29, Memory

Systems Neuroscience November 29, Memory Systems Neuroscience November 29, 2016 Memory Gabriela Michel http: www.ini.unizh.ch/~kiper/system_neurosci.html Forms of memory Different types of learning & memory rely on different brain structures

More information

Dual-Process Theory and Syllogistic Reasoning: A Signal Detection Analysis

Dual-Process Theory and Syllogistic Reasoning: A Signal Detection Analysis University of Massachusetts Amherst ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014 Dissertations and Theses 2009 Dual-Process Theory and Syllogistic Reasoning: A Signal Detection Analysis

More information

Observational Category Learning as a Path to More Robust Generative Knowledge

Observational Category Learning as a Path to More Robust Generative Knowledge Observational Category Learning as a Path to More Robust Generative Knowledge Kimery R. Levering (kleveri1@binghamton.edu) Kenneth J. Kurtz (kkurtz@binghamton.edu) Department of Psychology, Binghamton

More information

Selective attention to emotional stimuli in a verbal go/no-go task: an fmri study

Selective attention to emotional stimuli in a verbal go/no-go task: an fmri study BRAIN IMAGING NEUROREPORT Selective attention to emotional stimuli in a verbal go/no-go task: an fmri study Rebecca Elliott, CA Judy S. Rubinsztein, 1 Barbara J. Sahakian 1 and Raymond J. Dolan 2 Neuroscience

More information

Working Memory and Causal Reasoning under Ambiguity

Working Memory and Causal Reasoning under Ambiguity Working Memory and Causal Reasoning under Ambiguity Yiyun Shou (yiyun.shou@anu.edu.au) Michael Smithson (michael.smithson@anu.edu.au) Research School of Psychology, The Australian National University Canberra,

More information

Realism and Qualitative Research. Joseph A. Maxwell George Mason University

Realism and Qualitative Research. Joseph A. Maxwell George Mason University Realism and Qualitative Research Joseph A. Maxwell George Mason University Philosophic realism in general is "the view that entities exist independently of being perceived, or independently of our theories

More information

The secular increase in test scores is a ``Jensen e ect''

The secular increase in test scores is a ``Jensen e ect'' Personality and Individual Differences 30 (2001) 553±559 www.elsevier.com/locate/paid The secular increase in test scores is a ``Jensen e ect'' Roberto Colom *, Manuel Juan-Espinosa, LuõÂ s F. GarcõÂ a

More information

Do we need inhibitory control to be creative? Evidence from a dual-task paradigm.

Do we need inhibitory control to be creative? Evidence from a dual-task paradigm. Do we need inhibitory control to be creative? Evidence from a dual-task paradigm. Anaëlle Camarda CNRS Unit 8240, Laboratory for the Psychology of Child Development and Education, Paris Descartes University,

More information

DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK Dr. Noly M. Mascariñas

DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK Dr. Noly M. Mascariñas DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK Dr. Noly M. Mascariñas Director, BU-CHED Zonal Research Center Bicol University Research and Development Center Legazpi City Research Proposal Preparation Seminar-Writeshop

More information

Distinguishing between Category-based and Similarity-based Induction

Distinguishing between Category-based and Similarity-based Induction Distinguishing between Category-based and Similarity-based Induction Tracey Miser (miser.4@osu.edu) Department of Psychology, 1835 Neil Avenue Columbus, OH43210 USA Vladimir Sloutsky (sloutsky.1@osu.edu)

More information

Definition of Scientific Research RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 2 SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research

Definition of Scientific Research RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 2 SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research Definition of Scientific Research RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 2 SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION Assist. Prof. Dr. Özge Özgen Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Business, Department of International Business

More information

A neural basis for the development of inhibitory control

A neural basis for the development of inhibitory control Developmental Science 5:4 (2002), pp F9 F16 A neural basis for the development of inhibitory control Blackwell Publishers Ltd Sarah Durston, 1,2 Kathleen M. Thomas, 1 Yihong Yang, 3 Aziz M. Ulu, 4 Robert

More information

Cognitive Neuroscience History of Neural Networks in Artificial Intelligence The concept of neural network in artificial intelligence

Cognitive Neuroscience History of Neural Networks in Artificial Intelligence The concept of neural network in artificial intelligence Cognitive Neuroscience History of Neural Networks in Artificial Intelligence The concept of neural network in artificial intelligence To understand the network paradigm also requires examining the history

More information

Masters in Psychology (Conversion)

