Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8

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1 Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8 1

2 Surgical Papyrus Egyptian hieroglyphics. 17 th Century B.C. Oldest known surgical treatise. 48 case histories are outlined. 2

3 Organization of the Nervous System Consists of two divisions: Central Nervous System (CNS). Brain and spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). All nervous tissue outside the CNS. 3

4 1) Nervous tissue consists of and. A) neurons and ganglia B) neurons and meninges C) neurons and neuroglia D) neurons and nerves E) morons and gangly ganglia 4

5 Nervous System Neurology- (neur- gr. nerve) the scientific study of the nervous system. Nervous Tissue Neurons (nerve cells) Neuroglia 5

6 Neurons Neuron- the functional unit of the nervous system. Numbers 100 billion in the brain. 1 billion in the spinal cord. Neurons consist of dendrites, cell bodies, and axons. 6

7 Dendrites Nucleus Axon terminal Synaptic end bulbs Cell Body Axon Myelin Sheath Nodes of Ranvier 7

8 8

9 Functional Classification of Neurons Based on the direction the neurons transmit nerve impulses. Sensory neurons Transmit nerve impulses from receptors in the skin, sense organs, muscles, joints, and organs toward the spinal cord and brain. Interneurons Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another. Motor neurons Transmit nerve impulses away from the spinal cord to muscles or glands. 9

10 Types of Neurons Dorsal-Root Ganglion Sensory Receptor Interneuron Ventral-Root Ganglion Effector 10

11 Nervous System Functions Sensory Detecting internal and external stimuli. Sensory receptors and sensory neurons Integrative Processing sensory information by analyzing, storing, and making decisions regarding appropriate responses. Interneurons Motor Responding to integration decisions. Motor neurons 11

12 Neuroglial Cells Neuroglia (glia= gr. glue). Half the volume of the CNS. Smaller than neurons. 50X more numerous. Functions Support and protect the neurons. Maintain homeostasis in the fluid that bathes neurons. 6 types of neuroglia. 12

13 1) Which of the following is not considered a nervous system structure? A) spinal cord B) Jeff s brain C) ganglia D) heart E) enteric plexus F) sensory receptors 13

14 Nervous System Structures Brain 12 pairs of cranial nerves and their branches. Spinal cord 31 pairs of spinal nerves and their branches. Ganglia- clusters of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. Enteric plexus- a network of nerves in the GI tract. Sensory receptors- parts of neurons or specialized cells that monitor changes in the internal or external environment. 14

15 What is a nerve? Nerve- a bundle of long axons outside the central nervous system. Axon 15

16 Lining the Brain & Spinal Cord= Meninges Meninges- 3 layers of protective tissue lining the brain and spinal cord. Dura Mater Arachnoid Mater Pia Mater The spaces between the meninges are filled with cerebral spinal fluid. 16

17 Gray and White Matter White matter- aggregations of myelinated processes. Gray matter- nerve fibers with little to no myelin. 17

18 The Brain One of the largest organs in the body, 3 lbs. Average length- 7 inches, width- 5.5, height- 4. Center for registering sensations, correlating them with one another and with stored information. Center for intellect, emotions, behavior, and memory. Chemistry- 78% H2O, 12% lipids, 8% protein, 2% other. Consists of four principal parts: Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon Brain stem 18

19 4 Principal Parts of the Brain Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata Thalamus Hypothalamus 19

20 The Cerebrum The cerebrum is the largest portion of the human brain. Communicates with and coordinates activities of other parts of the brain. Divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres. The outer layer is termed the cerebral cortex. 20

21 Lobes of Cerebrum Motor Sensory Auditory Visual 21

22 True or False 1) If you eat right hemispheric sheep brains biweekly, while watching the movie The Man With Two Brains, you will be more creative than someone who eats left hemispheric brains and watches the movie The Wedding Crashers. 22

23 Hemispheric Lateralization Verbal Logical Analytical Rational Nonverbal Intuitive Creative 23

24 Higher Mental Functions Memory is the ability to hold a thought in the mind or to recall events from the past. Short-term- prefrontal lobe. Long-term- hippocampus. Amygdala- adds emotional overtones to memories. 24

25 Limbic System- long-term memory 25

26 Brain Stem Functions Acts as a relay station between the cerebrum and the spinal cord and cerebellum. Reflex center for visual, auditory, and tactile responses. Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata 26

27 Cerebellum Functions Acts as an integration center for sensory input from the eyes, ears, joints, and muscles that relates to body position. Sends motor impulses to skeletal muscles that maintain posture and balance. 27

28 Diencephalon Consists of the hypothalamus and thalamus. Functions Homeostasis for hunger, sleep, temp, water balance. Receiving center for all sensory input, except smell. Plays a role in memory and emotions. Thalamus Hypothalamus 28

29 Alzheimer s Disease Presence of abnormal neurons in the brain. Amyloid plaque envelopes axons. Tangled axons (neurofibrillary tangles). 5% of adults years in age. 50% of those 85 and over. Appears to be partly genetic, APOE4. 29

30 Parkinson s Disease Characterized by trembling or shaking. Due to the degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons in the brain. The lack of dopamine results in the sending out of excess signals to effectors (muscles). 1% of those over the age of 60. Treatment is with L-dopa. 30

31 Cranial and Spinal Nerves 31

32 Spinal Cord Anatomy Flattened cylinder, inches in length and 3/4 inch diameter. In adult ends at L2. Functions Provides communication between the brain and the peripheral nerves. Spinal cord reflexes. 32

33 Spinal Nerve 33

34 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic Nervous System (somat-body) Neurons that conduct impulses from somatic and special sense receptors to the CNS. Enteric Nervous System (enter-intestines) Two plexuses that extend the length of the gastrointestinal tract. Autonomic Nervous System (auto-self, nomic-law) Motor neurons that convey impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle tissue, to cardiac tissue, and to glands. 34

35 Somatic vs. Autonomic The ANS pathway is a 2 neuron pathway, while the SNS is a 1 neuron pathway. 35

36 Divisions of the ANS 2 Major Divisions Sympathetic Speeds up the visceral effector. Parasympathetic Slows down the visceral effector. Most body organs receive dual innervation. Hypothalamus regulates balance between these two divisions. Sympathetic Parasympathetic 36

37 Sympathetic Responses The sympathetic system dominates during physical or emotional stress conditions. E situations - emergency, embarrassment, excitement, exercise. Alarm reaction- flight or fight response. Dilation of pupils. Increase of heart rate and blood flow to muscles. Decrease in blood flow to nonessential organs. Increase in blood flow to skeletal and cardiac muscles. Airways dilate and respiratory rate increases. Blood glucose level increases. Decrease in intestinal activity and inhibition of urination. Causes genital erection. 37

38 Parasympathetic Responses Rest-and-digest activities. Mechanisms that help conserve and restore body energy during times of rest. SLUDD responses Salivation Lacrimation Urination Digestion Defecation 3 decreases - decreased Heart rate, diameter of airways, and diameter of pupils. 38

39 Development of the Nervous System Appears around 3-4 weeks. 39

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