Chapter 28 Nervous Systems

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 28 Nervous Systems"

Transcription

1 Chapter 28 Nervous Systems PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko

2 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? Spinal cord injuries disrupt communication between The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) The rest of the body Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Spinal cord

4 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? The late actor Christopher Reeve Suffered a spinal cord injury during an equestrian competition in 1995 Was an influential advocate for spinal cord research Died of complications to the injury in 2004 Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

5

6 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? Over 10,000 Americans suffer spinal cord injuries each year Current research shows promise Steroids reduce damage if used within hours of damage Coaxing damaged nerve cells to regenerate Transplants of nerve cells or stem cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands The nervous system Obtains sensory information Processes sensory information Sends commands to effector cells (muscles) that carry out appropriate responses Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Sensory input Sensory receptor Integration Motor output Effector cells Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Brain and spinal cord Central nervous system (CNS)

10 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands The central nervous system (CNS) consists of Brain Spinal cord (vertebrates) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Located outside the CNS Consists of Nerves (bundles of fibers of sensory and motor neurons) and Ganglia (clusters of cell bodies of the neurons) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands Sensory neurons Conduct signals from sensory receptors To the CNS Interneurons in the CNS Integrate information Send it to motor neurons Motor neurons convey signals to effector cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 1 Sensory receptor 2 Sensory neuron Brain Ganglion Quadriceps muscles Motor neuron 3 4 Spinal cord Flexor muscles Nerve PNS Interneuron CNS

13 28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems Neurons are Cells specialized for carrying signals The functional units of the nervous system A neuron consists of A cell body Two types of extensions (fibers) that conduct signals Dendrites Axons Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems Myelin sheaths Enclose axons Form a cellular insulation Speed up signal transmission Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 Signal direction Dendrites Cell body Cell Body Layers of myelin sheaths Nucleus Axon Schwann cell Myelin sheath Signal pathway Nodes of Ranvier Synaptic terminals Node of Ranvier Nucleus Schwann cell

16 NERVE SIGNALS AND THEIR TRANSMISSION Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane At rest, a neuron s plasma membrane Has potential energy the membrane potential Just inside the cell is slightly negative Just outside the cell is slightly positive Resting potential voltage across the plasma membrane Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane The resting potential exists because of differences in ion concentration inside and outside a cell Inside a cell K + high Na + low Outside a cell K + low Na + high Animation: Resting Potential Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 Neuron Axon Plasma membrane Outside of cell Na + K + Na + K + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + channel Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Plasma membrane K + Na + -K + pump Na + Protein K + Inside of cell K + channel K + K + K + Na + K + K + K + K + K +

20 28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential A stimulus Alters the permeability of a section of membrane Allows ions to pass through Changes the membrane s voltage Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential A nerve signal an action potential A change in the membrane voltage From the resting potential To a maximum level And back to the resting potential Animation: Action Potential Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Membrane potential (mv) Na + Na + 3 K + Additional Na channels open, K channels are closed; interior of cell becomes more positive. Na + 50 Action potential 4 K + Na channels close and inactivate. K channels open, and K rushes out; interior of cell more negative than outside K + A stimulus opens some Na channels; if threshold is reached, action potential is triggered. Na + Sodium channel Potassium channel Threshold 1 Resting potential Time (msec) The K channels close relatively slowly, causing a brief undershoot. K + Neuron interior Plasma membrane Neuron interior Na + 1 Resting state: voltage-gated Na and K channels closed; resting potential is maintained. 1 K + Return to resting state.

23 Membrane potential (mv) 50 0 Action potential Threshold 1 Resting potential Time (msec) 1 Resting state: voltage-gated Na and K channels closed; resting potential is maintained. Na + Sodium channel Potassium channel Neuron interior Plasma membrane K +

24 Membrane potential (mv) Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) A stimulus opens some Na channels; if threshold is reached, action potential is triggered. 2 Na + K +

25 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) 3 3 Na + Additional Na channels open, K channels are closed; interior of cell becomes more positive. K +

26 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) 3 4 Na channels close and inactivate. K channels open, and K rushes out; interior of cell more negative than outside. 4 Na + K +

27 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) The K channels close relatively slowly, causing a brief undershoot.

28 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) Return to resting state. Neuron interior Na + K +

29 28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron Action potentials Are self-propagated in a one-way chain reaction along a neuron Are all-or-none events Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment

31 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment K + Action potential 2 Na + K +

32 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment K + Action potential 2 Na + K + K + Action potential 3 Na + K +

