Meditation and Optimizing Mental Health

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1 Meditation and Optimizing Mental Health Professor, Fred Travis Dir, Brain, Consciousness, & Cognition Center Maharishi University of Management 6/16/2013 Fairfield, Iowa USA

2 Wholeness How we perceive a situation determines how we respond (McEwen). Perception is the coming together of knower and known. By changing selfknowledge we change our perception and so our response in any situation.

3 Low Road and High Road Output High Road Low Road: Midbrain: VTA Amygdala Nucleus Accumbens Insula Stimulus Somatic Marker

4 Intergroup Competition: seen in soccer and baseball Failure of a person on your team; Anterior insula activated helping behavior and greater empathy Failure of a person on the other team; Nucleus accumbens part of pleasure circuit. Hein et al, in press, Neuron

5 Racial Profiling Policemen will most often see a youth of color pull a gun from their coat; and a white youth pull an ipod from their coat.

6 Frontal areas are offline when you are tired and when you are under stress 1

7 Fatigue: Everything is More Intense. Rested 36-hour Sleep Dep. Amygdala 60% more active and 3 times greater area when tired. Yoo et al. (2007) The human emotional brain without sleep -- a prefrontal amygdale disconnect.current Biology, Vol. 17, No. 20, R877-R878.

8 Red = no sleep; Yellow = rested

9 Evans & Schamberg (2009) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(16) Stress reduces size of frontal (executive center) and hippocampal (memory) volume.

10 Challenge versus Stress Stress 1. Challenge 2. Stress CE0 Challenge

11 Focused Attention.voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object (Lutz) Open Monitoring nonreactive monitoring of the content of experience from moment to moment (Lutz) Theta2 (6 8.0) Gamma (20-50 Hz) Automatic Self- Transcending transcend the steps of the meditation practice (Travis and Shear) Alpha1 ( Hz) Travis and Shear, 2010, Consciousness and Cognition, 19:

12 Focused Attention Open Monitoring Zen Compassion Meditation Qigong Diamond Way Buddhism Vipassana Zazen Mindfulness Saharaj Qigong Kriya Yoga Transcendental Automatic Meditation Self- Two Case studies: Expert Qigong and Transcending Mindfulness Travis and Shear, 2010, Consciousness and Cognition, 19:

13 Focused Attention Open Monitoring Meditations in both FA and OM categories: Are constructed states created through deployment of specific attentional strategies Content (Core Nuclei) Content (Core Nuclei) Automatic Self- Transcending Meditations in AST: Are unconstructed and do not involve intentional effort; based on reflexive awareness. Travis and Shear, 2010, Consciousness and Cognition, 19:

14 Conscious Mind O OO The TM Technique Takes the mind from the active level to the source of thought, experienced as restful alertness O OO O Source of Thought

15 Front Middle Back Travis et al, 2009

16 Let s See EEG Patterns during TM in Real Time Notice how quickly brain patterns change during TM practice. Notice how the coherence is uniformly higher during TM practice.

17 Four Months TM Practice Front Center Back TM Eyes Open Travis, 1991

18 Eight Years TM Practice Front Center Back TM Eyes Open Travis, 1991

19 M.U.M. Alumni 38% at or above Autonomous stage 10 years after graduation. (2 3% general population) Chandler, et al, 2003

20 Effectiveness in Reducing Trait Anxiety Meta-analysis of 146 studies TM technique Placebo Other Relaxation Relaxation Response Other Meditation PMR EMG-Biofeedback Mantra Meditation Concentration Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Eppley, K., Abrams, A., Shear, J. (1989). Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45 (6):

21 Effectiveness in Decreasing Drug Abuse Meta-analysis of 70 studies TM technique Peer Influence Preventive Education Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Alexander, C.N., Robinson, P., & Rainforth, M. (1994). Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11,

22 Effectiveness in Decreasing Alcohol Use Meta-analysis of 97 studies TM technique Peer Influence Relaxatio n DUI Programs Preventive Education Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Alexander, C.N., Robinson, P., & Rainforth, M. (1994). Treating and preventing alcohol, nicotine, and drug abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A review and statistical meta-analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 11,

