1. 01/20/15 Ch 8: Muscular System /09/15 Ch 9: Nervous System 16

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1 Table of Contents # Date Title Page # 1. 01/20/15 Ch 8: Muscular System /09/15 Ch 9: Nervous System 16 i 1

2 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook 02/09/15 Ch. 9 Nervous System 16 Objective: Students will be able to distinguish between the 2 types of cells that comprise the nervous tissue in order to describe how nervous system functions. Structure of System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Nerves leading to/from CNS and body General Functions of Nervous System Sensory Receive information at end of peripheral nerves, gather the information, and convert it to nerve impulses--send to brain or spinal cord Integrative Sensory impulses "perceived" in the brain Motor Decisions (conscious ( somatic)or subconscious (autonomic)) in CNS lead to impulse down an effector, causing a change autonomic division is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems 2 Cell Types Neuron Transmits impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons Neuroglia Fill spaces, support neurons, provide structural frameworks, produce myelin, and carry on phagocytosis Only Schwann cells are in the PNS, rest in CNS (Insert Handout: Nervous Tissue Cell Types) 2

3 02/10/15 Ch. 9 Nervous System 33 Objective: Students will be able to describe the actions that lead to a nerve impulse, and how information is passed from one neuron to another. Lab Side of Notebook Go to the following website: animations/actionpotential_short.swf (Insert handout on Action Potentials) (Insert handouts: ABC DVD: Synaptic Transmission and Action Potential) 3

4 02/10/15 Ch. 9 Nervous System 26 The nervous system provides 3 general functions: sensory, integrative, and motor. What are two types of motor functions in the PNS? What is the relationship between myelin and the white and gray matter of the brain? Based on the reading last night, which type of neuroglial cell did I NOT mention in class yesterday? What is its function? Most capillaries in the body are "leaky", allowing small molecules to enter and leave the bloodstream. This is not the case in the CNS. What is this specialized architecture called? What benefits does this provide the CNS? What could be a detriment to having this? For years and years we taught that nervous tissue could not regenerate. How is this statement both true and false? (insert handout: functional classification of neurons) 4

5 02/27/13 Ch. 9 Nervous System 26 Objective: Students will be able to distinguish between the 2 types of cells that comprise the nervous tissue and describe the structures of both. (Insert handout: Organization of the Nervous System) Complete Practice Questions 1-13, pp

6 02/28/13 Ch. 9 Nervous System 33 Objective: Students will be able to describe the actions that lead to a nerve impulse, and how information is passed from one neuron to another. (Insert handout: Synapse) (Insert handouts: ABC DVD: Synaptic Transmission and Action Potential) 6

7 03/12/12 Ch. 9: Nervous System 23 Objective: Students will be able to describe the actions that lead to a nerve impulse, and how information is passed from one neuron to another. Nervous System Summary: Action Potential Propagation Resting Potential (+ outside, - inside) Threshold stimulus received Sodium channels open, sodium enters cell--depolarizing the membrane Potassium channels open--repolarizing the membrane Together, these cause an action potential that triggers the part of the membrane next to it, all the way across the membrane (local bioelectric current) A wave of action potentials travels down the axon=nerve Impulse The Synapse Action potential passes along an axon over synaptic knob. Synaptic knob membrane becomes permeable to calcium With calcium, synaptic vesicles fuse to synaptic knob membrane Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft-- either excitatory or inhibitory Synaptic vesicles reenter cytoplasm of axon and pick up more neurotransmitter 7

8 02/23/15 Ch. 9: Nervous System 24 Objective: Students will be able to describe how nerve fibers in peripheral nerves are classified and name the parts of a reflex arc. Nerves Open your notebook to the color sheet of the "Structural Organization of Skeletal Muscle" and compare/contrast it with the Nerve in figure 9.16, p. 217 of the text. Answer the CYR p. 218 #'s 1-2 Reflexes Using the diagrams, label the parts of a reflex, both the withdrawal reflex, and the knee-jerk reflex. This is an example of a feedback mechanism. What acts as each of the following (be VERY specific): Stimulus Receptor Control Center Effector Response 8

9 Control Center Receptor Effector Stimulus Response Set Point 9

10 02/26/15 Ch. 9 Nervous System 40 Objective: Students will be able to describe neuronal pools and distinguish between convergence and divergence in order to explain how impulses are processed. Impulse Processing (9.8) Neuronal Pools Neurons w/in CNS organized into pools in which they make hundreds of connections w/ each other and work together for 1 function. Input received Output generated Excitatory or Inhibitory Facilitation If net effect of input is: excitatory = threshold = excitatory inhibitory = inhibits impulse excitatory, but subthreshold=facilitation Convergence makes possible additive effect (eg. subthreshold from each of two neurons, but together = threshold allows nervous system to collect a variety of kinds of sensory info, process it and respond in a special way Divergence can amplify an impulse, spreading it to more neurons w/in the pool, eg: cause forceful reaction in muscle, or stimulate several regions of CNS from one sensory receptor 10

11 02/26/15 Ch. 9 Nervous System 41 Objective: Students will be able to describe the coverings of the brain and spinal cord. Meninges (9.11) pia mater very thin, contains many nerves/blood vessels, follows surface closely arachnoid mater thin, web-like without blood vessels, middle of the maters, does not follow surface closely dura mater outermost layer, tough, white, fibrous connective tissue with many blood vessels and nerves. Attaches to inside of cranial cavity, forms internal periosteum of skull. Will sometimes extend inward b/w lobes of brain and form partitions. Extends into vertebral canal and forms tubular sheath around the spinal cord. A subdural hematoma may occur following a blow to the head if blood vessels are broken and blood collects beneath the dura mater. Why is this of concern? 11

12 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook 02/26/15 41 Ch. 9 Nervous System Objective: Students will be able to describe the structure of the spinal cord in order to explain spinal cord functions. Spinal Cord (9.12) Structure Thoracic branch spinal cord ends Sacral branch CSF nerve tracts here surrounds brain to absorb shock, maintain ion concentrations, and remove waste to blood fat, loose connective to pad spinal cord Function 2 major functions: CSF conducting nerve impulses descending ascending serving as a center for reflexes 12

13 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook 02/26/15 41 Ch. 9 Nervous System Objective: Students will be able to describe the structure of the spinal cord in order to explain spinal cord functions. Spinal Cord (9.12) Structure Thoracic branch Sacral branch Function 2 major functions: conducting nerve impulses descending ascending serving as a center for reflexes 13

14 03/02/15 Ch. 9 Nervous System 51 Objective: Students will be able to identify and describe the major parts and functions of the brain and distinguish among motor, sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex. Sheep Brain Dissection General Observations: Compare sheep to human brain: Similarities Differences (Insert handouts: Brain Color Sheet and Minilab) (Insert handouts: Color Sheet Practice, and #28 Brain and Cranial Nerves) 14

15 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook I II III IV V VI VII VIII XII IX X XI 15

16 16

17 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook 17

18 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook Cerebrum Fore Diencephalon Mid Pons lla Medu gata Oblon Hind Cerebellum 18

19 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook 19

20 Nervous System Somatic Autonomic Sympathetic Fight or Flight Parasympathetic Rest and Recover Autonomic Neurotransmitters acetylcholine cholinergic fibers norepinephrine (noradrenaline) adrenergic fibers Organs in body most receive innervation from both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions: they have opposing actions. see Table 9.7 p. 240 Regulation brain and spinal cord > examples: medulla oblongata cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory > hypothalamus: body temp, hunger, thirst, water/electrolyte balance > limbic system, cerebral cortex: control emotional distress/behavior 20

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