33 28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron The strength of the stimulus changes The frequency of action potentials But not the strength of action potentials Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 28.6 Neurons communicate at synapses Synapses are junctions where signals are transmitted between Two neurons Or between neurons and effector cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 28.6 Neurons communicate at synapses Electrical synapses Electrical signals pass between cells Chemical synapses Sending (presynaptic) cell secretes a chemical signal, a neurotransmitter The neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft The neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on the surface of the receiving (postsynaptic) cell Animation: Synapse Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Axon of sending neuron Sending neuron 1 Action Vesicles potential arrives Synaptic terminal 2 Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane 3 Neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft Synapse Synaptic cleft Receiving neuron Receiving neuron Ion channels Neurotransmitter molecules 4 Neurotransmitter binds to receptor Neurotransmitter Receptor Neurotransmitter broken down and released Ions 5 Ion channel opens 6 Ion channel closes

37 Axon of sending neuron Sending neuron Vesicles Synaptic terminal 1 Action potential arrives 2 Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane 3 Neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft Synapse Synaptic cleft Receiving neuron Receiving neuron Ion channels Neurotransmitter molecules 4 Neurotransmitter binds to receptor

38 Neurotransmitter Receptor Neurotransmitter broken down and released Ions 5 Ion channel opens 6 Ion channel closes

39 28.7 Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible Some neurotransmitters Excite the receiving cell Inhibit the receiving cell s activity by decreasing its ability to develop action potentials Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 28.7 Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible A neuron may receive information From hundreds of other neurons Via thousands of synaptic terminals The summation of excitation and inhibition Determines if a neuron will transmit a nerve signal Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 Synaptic terminals Dendrites Inhibitory Excitatory Myelin sheath Receiving cell body Axon Synaptic terminals

42 Synaptic terminals Dendrites Inhibitory Excitatory Myelin sheath Receiving cell body Axon

43 Synaptic terminals

44 28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters Many small, nitrogen-containing molecule serve as neurotransmitters Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter In the brain Between neurons and muscle cells Biogenic amines Important in the CNS Serotonin and dopamine affect sleep, mood, attention Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters Amino acids important in the CNS Some are excitatory Some are inhibitory Neuropeptides Substance P mediates perceptions of pain Endorphins decrease perception of pain Nitric oxide A dissolved gas Triggers erections Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 28.9 CONNECTION: Many drugs act at chemical synapses Many psychoactive drugs Act at synapses Affect neurotransmitter action Caffeine counts inhibitory neurotransmitters Nicotine acts as a stimulant Alcohol is a depressant Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

47

48 AN OVERVIEW OF ANIMAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 28.10 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: The evolution of animal nervous systems reflects changes in body symmetry Radially symmetrical animals Nervous system arranged in a weblike system of neurons Nerve net Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 Nerve net Neuron A Hydra (cnidarian)

51 28.10 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: The evolution of animal nervous systems reflects changes in body symmetry Most bilaterally symmetrical animals exhibit Centralization presence of a central nervous system Cephalization concentration of the nervous system in the head region Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 Eyespot Brain Nerve cord Transverse nerve B Flatworm (planarian)

53 Brain Ventral nerve cord Segmental ganglion C Leech (annelid)

54 Brain Ventral nerve cord Ganglia D Insect (arthropod)

55 Brain Giant axon E Squid (mollusc)

56 28.11 Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized Vertebrate nervous systems are Highly centralized Cephalized Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

57 28.11 Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized Central nervous system (CNS) The brain and spinal cord Contains fluid-filled spaces In ventricles of the brain In the central canal of the spinal cord Surrounding the brain Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nerves cranial nerves and spinal nerves Ganglia Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Cranial nerves Ganglia outside CNS Spinal nerves

59 Brain Cerebrospinal fluid Meninges White matter Gray matter Dorsal root ganglion (part of PNS) Ventricles Central canal Spinal nerve (part of PNS) Central canal of spinal cord Spinal cord Spinal cord (cross section)

60 28.12 The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy Two functional components of the PNS Somatic nervous system mostly voluntary Autonomic nervous system (ANS) mostly involuntary Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

61 28.12 The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy Somatic nervous system Carries signals to and from skeletal muscles Mainly in response to external stimuli Autonomic nervous system Regulates the internal environment Controls Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Organs of various body systems Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

62 Peripheral nervous system Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division Enteric division

63 28.13 Opposing actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment Parasympathetic division of ANS Primes the body for activities that gain and conserve energy for the body Sympathetic division of ANS Prepares the body for intense, energy-consuming activities Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

64 Parasympathetic division Sympathetic division Brain Eye Constricts pupil Stimulates saliva production Salivary glands Dilates pupil Inhibits saliva production Constricts bronchi Lung Dilates bronchi Spinal cord Slows heart Stimulates stomach, pancreas, and intestines Stimulates urination Liver Intestines Heart Stomach Bladder Adrenal gland Pancreas Accelerates heart Stimulates epinephrine and norepinephrine release Stimulates glucose release Inhibits stomach, pancreas, and intestines Inhibits urination Promotes erection of genitals Genitalia Promotes ejaculation and vaginal contractions

65 28.14 The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural tube The vertebrate brain evolved by the enlargement and subdivision of the Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