23 Brain Integration American University College Students 3.5 Brain Brain Integration during Scale (3 tasks months (3-mon TM) TM) 3 p < Pretest Post Test TM Delayed Start Travis et al, 2009, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71:

24 (Nidich et al, in press, American Journal of Hypertension )

25 Summed Z-scores of EEG Parameters Brain Integration Scale Frontal Coherence, Alpha Relative Power, and Brain Preparatory Response Control Athletes World Class Athletes Control Managers Top-Level Managers Long-term TM Harung et al, (2011) Scandanavian Journal of Sport and Science, 1, Harung and Travis, (2012) Cognitive Processing, 13:

26 Effectiveness in Reducing Blood Pressure Meta-Analysis 34 Studies TM Relaxation Response Other Meditation Biofeedback Systolic BP Diastolic BP All others Mm Hg American Journal of Health Promotion. 1998:(5)

27 American Heart Association, 2013 the Transcendental Meditation technique is the only meditation practice that has been shown to lower blood pressure all other meditation techniques (including MBSR) received a 'Class III, no benefit, Level of Evidence C' recommendation and are not recommended in clinical practice to lower blood pressure at this time.

28 Conclusion TM meditation practice leads to a change of state to pure consciousness that gives one a new basis for processing experience. The practical benefit is that you are more in control of your life able to thrive in a challenging world.

29 Thank you. Any Questions? drfredtravis.com

30

31 Meta analysis Sedlmeier et al,2012

32 Engel, K. (2001), Meditative Experience and Different Paths: Data Based Analyses. Journal for Meditation and Meditation Research 1 (1), 35-53

33 TM and ADHD: Random Assignment/ Delayed Start Design Eighteen students were randomly assigned to learn TM immediately (average age 12.9 years) or learn TM in three months (average age 13.0 years )

34 TM Intervention Normal Travis, et al (2011) Mind & Brain, The Journal of Psychiatry, 2(1)

35 Coherence Difference Maps: Pre Minus Post Control Group TM Group Control Group: 3-mon 6-mon posttest

36 Brain and PTS Amygdala is more active. Now, every experience produces high fear state.

37 Posttraumatic Stress Scores in African Refugees Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Technique Non- Symptomatic Pretest 30-Day Posttest 135-Day Posttest TM Practice Delayed Start Rees, Travis et al, in press

38 Cumulative % Surviving Effects of stress reduction on all-cause mortality on older subjects: Pooled results of two randomized trials (N = 202) 100 RR =.77, p < TM technique 60 Combined controls Years Schneider, R. H., Alexander, C. N., Staggers, F., Rainforth, M., Salerno, J. W., Hartz, A., et al. (2005). Long-term effects of stress reduction on mortality in persons 55 years of age with systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology, 95 (9):

39 Effect size Decreased Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress (RTC) 1 - Emotional Numbness Anxiety PTSD Scale TM TM TM Journal of Counseling and Development. 1985:(64);

40 Effect size Decreased Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress (RTC) Reduced Alcohol Problem Reduced Insomnia Reduced Depression Psychotherapy Transcendental Meditation Journal of Counseling and Development. 1985:(64);

41 Raw Score Change in PTS Symptoms in Veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan after 8-Week TM Practice CAPS PCL-M BDI QLEQ Pretest 8-week Posttest Rosenthal, et al Military Medicine, 176,6:626, 2011

42 Conscious Choice dynamic interplay between emotions and thinking Action Thinking CEO Motor Emotions

43 Cognitive Control Highest Lowest

44 Increased Physiological Relaxation Meta-analysis of 32 studies Plasma Lactate TM technique Rest Respiration Rate Basal GSR Effect Size (Standard Deviations) Dillbeck, M., and Orme-Johnson, D. (1987). American Psychologist, 42,

45 Killingsworth, Science, 2010

46 Yoga Nidra

47 Task: 5 sec 0 sec Alpha Beta Gamma

48 TM: 30 sec 35 sec Alpha Beta Gamma

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