The Biological Bases of Behavior

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1 Chapter 3 The Biological Bases of Behavior Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 1

2 Biological Psychology The study of the cells and organs of the body and the physical and chemical changes involved in behavior and mental processes What is the relationship between one s body and one s mind? Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 2

3 The Complex Relationship Between Our Brain and Our Behavior Biological Processes Environment Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 3

4 Figure 3.1 Three Functions of the Nervous System

5 Cells of the Nervous System Neurons: Specialized cells that rapidly respond to signals and quickly send signals of their own Glial cells: Cells that help hold neurons together and help neurons communicate with one another Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 5

6 Figure 3.2 The Neuron Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 6

7 2) What Cells Make Up the Nervous System? Cell Body- contains nucleus which provides energy for the neuron (C) Dendrites- receive messages from other neurons (B) Axon- carry information away from the cell body (D). Axon Terminals- transmit signals to the dendrites (E). Myelin Sheath- A substance that speeds up the firing of the neuron (F). Nodes of Ranvier- Name for the small gaps on the neuron that have no myelin covering (A).

8 Axon Function: Carries signals way from the cell body Type of Signal Carried: The action potential, an all-or-nothing electrochemical signal that shoots down the axon to vesicles at the tip of the axon, releasing neurotransmitters Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 8

9 Dendrite Function: Detects and carries signals to the cell body Type of Signal Carried: The postsynaptic potential, which is an electrochemical signal moving toward the cell body Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 9

10 Synapse Function: Provides an area for the transfer of signals between neurons, usually between axon and dendrite Type of Signal Carried: Chemicals that cross the synapse and reach receptors on another cell Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 10

11 Neural transmission ments/nih2/addiction/activities/lesson2_ neurotransmission.htm ments/nih2/addiction/activities/lesson3_ cocaine.htm Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 11

12 Receptors Function: Proteins on the cell membrane that receive chemical signals Type of Signal Carried: Recognizes certain neurotransmitters, thus allowing it to begin a postsynaptic potential in the dendrite Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 12

13 Neurotransmitter Function: A chemical released by one cell that binds to the receptors on another cell Type of Signal Carried: A chemical message telling the next cell to fire or not to fire its own action potential Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 13

14 Communication Between Neurons An action potential triggers the release of neuotransmitters Neurotransmitters are chemicals that help neighboring neurons talk to each other. These chemicals float from the synaptic vessel of one neuron and are taken up by the Neurotransmitter receptors in neighboring neuron. Synapse - small space between neurons. Plasticity - repeated release of neurotransmitters can cause permanent change to the neurons.

15 The Action Potential Stimulation causes cell membrane to open briefly Positively charged sodium ions flow in Very brief shift in electrical charge that travels along axon Action potential-which is a shortlived change in electric charge inside the neuron. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 15

16 All or none law neuron either fires and generates an action potential, or doesn t. Stronger stimuli do not send stronger impulses-> send impulses at a faster rate--- OR involve more neurons. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 16

17 Figure 3.5 Communication Between Neurons Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 17

18 Figure 3.3 The Beginning of an Action Potential Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 18

19 Impulse Presynaptic neuron Vesicle Transmitters Synaptic cleft Postsynaptic neuron Receptors Postsynaptic activity Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 19

20 Termination of Neurosynaptic Transmission Reuptake: Enzymatic degradation Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 20

21 Small Molecule Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter Acetycholine Norepinephrine Serotonin Dopamine GABA Glutamate Normal Function Movement, memory Sleep, learning, mood Mood, appetite, aggression Movement, reward Movement Memory Disorder Associated with Malfunctioning Alzheimer s disease Depression Depression Parkinson s disease: schizophrenia Huntington s disease; epilepsy Neuron loss after stroke Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 21

22 Agonists and Antagonists Agonist mimics neurotransmitter action Antagonist opposes action of a neurotransmitter 9 that have been carefully studied. Let s talk about a few on the next slide. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 22

23 Alcohol example Alcohol increases the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Alcohol decreases the activity of glutamate, major excitatory neurotransmitter. = substantial reduction in neural firing within the brain. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 23

24 4) How Is the Nervous System Organized? 1) Central Nervous System Neurons in the brain and spinal cord. 2) Peripheral Nervous System Neurons in the rest of the body a) Somatic Nervous System- all the neurons that take in sensory information (touch and pain) from the body and deliver it to the spinal cord and brain. b) Autonomic Nervous System i. Sympathtic Nervous System- Controls fight or flight function ii. Parasympathetic Nervous System- Controls digestive and other organ function.