66 Embryonic Brain Regions Forebrain Midbrain Brain Structures Present in Adult Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres; includes cerebral cortex, white matter, basal ganglia) Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, pineal gland) Midbrain (part of brainstem) Hindbrain Pons (part of brainstem), cerebellum Medulla oblongata (part of brainstem) Cerebral hemisphere Diencephalon Midbrain Hindbrain Forebrain Embryo (one month old) Midbrain Pons Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Fetus (three months old)

67 Embryonic Brain Regions Forebrain Midbrain Brain Structures Present in Adult Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres; includes cerebral cortex, white matter, basal ganglia) Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, pineal gland) Midbrain (part of brainstem) Hindbrain Pons (part of brainstem), cerebellum Medulla oblongata (part of brainstem)

68 Cerebral hemisphere Diencephalon Midbrain Hindbrain Forebrain Embryo (one month old) Midbrain Pons Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Fetus (three months old)

69 28.14 The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural tube In birds and mammals Size and complexity of the cerebrum Correlates with their sophisticated behavior Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

70 Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. THE HUMAN BRAIN

71 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain The human brain More powerful than the most sophisticated computer Composed of three main parts Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

72 Cerebral cortex Forebrain Cerebrum Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Midbrain Hindbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Cerebellum Spinal cord

73 Left cerebral hemisphere Right cerebral hemisphere Corpus callosum Basal ganglia

74 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain Midbrain, subdivisions of the hindbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus Conduct information to and from higher brain centers Regulate homeostatic functions Keep track of body position Sort sensory information Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

75 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain Cerebrum Part of the forebrain Largest and most complex part of the brain Most integrative power is in the cerebral cortex Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

76

77 28.16 The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions Cerebral cortex About 5 mm thick Accounts for 80% of brain mass Specialized integrative regions Somatosensory cortex Centers for vision, hearing, taste, and smell Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

78 28.16 The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions Motor cortex directs responses Association areas Make up most of the cerebrum Higher mental activities Reasoning Language Right and left cerebral hemispheres Specialize in different mental tasks Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

79 Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Frontal association area Taste Speech Somatosensory association area Reading Speech Smell Hearing Auditory association area Visual association area Vision Temporal lobe Occipital lobe

80 28.17 CONNECTION: Injuries and brain operations provide insight into brain function Brain injuries and surgeries reveal brain functions The case of Phineas Gage Stimulation of the cerebral cortex during surgery Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

81

82

83 28.18 CONNECTION: fmri scans can provide insight into brain structure and function fmri A scanning and imaging technology used to study brain functions Used on conscious patients Monitors changes in blood oxygen usage in the brain Correlates to regions of intense brain function Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

84

85 28.19 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal Sleep and arousal involve activity by the Hypothalamus Medulla oblongata Pons Neurons of the reticular formation Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

86 28.19 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal Sleep Is essential for survival Sleep is an active state Sleep may be involved in consolidating learning and memory Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

87 28.20 The limbic system is involved in emotions, memory, and learning The limbic system Is a functional group of integrating centers in Cerebral cortex Thalamus Hypothalamus Is involved in Emotions Memory Learning Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

88 Prefrontal cortex Hypothalamus Thalamus Cerebrum Smell Olfactory bulb Amygdala Hippocampus

89 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Many neurological disorders can be linked to changes in brain physiology Schizophrenia Depression Alzheimer s disease Parkinson s disease Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

90 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Schizophrenia A severe mental disturbance Characterized by psychotic episodes in which patients lose the ability to distinguish reality Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

91 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Depression Two broad forms of depressive illness have been identified Major depression Bipolar disorder manic-depressive disorder Treatments may include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

92

93 Prescriptions (millions) Year

94 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Alzheimer s disease is characterized by Confusion Memory loss A firm diagnosis is difficult to make Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

95 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Parkinson s disease Motor disorder Characterized by Difficulty in initiating movements Slowness of movement Rigidity Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

96

97 Sensory receptor Sensory input Integration Effector cells Motor output PNS CNS

98 Dendrites Cell body Axon Myelin (speeds signal transmission) Synaptic terminals

99 Nervous system CNS PNS Brain Spinal cord Somatic: voluntary control over muscles Autonomic: involuntary control over organs Sympathetic division: fight or flight Parasympathetic division: rest and digest Enteric: regulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic

100 c. b. a. d. e. brain h. f. g. i.

101

102 You should now be able to 1. Describe the structural and functional subdivisions of the nervous system 2. Describe the three parts of a reflex, noting the three types of neurons involved in the reaction 3. Explain how an action potential is produced and the resting membrane potential restored 4. Compare the structures, functions, and locations of electrical and chemical synapses Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

103 You should now be able to 5. Describe the types and functions of neurotransmitters known in humans 6. Explain how drugs can alter chemical synapses 7. Describe the diversity of animal nervous systems 8. Describe the general structure of the brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves of vertebrates 9. Compare the functions of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

104 You should now be able to 10. Describe the parts and functions of the human brain 11. Explain how injuries, illness, and surgery provide insight into the functions of the brain 12. Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatments of schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer s disease, and Parkinson s disease Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8

NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 CAN AN INJURED SPINAL CORD BE FIXED? Injuries to the spinal cord disrupt communication between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body

More information

The Nervous System. Overall Function

The Nervous System. Overall Function The Nervous System The Nervous System Overall Function COMMUNICATION Works with the endocrine system in regulating body functioning, but the nervous system is specialized for SPEED Neurons A neuron is

More information

Primary Functions. Monitor changes. Integrate input. Initiate a response. External / internal. Process, interpret, make decisions, store information

Primary Functions. Monitor changes. Integrate input. Initiate a response. External / internal. Process, interpret, make decisions, store information NERVOUS SYSTEM Monitor changes External / internal Integrate input Primary Functions Process, interpret, make decisions, store information Initiate a response E.g., movement, hormone release, stimulate/inhibit

More information

ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON

ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON AP BIOLOGY ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 NAME DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON SIMPLE REFLEX RESTING POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL GRAPH TRANSMISSION ACROSS A SYNAPSE QUESTIONS:

More information

Nervous System and Brain Review. Bio 3201

Nervous System and Brain Review. Bio 3201 Nervous System and Brain Review Bio 3201 Dont worry about: glial cells Oligodendrocytes Satelite cells etc Nervous System - Vital to maintaining homeostasis in organisms - Comprised of : brain, spinal

More information

Cell body of sensory neuron in dorsal root ganglion. Hamstring. muscle

Cell body of sensory neuron in dorsal root ganglion. Hamstring. muscle The nervous system In vertebrates The CNS (central nervous system) is composed of the brain and spinal cord The PNS (peripheral nervous system is composed of nerves and ganglia The spinal cord conveys

More information

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now?

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now? Bio11: The Nervous System Body control systems Nervous system Quick Sends message directly to target organ Endocrine system Sends a hormone as a messenger to the target organ Can target several organs

More information

Nervous System Organization

Nervous System Organization The Nervous System Chapter 44 All animals must be able to respond to environmental stimuli -Sensory receptors = Detect stimulus -Motor effectors = Respond to it -The nervous system links the two -Consists

More information

Bio11 schedule. Chapter 13 and 14. The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Organization of Nervous Systems. Nerves. Nervous and Sensory Systems

Bio11 schedule. Chapter 13 and 14. The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Organization of Nervous Systems. Nerves. Nervous and Sensory Systems Bio11 schedule Lecture Nervous system and senses Lab Current events reports (10 pts) Urinalysis Lecture exam 2 Thursday Feb 24 Same format as before Study guide will be posted Your total points so far

More information

Chapter 49 Nervous Systems

Chapter 49 Nervous Systems Chapter 49 Nervous Systems Concept 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells Nervous System Organization The simplest animals with nervous systems, the cnidarians, have neurons

More information

Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8

Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8 Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8 1 Surgical Papyrus Egyptian hieroglyphics. 17 th Century B.C. Oldest known surgical treatise. 48 case histories are outlined. 2 Organization of the Nervous System Consists

More information

UNIT 5 REVIEW GUIDE - NERVOUS SYSTEM 1) State the 3 functions of the nervous system. 1) 2) 3)

UNIT 5 REVIEW GUIDE - NERVOUS SYSTEM 1) State the 3 functions of the nervous system. 1) 2) 3) UNIT 5 REVIEW GUIDE - NERVOUS SYSTEM State the 3 functions of the nervous system. Briefly describe the general function(s) of each of the following neuron types: a) SENSORY NEURONS: b) INTERNEURONS: c)

More information

The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized?

The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized? Honors Biology Guided Notes Chapter 28 Nervous System Name 28.10 28.19 The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized? ANIMAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS Define Cephalization and Centralization. What type of

More information

Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization

Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization Diversity of Neural Signaling The diversity of neuron structure and function allows neurons to play many roles. 3 basic function of all neurons: Receive

More information

Biology 3201 Nervous System #2- Anatomy. Components of a Nervous System

Biology 3201 Nervous System #2- Anatomy. Components of a Nervous System Biology 3201 Nervous System #2- Anatomy Components of a Nervous System In any nervous system, there are 4 main components: (1) sensors: gather information from the external environment (sense organs) (2)

More information

Chapter 7 Nervous System

Chapter 7 Nervous System Chapter 7 Nervous System Two message centers: Functions of these systems: 1. * 2. * Overview of the Nervous System Parts: General Functions: Functions Sensory input: Sensation via nerves Integration: interpretation

More information

NEURONS ARE ORGANIZED INTO NERVOUS SYSTEMS 34.5

NEURONS ARE ORGANIZED INTO NERVOUS SYSTEMS 34.5 NEURONS ARE ORGANIZED INTO NERVOUS SYSTEMS 34.5 INTRODUCTION The cnidarians have nerve nets, the most simple type of nervous system. The sea anemone has a nerve net that serves simple behaviours such as

More information

Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons

Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons Invertebrates Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons Radial Symmetry - Nerve net Cnideria Bilateral Symmetry double, ventral, solid nerve cord brain (cephalization) Vertebrates Dorsal, single, hollow,

More information

1. Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma.

1. Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma. 1. Base of brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing 2. tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue 3. A thick band of axons that connects the

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 48 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions

More information

Warm-up. Warm-up. Warm-up. Chapter 48. Why do animals need a nervous system? 3/9/2012. Nervous System

Warm-up. Warm-up. Warm-up. Chapter 48. Why do animals need a nervous system? 3/9/2012. Nervous System Warm-up Objective: Explain how membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentrations between cells' content and the extracellular fluid. Warm-up: Cells from this structure migrate to other parts

More information

I. Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors. Chapter 9. Autonomic Motor Nerves. Autonomic Neurons. Autonomic Ganglia. Autonomic Neurons 9/19/11

I. Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors. Chapter 9. Autonomic Motor Nerves. Autonomic Neurons. Autonomic Ganglia. Autonomic Neurons 9/19/11 Chapter 9 I. Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors The Autonomic Nervous System Lecture PowerPoint Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Autonomic

More information

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts:

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts: Animals: Nervous system Neuron and connection of neurons Outline 1. Key concepts 2. An Overview and Evolution 3. Human Nervous System 4. The Neurons 5. The Electrical Signals 6. Communication between Neurons

More information

Name: Period: Test Review: Chapter 2

Name: Period: Test Review: Chapter 2 Name: Period: Test Review: Chapter 2 1. The function of dendrites is to A) receive incoming signals from other neurons. B) release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons. C) coordinate

More information

II. Nervous System (NS) Organization: can be organized by location/ structure or by function A. Structural Organization 1. Central N.S.

II. Nervous System (NS) Organization: can be organized by location/ structure or by function A. Structural Organization 1. Central N.S. Nervous System I. Nervous system Functions A. Detect Changes in the environment (stimuli) B. Interpret/evaluate those stimuli C. Initiate responses (trigger muscle contractions or glandular response) II.

More information

Peripheral Nervous system messages via spinal and cranial nerves

Peripheral Nervous system messages via spinal and cranial nerves Biol 067: Section 13 - Nervous System A. Overview of the nervous system: 1. 2 parts of the Nervous System: Nervous system Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 2. How CNS and PNS

More information

Chapter 3. Structure and Function of the Nervous System. Copyright (c) Allyn and Bacon 2004

Chapter 3. Structure and Function of the Nervous System. Copyright (c) Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter 3 Structure and Function of the Nervous System 1 Basic Features of the Nervous System Neuraxis: An imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the central nervous system, from the

More information

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience Chapter 3 Biological Foundations and Neuroscience Copyright 2001 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited Heredity! Chromosomes! Threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair coming from each

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Homeostasis Strand Introduction In general, a nervous system has three overlapping functions : 1. Sensory input conduction of signals from sensory receptors to integration centres 2.

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONCEPT 2: THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN IS REGIONALLY SPECIALIZED

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONCEPT 2: THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN IS REGIONALLY SPECIALIZED THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONCEPT 2: THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN IS REGIONALLY SPECIALIZED Images of the human brain in popular culture almost always focus on the cerebrum, the part of the brain whose surface lies just

More information

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi The Nervous System & Nervous tissue Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of the Nervous System 1. Nervous system and endocrine system are the chief control centers in maintaining body homeostasis. 2. Nervous

More information

Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System. Total 33 points

Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System. Total 33 points Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System Total 33 points Name: Circle the best response to the following: (33 points) 1. What do we call the long fibre that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body? A.

More information

Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems

Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems Nervous System Cells Neuron a cell Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems signal direction dendrites cell body Structure fits function many entry points for signal one path out transmits signal signal

More information

action potential afferent neuron Weblike; specifically, the weblike middle layer of the three meninges. arachnoid astrocytes autonomic nervous system

action potential afferent neuron Weblike; specifically, the weblike middle layer of the three meninges. arachnoid astrocytes autonomic nervous system action potential A large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber. afferent neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses

More information

Chapter 45 Neurons and Nervous Systems

Chapter 45 Neurons and Nervous Systems Nervous System Cells Neuron a cell Chapter 45 Neurons and Nervous Systems signal direction dendrites cell body Structure fits function many entry points for signal one path out axon signal direction transmits

More information

1. NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. FUNCTION The major function of the nervous system can be summarized as follows (Figure 1-1).

1. NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. FUNCTION The major function of the nervous system can be summarized as follows (Figure 1-1). 1. NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION The major function of the nervous system can be summarized as follows (Figure 1-1). Sensory input. Multiple signals from both, internal and external environment are detected

More information

The Nervous System: Autonomic Nervous System Pearson Education, Inc.

