Nervous System. Jan 23 3:17 PM. Parts of the Body System

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1 Nervous System Function To gather and interpret information from inside your body and from the world outside your body and to respond to that information as needed. Parts of the Body System I) Central Nervous System processes and responds to messages from the Peripheral Nervous System A) Brain 1) Cerebrum the largest part of your brain, it controls thinking and voluntary movements. It's where most memories are stored. 2) Cerebellum processes sensory information from the body to keep track of the body s position and balance 3) Medulla connects the brain to the spinal cord. It controls the involuntary processes in the body (like breathing and heartbeat) 1

2 B) Spinal cord made of neurons and bundles of axons that pass impulses to and from the brain. It allows the brain to communicate with the Peripheral Nervous System. II) Peripheral Nervous System connects all parts of the body to the Central Nervous System A) Sensory Nerves gather information about what is happening in and around your body, and sends the information to your brain and spinal cord B) Motor Nerves neurons that send impulses from the brain and spinal cord to other systems 1) Somatic nerves nerves that you consciously control. 2

3 2) Autonomic nerves controls the body functions you don t think about. Keeps all the body s functions in balance. (they can either speed up the functions or slow them down) a) Sympathetic set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations. b) Parasympathetic set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state. dendrites Vocabulary cell body Neuron a specialized nerve cell that transfers messages as fast moving electrical energy (impulses) Nerve a collection of the axons of neurons bundled together with blood vessels and connective tissue. Most nerves contain both sensory and motor neuron axons. axon 3

4 More Vocabulary Reflex an uncontrolled and almost immediate response to a stimulus. It s like a shortcut between your sensory and motor nerves that doesn t immediately use the brain. Diseases / Disorders Alzheimer s Disease a disease that affects the brain, causing short term memory loss, then difficulties with language, skilled movements, recognition, decision making, planning, and activities of daily living. People also have behavioral changes and dementia. These problems steadily get worse as the illness progresses. Spinal Cord Injury damage to the spinal cord, which can block all information to and from the brain. It can cause paralysis or even death. 4

5 Concussions are usually caused by a blow to the head, which can cause your brain to slam against the inner wall of your skull. This can cause bleeding in or around your brain and the tearing of nerve fibers. It's like a bruise on your brain. Not every concussion causes a loss of consciousness, but does temporarily interfere with the way your brain works. A concussion can affect memory, reflexes and coordination. The two most common symptoms are confusion and amnesia, which usually includes a loss of memory of what caused the concussion. Did you know? * Different areas of your brain control different parts of your body and even different areas of your senses and thinking! * The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body. The left side handles more of the concrete analytical things, like math or logic. The right side controls more artistic things, like music or art. 5

6 When your foot falls asleep it's because you've temporarily compressed (squished) the nerves in that area. These nerves can't send messages back to the brain normally, and so for a moment, you don't feel anything. After you stand up or uncross your legs and the nerves are no longer compressed, the feeling in your foot soon comes back. It might feel tingly or even a bit painful. But it only lasts a few seconds as the connection between your foot and your brain returns to normal, and it won't hurt your body. Zzzzzzz... 6

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