25 Somatic Nervous System Sends sensory information to central nervous system for processing Sends messages from central nervous system to muscles to direct motion Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 25

26 Autonomic Nervous System Controls activities that are generally autonomous or independent of one s control Two subsystems Sympathetic Nervous System: Mobilizes the body for action in face of stress Fight or flight response Parasympathetic Nervous System: Regulates the body s functions to conserve energy Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 26

27 auto.html Parasympathetic Involved in states of calm Sympathetic Involved in states of Arousal Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 27

28 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.5 Organization of the human nervous system. This overview of the human nervous system shows the relationships of its various parts and systems. The brain is traditionally divided into three regions: the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. The reticular formation runs through both the midbrain and the hindbrain on its way up and down the brainstem. These and other parts of the brain are discussed in detail later in the chapter. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary muscles and sensory receptors, and the autonomic nervous system, which controls the involuntary activities of smooth muscles, blood vessels, and glands. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 28

29 5) Structures of the Brain Brain Stem Pons, reticular formation, cerebellum Midbrain Thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, substantia nigra, pituitary gland Cerebral Cortex Visual, auditory, motor, sensory

30 Brainstem Function regulates basic life functions. Location connects brain to the rest of the body via the spinal cord. Parts of Brainstem Reticular formation- regulates sleep/wake cycle Main source of the neurotransmitter Serotonin-important for mood and activity levels. Pons- Main source of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine- important for arousal and attention. Medulla- regulates heartbeat, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.

31 Cerebellum Function Controls motor movement and balance Helpful in learning things that involve movement (e.g. walking or skiing). Location Sits at the back of the brain and is connected to the brain stem.

32 The Midbrain Controls certain types of automatic behaviors that integrate simple movements with sensory input Substantia nigra and the striatum are involved in the smooth initiation of movement (Amygdala; hippocampus; hypothalamus -> also Limbic system Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 32

33 Figure 3.14 Major Structures of the Forebrain

34 The Limbic System Saul Kassin, Psychology. Copyright 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Reprinted by permission. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 34

35 Neocortex Location - Top wrinkly part of the brain. Different Parts Frontal Lobe (front of brain) - higher intellectual thinking Broca s area- speech production Prefrontal cortex- working memory, morality, mood Occipital Lobe (back of brain)- vision Temporal Lobe (sides of brain)- hearing, language, learning, and memory Wenicke s area- language comprehension

36 Neocortex Cont. Parietal Lobe (top of brain)- perception of touch Somatosensory stripcontains neurons that register the sensation of touch.

37 Figure 3.18 The Brain s Left and Right Hemispheres Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 37

38 Right Brain/Left Brain: Cerebral Specialization Each hemisphere specialized for handling certain types of cognitive tasks better than others Left hemisphere verbal processing: language, speech, reading, writing Right hemisphere nonverbal processing: spatial, musical, visual recognition Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 38

39 The Cerebrum: Two Hemispheres, Four Lobes Cerebral Hemispheres two specialized halves connected by the corpus collosum Four Lobes: Occipital vision Parietal somatosensory Temporal auditory Frontal movement, executive control systems Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 39

40 Figure 3.14 Figure 3.14 The cerebral cortex in humans. The cerebral cortex consists of right and left halves, called cerebral hemispheres. This diagram provides a view of the right hemisphere. Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into four lobes (which are highlighted in the bottom inset): the occipital lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe, and the frontal lobe. Each lobe has areas that handle particular functions, such as visual processing. The functions of the prefrontal cortex are something of a mystery, but they appear to include working memory and relational reasoning. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 40

41 Corpus Callosum Function Communicates information from one side of the brain to the other. Location Connects the two brain hemispheres

42 6) Building the Brain How We Develop During the 3 rd week of prenatal development, the outer layer of the embryo (called the ectoderm) folds in on itself to form the neural tube.

43 Figure 3.15 Alzheimer s Disease and Brain Atrophy Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 43

44 go back Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 44

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