The Nervous System: Autonomic Nervous System Pearson Education, Inc. 17 The Nervous System: Autonomic Nervous System Introduction The autonomic nervous system: Functions outside of our conscious awareness Makes routine adjustments in our body s systems The autonomic nervous

More information

[CHAPTER 12: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM] [ANSWER KEY]

[CHAPTER 12: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM] [ANSWER KEY] WORDBANK: Cholinesterase Dopamine Axon Choroid layer Cochlea Incus Action Potential Cataract Cornea Astigmatism Dendrite Malleus Alzheimer s Disease Central Excitatory Response Fovea Centralis Acetylcholine

More information

Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM

Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM Topic from General functions of the nervous system Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical & functional perspectives Gross & microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue

More information

PSYCH 260 Exam 2. March 2, Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name:

PSYCH 260 Exam 2. March 2, Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name: PSYCH 260 Exam 2 March 2, 2017 Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name: 1 1 Main Please put in their proper order the steps that lead to synaptic communication between neurons. Begin with the

More information

Neural and Hormonal Systems

Neural and Hormonal Systems PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Neural and Hormonal Systems Module 4 2 Neural and Hormonal Systems Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate

More information

PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1

PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1 PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1 1 What is a neuron? 2 Name and describe the functions of the three main parts of the neuron. 3 What do glial cells do? 4 Describe the three basic

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 2 1

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 2 1 Okami Study Guide: Chapter 2 1 Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer:

More information

UNIT 5 REVIEW GUIDE - NERVOUS SYSTEM 1a) State the 3 functions of the nervous system. 1: sensory 2: integration 3: motor output

UNIT 5 REVIEW GUIDE - NERVOUS SYSTEM 1a) State the 3 functions of the nervous system. 1: sensory 2: integration 3: motor output UNIT 5 REVIEW GUIDE - NERVOUS SYSTEM 1a) State the 3 functions of the nervous system. 1: sensory 2: integration 3: motor output 1b) Complete a flow chart showing the relationships within the nervous system

More information

NEURAL TISSUE (NEUROPHYSIOLOGY) PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA

NEURAL TISSUE (NEUROPHYSIOLOGY) PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA Neural Tissue Contains 2 kinds of cells: neurons: cells that send and receive signals neuroglia (glial cells): cells that support and protect neurons Neuron Types Sensory

More information

BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE

BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE 1 Name: BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE Date: 1) Identify structures X, Y and Z and give one function of each. 2) Which processes are involved in the movement of molecule Y from point X to point Z?

More information

Biology 105 Midterm Exam 3 Review Sheet

Biology 105 Midterm Exam 3 Review Sheet Biology 105 Midterm Exam 3 Review Sheet The third midterm exam will cover the following lecture material (lectures 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13): Skeletal System (from chapter 5 in the textbook), Nervous System

More information

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites.

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites. 10.1: Introduction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial

More information

Chapter 14: Nervous System Guided Notes (A-day)

Chapter 14: Nervous System Guided Notes (A-day) Chapter 14: Nervous System Guided Notes (A-day) Nervous System Overview Major Function: Control the body's and. Divided into the Nervous System (CNS=Brain and Spinal Cord) and the Nervous System (PNS=Cranial

More information

Nervous System Notes

Nervous System Notes Nervous System Notes The nervous system consists of a network of nerve cells or neurons. I. A nervous system is an important part of a cell s (or an organism s) ability to respond to the environment. A.

More information

STOP. The Nervous System How you know when to. doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable. The Neuron. Different Types of Neurons

STOP. The Nervous System How you know when to. doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable. The Neuron. Different Types of Neurons The Nervous System How you know when to STOP doing something stupid. Or Keep doing something pleasurable Complexity of the Brain The brain contains approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons, and

More information

Nervous System. Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition)

Nervous System. Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) Nervous System Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) 1 Learning Objectives Identify the main parts (anatomy) of a neuron. Identify the 2 divisions of nervous system. Classify the major types

More information

The Nervous System. Lab Exercise 29. Objectives. Introduction

The Nervous System. Lab Exercise 29. Objectives. Introduction Lab Exercise The Nervous System Objectives -You should be able to recognize a neuron and identify its components. - Be able to identify the principal components of the brain and be able to name at least

More information

35-2 The Nervous System Slide 1 of 38

35-2 The Nervous System Slide 1 of 38 1 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System The nervous system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli. 2 of 38 Neurons Neurons The messages carried by

More information

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES CHAPTER 3 1 LEARNING GOALS Discuss how the nervous system communicates internally. Describe the structure and function of neurons Describe how the neuron transmits information Describe

More information

Neuroscience. Neuroscience: The Brain and Behavior 1/11/2010. The Brain and Behavior

Neuroscience. Neuroscience: The Brain and Behavior 1/11/2010. The Brain and Behavior Neuroscience The Brain and Behavior Neuroscience: The Brain and Behavior I. How is the Nervous System Organized? II. Methods of Studying the Brain III. How Does the Brain Function? IV. What Effects Do

More information

Nervous System. Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition)

Nervous System. Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) Nervous System Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) 1 Learning Objectives Identify the main parts (anatomy) of a neuron. Identify the 2 divisions of nervous system. Classify the major types

More information

Nervous System CHAPTER 9. Copyright 2016 by Elsevier, Inc.