Masters in Psychology (Conversion) Masters in Psychology (Conversion) MSc: 100 credits: SS5104, PS5005, PS5240, PS5231- PS5234 10 credits: PS5235 or PS5236 10 credits: PS5237 or PS5238 and 60 credits: PS5002 Compulsory modules Semester

More information

Empathy is a complex psychological response in which observation, memory,

Empathy is a complex psychological response in which observation, memory, CHAPTER 14 The Social Neuroscience of Empathy Jean Decety University of Washington Sara D. Hodges University of Oregon Empathy is a complex psychological response in which observation, memory, knowledge,

More information

CONTENT ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE BIAS: DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDIZED MEASURE Heather M. Hartman-Hall David A. F. Haaga

CONTENT ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE BIAS: DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDIZED MEASURE Heather M. Hartman-Hall David A. F. Haaga Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Volume 17, Number 2, Summer 1999 CONTENT ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE BIAS: DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDIZED MEASURE Heather M. Hartman-Hall David A. F. Haaga

More information

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis: Human Emotions in Decision-Making

The Somatic Marker Hypothesis: Human Emotions in Decision-Making The Somatic Marker Hypothesis: Human Emotions in Decision-Making Presented by Lin Xiao Brain and Creativity Institute University of Southern California Most of us are taught from early on that : -logical,

More information

5 Brain Changes Underlying the Development of Cognitive Control and Reasoning

5 Brain Changes Underlying the Development of Cognitive Control and Reasoning 5 Brain Changes Underlying the Development of Cognitive Control and Reasoning silvia a. bunge, allyson p. mackey, and kirstie j. whitaker 2 1 abstract What precisely is changing over time in a child s

More information

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the implicit association of concepts and attributes

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the implicit association of concepts and attributes BRAIN IMAGING NEUROREPORT Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the implicit association of concepts and attributes Michael W. L. Chee, 1,CA N. Sriram, 2 Chun Siong Soon 1,2 and Kok Ming Lee 1 1 Cognitive

More information

Reasoning About Emotional and Neutral Materials Is Logic Affected by Emotion?

Reasoning About Emotional and Neutral Materials Is Logic Affected by Emotion? PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Research Article Reasoning About Emotional and Neutral Materials Is Logic Affected by Emotion? Isabelle Blanchette 1 and Anne Richards 2 1 University of Manchester, Manchester, United

More information

What Makes People Revise Their Beliefs Following Contradictory Anecdotal Evidence?: The Role of Systemic Variability and Direct Experience

What Makes People Revise Their Beliefs Following Contradictory Anecdotal Evidence?: The Role of Systemic Variability and Direct Experience Cognitive Science 31 (2007) 535 547 Copyright C 2007 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved. What Makes People Revise Their Beliefs Following Contradictory Anecdotal Evidence?: The Role of

More information

Hierarchically Organized Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition: The Functional Neuroanatomy of Empathy

Hierarchically Organized Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition: The Functional Neuroanatomy of Empathy Hierarchically Organized Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition: The Functional Neuroanatomy of Empathy Jaime A. Pineda, A. Roxanne Moore, Hanie Elfenbeinand, and Roy Cox Motivation Review the complex

More information

Choosing the Greater of Two Goods: Neural Currencies for Valuation and Decision Making

Choosing the Greater of Two Goods: Neural Currencies for Valuation and Decision Making Choosing the Greater of Two Goods: Neural Currencies for Valuation and Decision Making Leo P. Surgre, Gres S. Corrado and William T. Newsome Presenter: He Crane Huang 04/20/2010 Outline Studies on neural

More information

Master of Science Psychology (Conversion)

Master of Science Psychology (Conversion) Master of Science Psychology (Conversion) Programme Requirements Psychology (Conversion) - MSc 100 credits from Module List: SS5104, PS5005, PS5240, PS5231 - PS5234 and 10 credits from Module List: PS5235

More information

Benefits and constraints of qualitative and quantitative research methods in economics and management science

Benefits and constraints of qualitative and quantitative research methods in economics and management science Benefits and constraints of qualitative and quantitative research methods in economics and management science It is often not an easy task, especially for budding researchers, to choose the optimal research

More information

Can Bayesian models have normative pull on human reasoners?

