Sympathetic Nervous System

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1 Sympathetic Nervous System

2 Lecture Objectives Review the subdivisions of the nervous system. Review the general arrangement and compare the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts. Describe the following plans: Para vertebral ganglia. Prevertebral ganglia. Parasympathetic ganglia. Splanchnic nerves. Autonomic plexuses. Map out the various plexuses in head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Make a list of the components of the system. Review the basic structure of sympathetic trunk. Describe the source of sympathetic system in the neck and make a list of target organs. Describe the Para vertebral sympathetic ganglia in the abdomen; their locations and target organs. Discuss the relation of this system to the adrenal medulla. Discuss the sympathetic innervation of blood vessels.

3 The Autonomic Nervous System Regulate activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands Structures involved general visceral afferent neurons (GVA) general visceral efferent neurons (GVE) integration center within the brain Receives input from limbic system and other regions of the cerebrum

4 Autonomic versus Somatic NS Somatic nervous system consciously perceived sensations excitation of skeletal muscle one neuron connects CNS to organ Autonomic nervous system unconsciously perceived visceral sensations involuntary inhibition or excitation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or glandular secretion two neurons needed to connect CNS to organ preganglionic and postganglionic neurons

5 Autonomic versus Somatic NS Notice that the ANS pathway is a 2 neuron pathway while the Somatic NS only contains one neuron.

6 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

7 Basic Anatomy of Motor ANS Preganglionic neuron cell body in brain or spinal cord axon is myelinated type B fiber that extends to autonomic ganglion Postganglionic neuron cell body lies outside the CNS in an autonomic ganglion axon is unmyelinated type C fiber that terminates in a visceral effector

8 Divisions of the ANS 2 major divisions Sympathetic (thoracolumbar) division preganglionic cell bodies in thoracic and first 2 lumbar segments of spinal cord Parasympathetic (craniosacral) division preganglionic cell bodies in nuclei of 4 cranial nerves and the sacral spinal cord Dual innervation one speeds up organ one slows down organ Sympathetic NS increases heart rate Parasympathetic NS decreases heart rate

9 Sympathetic Division A single sympathetic preganglionic fiber has many axon collaterals and may synapse with 20 or more postganglionic neurons. The postganglionic axons typically terminate in several visceral effectors and therefore the effects of sympathetic stimulation are more widespread than the effects of parasympathetic stimulation.

10 Structure of the Sympathetic Division Thoracolumbar division Preganglionic neurons originate from the thoracic and lumbar levels of the spinal cord (T1 L2) The lateral horn (intermediolateral column (IML)) Sympathetic ganglia: Paravertebral ganglia: Sympathetic trunk (vertebral chain) ganglia Prevertebral (collateral) ganglia: celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, aorticorenal

11 Pathway from Spinal Cord to Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia: Preganglionic axons anterior root of a spinal nerve white ramus sympathetic trunk ganglion. White rami communicantes: structures containing sympathetic preganglionic axons that connect the anterior ramus of the spinal nerve with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk.

12 Fate of Preganglionic Neurons in Sympathetic Trunk 1. Synapse in the ganglion it first reaches (at level of entry) 2. Ascend or descend in the sympathetic trunk and then synapse 3. Continue, without synapsing, through the sympathetic trunk ganglion to end at a prevertebral ganglion and synapse Innervating viscera in the abdominopelvic cavity Via abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves 4. Pass through the sympathetic trunk ganglion and a prevertebral ganglion and then to the adrenal medulla

13 Organization of Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia Two sympathetic trunks along the vertebral column Each sympathetic trunk ganglia has: 3 cervical, 11 or 12 thoracic, 4 or 5 lumbar, 4 or 5 pelvic and both trunks end caudally in one joint ganglion (ganglion impar) Postganglionic neurons from the superior cervical ganglion head and heart. middle cervical ganglion and the inferior cervical ganglion heart. Thoracic sympathetic trunk heart, lungs, and bronchi.

14 Pathways from Sympathetic Trunk Ganglia to Visceral Effectors Axons leave the sympathetic trunk in 4 possible ways: spinal nerves cephalic periarterial nerves sympathetic nerves splanchnic nerves

15 Spinal nerves Gray ramus: Axons of some postganglionic neurons leave the sympathetic trunk by entering a short pathway called a gray ramus and merge with the anterior ramus of a spinal nerve Blood vessels (vasomotion), arrector mm. (pilomotion), and sweat glands (sudomotion) Gray rami communicantes: structures containing sympathetic postganglionic axons that connect the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk to spinal nerves.

16 Cephalic Periarterial Nerves Some sympathetic preganglionic neurons that enter the sympathetic trunk ascend to the superior cervical ganglion where they synapse with postganglionic neurons Some of these leave the sympathetic trunk by forming cephalic arterial nerves Serve visceral effectors in the skin of the face and head and iris (dilator)

17 Sympathetic Nerves Some axons of the postganglionic neurons leave the trunk by forming sympathetic nerves (Cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves) Innervate the heart and lungs.

18 Splanchnic Nerves Some sympathetic preganglionic axons pass through the sympathetic trunk without terminating in it. Beyond the trunk they form nerves called splanchnic nerves which extend to prevertebral ganglia 1. T5 T9 or T10 Greater splanchnic nerve 2. T10 T11 Lesser splanchnic nerve 3. T12 least splanchnic nerve 4. L1 L4 Lumbar splanchnic nerve

19 Prevertebral ganglia Celiac ganglion Aorticorenal ganglion Superior mesentric ganglion Inferior mesenteric ganglion

20 Splanchnic Nerves to the Adrenal Medulla Some sympathetic preganglionic axons pass, without synapsing, through the sympathetic trunk, greater splanchnic nerves and celiac ganglion into the adrenal medulla (modified sympathetic ganglia). Release hormones into blood 80% epinephrine, 20% norepinephrine.

21 Organs Innervated by Sympathetic NS Structures innervated by each spinal nerve sweat glands, arrector pili mm., blood vessels to skin & skeletal mm. Thoracic & cranial plexuses supply: heart, lungs,esophagus & thoracic blood vessels plexus around carotid artery to head structures Splanchnic nerves to prevertebral ganglia supply: GI tract from stomach to rectum, urinary & reproductive organs

22 Sympathetic Afferent Fibers Viscera sympathetic ganglion white rami communicants spinal nerve dorsal root ganglion spinal cord

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