Nervous System CHAPTER 9. Copyright 2016 by Elsevier, Inc. Nervous System CHAPTER 9 Copyright 2016 by Elsevier, Inc. Neurons and Supporting Cells Copyright 2016 by Elsevier, Inc. 2 Communication and Control Systems nervous system endocrine system uses chemicals

More information

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Dr. Chris Doumen Week 5 2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Introduction Neural Tissue TextBook Readings Pages 388 through 397. Make use of the figures in your textbook ; a picture is worth a thousand words! Work

More information

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure Chapter 10 Nervous System I Divisions of the Nervous System Cell Types of Neural Tissue neurons neuroglial cells Central Nervous System brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System nerves cranial nerves

More information

Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9

Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9 Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9 I) INTRO A) Nervous system discussed so far 1) Specific 2) Fast B) Other systems extended in space and time 1) Nonspecific 2) Slow C) Three components that

More information

The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons. The ANS and Visceral Sensory Neurons. The ANS a system of motor neurons Innervates

The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons. The ANS and Visceral Sensory Neurons. The ANS a system of motor neurons Innervates C HAPT E R 15 The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons The ANS and Visceral Sensory Neurons The ANS a system of motor neurons Innervates Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Glands Gl d Autonomic

More information

! BIOL 2401! Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System

! BIOL 2401! Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System Collin County Community College! BIOL 2401! Week 5 Nervous System 1 Nervous System The process of homeostasis makes sure that the activities that occur in the body are maintained within normal physiological

More information

BIOH111. o Cell Module o Tissue Module o Integumentary system o Skeletal system o Muscle system o Nervous system o Endocrine system

BIOH111. o Cell Module o Tissue Module o Integumentary system o Skeletal system o Muscle system o Nervous system o Endocrine system BIOH111 o Cell Module o Tissue Module o Integumentary system o Skeletal system o Muscle system o Nervous system o Endocrine system Endeavour College of Natural Health endeavour.edu.au 1 TEXTBOOK AND REQUIRED/RECOMMENDED

More information

The Nervous System and the Endocrine System

The Nervous System and the Endocrine System The Nervous System and the Endocrine System Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Nervous System Nervous System The electrochemical communication system of the body Sends messages from the brain to the

More information

Organization and Overview of the Central Nervous System CNS 424. By Prof. Hisham Al-Matubsi

Organization and Overview of the Central Nervous System CNS 424. By Prof. Hisham Al-Matubsi Organization and Overview of the Central Nervous System CNS 424 By Prof. Hisham Al-Matubsi Components Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Responsible for Sensory perceptions, mental activities,

More information

Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system. Myelinated neurons Nerve signal transmission Nerve Synapse

Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system. Myelinated neurons Nerve signal transmission Nerve Synapse Outline Nervous System - Neurons Biol 105 Lecture Packet 9 Chapter 7 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system Nervous system cells Myelinated neurons Nerve signal

More information

1. 01/20/15 Ch 8: Muscular System /09/15 Ch 9: Nervous System 16

1. 01/20/15 Ch 8: Muscular System /09/15 Ch 9: Nervous System 16 Table of Contents # Date Title Page # 1. 01/20/15 Ch 8: Muscular System 1 2. 02/09/15 Ch 9: Nervous System 16 i 1 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook 02/09/15 Ch. 9 Nervous System

More information

Week 2 Psychology. The Brain and Behavior

Week 2 Psychology. The Brain and Behavior Week 2 Psychology The Brain and Behavior In this lesson, we will focus on the nervous system. We will learn about the Nervous System and its Command Center the Brain Characteristics and Divisions of the

More information

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5 P1 OF 5 The nervous system controls/coordinates the activities of cells, tissues, & organs. The endocrine system also plays a role in control/coordination. The nervous system is more dominant. Its mechanisms

More information

General Psychology Biology & Behavior: The Brain

General Psychology Biology & Behavior: The Brain General Psychology Biology & Behavior: The Brain These are general notes designed to assist students who are regularly attending class and reading assigned material: they are supplemental rather than exhaustive

More information

Tips. Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures. Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg

Tips. Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures. Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg Tips Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures Lectures will be posted after class Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg The Nervous System N E U

More information

WHAT ARE the COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM?