Can Bayesian models have normative pull on human reasoners? Can Bayesian models have normative pull on human reasoners? Frank Zenker 1,2,3 1 Lund University, Department of Philosophy & Cognitive Science, LUX, Box 192, 22100 Lund, Sweden 2 Universität Konstanz,

More information

Inept reasoners or pragmatic virtuosos? Relevance and the deontic selection task

Inept reasoners or pragmatic virtuosos? Relevance and the deontic selection task V. Girotto et al. / Cognition 81 (2001) B69±B76 B69 COGNITION Cognition 81 (2001) B69±B76 www.elsevier.com/locate/cognit Brief article Inept reasoners or pragmatic virtuosos? Relevance and the deontic

More information

Mapping task switching in frontal cortex through neuropsychological group studies

Mapping task switching in frontal cortex through neuropsychological group studies FOCUSED REVIEW Mapping task switching in frontal cortex through neuropsychological group studies Tim Shallice 1,2, Donald T. Stuss 3,4,, Terence W. Picton 3,4, Michael P. Alexander 5,6 and Susan Gillingham

More information

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Knauff, Markus] On: 19 May 2009 Access details: Access Details: [subscription number 911407888] Publisher Taylor & Francis Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered

More information

The Frontal Lobes. Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes. Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes 3/2/2011. Portrait: Losing Frontal-Lobe Functions. Readings: KW Ch.

The Frontal Lobes. Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes. Anatomy of the Frontal Lobes 3/2/2011. Portrait: Losing Frontal-Lobe Functions. Readings: KW Ch. The Frontal Lobes Readings: KW Ch. 16 Portrait: Losing Frontal-Lobe Functions E.L. Highly organized college professor Became disorganized, showed little emotion, and began to miss deadlines Scores on intelligence

More information

Frontal Lobe Mechanisms that Resolve Proactive Interference

Frontal Lobe Mechanisms that Resolve Proactive Interference Cerebral Cortex December 2005;15:2003--2012 doi:10.1093/cercor/bhi075 Advance Access publication March 23, 2005 Frontal Lobe Mechanisms that Resolve Proactive Interference David Badre 1,2 and Anthony D.

More information

An Escalation Model of Consciousness

An Escalation Model of Consciousness Bailey!1 Ben Bailey Current Issues in Cognitive Science Mark Feinstein 2015-12-18 An Escalation Model of Consciousness Introduction The idea of consciousness has plagued humanity since its inception. Humans

More information

Writing Reaction Papers Using the QuALMRI Framework

Writing Reaction Papers Using the QuALMRI Framework Writing Reaction Papers Using the QuALMRI Framework Modified from Organizing Scientific Thinking Using the QuALMRI Framework Written by Kevin Ochsner and modified by others. Based on a scheme devised by

More information

Business Research: Principles and Processes MGMT6791 Workshop 1C: The Nature of Research & Scientific Method

Business Research: Principles and Processes MGMT6791 Workshop 1C: The Nature of Research & Scientific Method Business Research: Principles and Processes MGMT6791 Workshop 1C: The Nature of Research & Scientific Method Professor Tim Mazzarol UWA Business School MGMT6791 UWA Business School DBA Program tim.mazzarol@uwa.edu.au

More information

Biomarkers Workshop In Clinical Trials Imaging for Schizophrenia Trials

Biomarkers Workshop In Clinical Trials Imaging for Schizophrenia Trials Biomarkers Workshop In Clinical Trials Imaging for Schizophrenia Trials Research focused on the following areas Brain pathology in schizophrenia and its modification Effect of drug treatment on brain structure

More information

Mechanisms for Human Spatial Competence

Mechanisms for Human Spatial Competence Mechanisms for Human Spatial Competence Glenn Gunzelmann 1 and Don R. Lyon 2 1 Air Force Research Laboratory 2 L3 Communications at Air Force Research Laboratory 6030 South Kent Street Mesa, AZ, United

More information

Grouped Locations and Object-Based Attention: Comment on Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994)

Grouped Locations and Object-Based Attention: Comment on Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994) Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1994, Vol. 123, No. 3, 316-320 Copyright 1994 by the American Psychological Association. Inc. 0096-3445/94/S3.00 COMMENT Grouped Locations and Object-Based Attention:

More information

Are Retrievals from Long-Term Memory Interruptible?

Are Retrievals from Long-Term Memory Interruptible? Are Retrievals from Long-Term Memory Interruptible? Michael D. Byrne byrne@acm.org Department of Psychology Rice University Houston, TX 77251 Abstract Many simple performance parameters about human memory

More information

How Therapy Changes the Human Brain

How Therapy Changes the Human Brain Selected Neural Plasticity References How Therapy Changes the Human Brain Martha S. Burns, Ph.D.,ccc-slp Joint Appointment Professor Northwestern University Bryck & Fisher (2012) Training the Brain: Practical

More information

In press in Cognition. Beyond Simulation-Theory and Theory-Theory: Why social cognitive neuroscience should use

In press in Cognition. Beyond Simulation-Theory and Theory-Theory: Why social cognitive neuroscience should use In press in Cognition Beyond Simulation-Theory and Theory-Theory: Why social cognitive neuroscience should use its own concepts to study Theory of Mind Ian A. Apperly University of Birmingham, UK Correspondence

More information

Cognitive Neuroscience of Thinking

Cognitive Neuroscience of Thinking Goel December, 2007 1 of 46 Cognitive Neuroscience of Thinking Vinod Goel York University, Toronto, Canada University of Hull, UK Address for Correspondence: Dr. Vinod Goel Dept. of Psychology York University

More information

What Is A Knowledge Representation? Lecture 13

What Is A Knowledge Representation? Lecture 13 What Is A Knowledge Representation? 6.871 - Lecture 13 Outline What Is A Representation? Five Roles What Should A Representation Be? What Consequences Does This View Have For Research And Practice? One

More information

Functional roles of the cingulo-frontal network in performance on working memory

Functional roles of the cingulo-frontal network in performance on working memory Functional roles of the cingulo-frontal network in performance on working memory Hirohito Kondo, a, * Masanao Morishita, a Naoyuki Osaka, a Mariko Osaka, b Hidenao Fukuyama, c and Hiroshi Shibasaki c a

More information

Competition in visual working memory for control of search

Competition in visual working memory for control of search VISUAL COGNITION, 2004, 11 6), 689±703 Competition in visual working memory for control of search Paul E. Downing and Chris M. Dodds University of Wales, Bangor, UK Recent perspectives on selective attention

More information

Stuttering Research. Vincent Gracco, PhD Haskins Laboratories

Stuttering Research. Vincent Gracco, PhD Haskins Laboratories Stuttering Research Vincent Gracco, PhD Haskins Laboratories Stuttering Developmental disorder occurs in 5% of children Spontaneous remission in approximately 70% of cases Approximately 1% of adults with

More information

Science Vocabulary. Put this Science Vocabulary into the Categories below:

Science Vocabulary. Put this Science Vocabulary into the Categories below: Science Vocabulary How much of this science vocabulary do you know? Find out with these category and matching games. These new and review words, mostly from the Academic Word List, explain what scientists

More information

Palliative Approach to the Person with Advanced Dementia

Palliative Approach to the Person with Advanced Dementia Mid North Coast Rural Palliative Care Project Link Nurse Education 2004 Palliative Approach to the Person with Advanced Dementia Anne Sneesby CNC - ACAT To care for the dying is a very human opportunity

More information

The Deaf Brain. Bencie Woll Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre

The Deaf Brain. Bencie Woll Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre The Deaf Brain Bencie Woll Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre 1 Outline Introduction: the multi-channel nature of language Audio-visual language BSL Speech processing Silent speech Auditory

More information

Technical Specifications

Technical Specifications Technical Specifications In order to provide summary information across a set of exercises, all tests must employ some form of scoring models. The most familiar of these scoring models is the one typically

More information

Carrying out an Empirical Project

Carrying out an Empirical Project Carrying out an Empirical Project Empirical Analysis & Style Hint Special program: Pre-training 1 Carrying out an Empirical Project 1. Posing a Question 2. Literature Review 3. Data Collection 4. Econometric

More information

On the nature of Rhythm, Time & Memory. Sundeep Teki Auditory Group Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging University College London

On the nature of Rhythm, Time & Memory. Sundeep Teki Auditory Group Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging University College London On the nature of Rhythm, Time & Memory Sundeep Teki Auditory Group Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging University College London Timing substrates Timing mechanisms Rhythm and Timing Unified timing

More information

Mental imagery: Against the Nihilistic Hypothesis. Giorgio Ganis a,c William L. Thompson a. Harvard University, Department of Psychology

Mental imagery: Against the Nihilistic Hypothesis. Giorgio Ganis a,c William L. Thompson a. Harvard University, Department of Psychology Kosslyn et al., p. 1 Mental imagery: Against the Nihilistic Hypothesis Stephen M. Kosslyn a,b Giorgio Ganis a,c William L. Thompson a a Harvard University, Department of Psychology b Massachusetts General

More information

Artificial Intelligence Programming Probability

Artificial Intelligence Programming Probability Artificial Intelligence Programming Probability Chris Brooks Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.1/25 17-0: Uncertainty

More information