WHAT ARE the COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM? The Nervous System WHAT ARE the COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM? The nervous system is made of: the brain & the spinal cord the nerves the senses There are lots of proteins and chemicals in your body

More information

Nervous System Worksheet

Nervous System Worksheet Nervous System Worksheet Name Section A: Intro to Nervous System The Nervous System regulates and coordinates activities within the body. It detects, interprets and responds to changes that occur internally

More information

Module 5 : Anatomy The nervous system

Module 5 : Anatomy The nervous system Module 5 : Anatomy The nervous system In this module you will learn: The main parts of the nervous system The different sections of the brain and how it functions The structure and function of the spinal

More information

Basic Neuroscience. Sally Curtis

Basic Neuroscience. Sally Curtis The Physiology of Pain Basic Neuroscience Sally Curtis sac3@soton.ac.uk The behaviour of humans is a result of the actions of nerves. Nerves form the basis of Thoughts, sensations and actions both reflex

More information

Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue. Nervous System. Basic Divisions of the Nervous System C H A P T E R 12.

Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue. Nervous System. Basic Divisions of the Nervous System C H A P T E R 12. C H A P T E R 12 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Nervous System Sensory input Integration Motor output Figure 12.1 Basic Divisions of the Nervous System Brain CNS Spinal cord Nerves

More information

BRAIN PART I (A & B): VENTRICLES & MENINGES

BRAIN PART I (A & B): VENTRICLES & MENINGES BRAIN PART I (A & B): VENTRICLES & MENINGES Cranial Meninges Cranial meninges are continuous with spinal meninges Dura mater: inner layer (meningeal layer) outer layer (endosteal layer) fused to periosteum

More information

Neurotransmitters. Chemical transmission of a nerve signal by neurotransmitters at a synapse

Neurotransmitters. Chemical transmission of a nerve signal by neurotransmitters at a synapse Neurotransmitters A chemical released by one neuron that affects another neuron or an effector organ (e.g., muscle, gland, blood vessel). Neurotransmitters are small molecules that serve as messengers

More information

6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis

6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis 6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis IB Biology SL Part 1 - Nerves Outcomes Part 1 6.5.1State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves, and is composed

More information

Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Unit 7b

Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Unit 7b Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Unit 7b Chetek High School Mrs. Michaelsen 9.12 Meninges A. Meninges 1. The organs of the CNS are covered by membranes a. The meninges are divided into 3 layers:

More information

By Mr. Danilo Villar Rogayan Jr.

By Mr. Danilo Villar Rogayan Jr. The Nervous System By Mr. Danilo Villar Rogayan Jr. Instructor I, Department of Natural Sciences College of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine RMTU San Marcelino Introduction Highly complex system of two

More information

Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Outline

Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Outline Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Outline Module 14.1 Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System (Figures 14.1 14.3) A. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the involuntary arm of the peripheral

More information

Nervous System. Electrical Signals.III Signal Transmission at Synapses Neurotransmitters.V Neural Circuits.VI

Nervous System. Electrical Signals.III Signal Transmission at Synapses Neurotransmitters.V Neural Circuits.VI Nervous System Overview.I Histology.II Electrical Signals.III Signal Transmission at Synapses Neurotransmitters.V Neural Circuits.VI Repairs.VII Pathology.VIII.IV 1 Controls and integrates all body activities

More information

Lecture - Chapter 13: Central Nervous System

Lecture - Chapter 13: Central Nervous System Lecture - Chapter 13: Central Nervous System 1. Describe the following structures of the brain, what is the general function of each: a. Cerebrum b. Diencephalon c. Brain Stem d. Cerebellum 2. What structures

More information

1/20/ : Overview of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System

1/20/ : Overview of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System 10.1: Overview of the Nervous System Chapter 10 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission

More information

Chapter 22. The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Worksheets. 561

Chapter 22. The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Worksheets. 561 Chapter 22 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 22.1: The Nervous System Lesson 22.2: The

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue 9/12/11 Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Overview of the nervous system Cells of the nervous system Electrophysiology of neurons Synapses Neural integration Subdivisions of the Nervous System 1 Subdivisions of

More information

Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human Anatomy and Physiology Human Anatomy and Physiology CLS 224 Lama Alzamil Email: lalzamil@ksu.edu.sa 3 rd floor/ office # 117 Chapter 7 The Nervous System The Nervous System 1.Organization of the nervous system. 2.Nervous tissue:

More information

Version A. AP* Biology: Nervous System. Questions 1 and 2. Name: Period

Version A. AP* Biology: Nervous System. Questions 1 and 2. Name: Period Name: Period Version A AP* Biology: Nervous System Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in

More information

anatomic divisions central nervous system peripheral nervous system Anatomic Divisions of the PNS afferent or sensory division

anatomic divisions central nervous system peripheral nervous system Anatomic Divisions of the PNS afferent or sensory division Chapter 12 Functional Organization of the Nervous System I. Two anatomic divisions: CNS and PNS A. central nervous system (CNS) 1. consists of the brain and spinal cord and is encased in bone. 2. Surrounded

More information

BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology

BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology Roster Business Course Introduction and Syllabus Notecard Name E-mail Why you are taking the course Something interesting you did over break Lecture Tips Use the Study

More information

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Seventh Edition. The Nervous System. Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Seventh Edition. The Nervous System. Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Seventh Edition The Nervous System Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Functions of the Nervous System 1. Sensory input gathering

More information