1 Chapter 28 Nervous Systems PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko
2 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? Spinal cord injuries disrupt communication between The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) The rest of the body Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
3 Spinal cord
4 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? The late actor Christopher Reeve Suffered a spinal cord injury during an equestrian competition in 1995 Was an influential advocate for spinal cord research Died of complications to the injury in 2004 Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
6 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? Over 10,000 Americans suffer spinal cord injuries each year Current research shows promise Steroids reduce damage if used within hours of damage Coaxing damaged nerve cells to regenerate Transplants of nerve cells or stem cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
7 NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
8 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands The nervous system Obtains sensory information Processes sensory information Sends commands to effector cells (muscles) that carry out appropriate responses Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
9 Sensory input Sensory receptor Integration Motor output Effector cells Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Brain and spinal cord Central nervous system (CNS)
10 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands The central nervous system (CNS) consists of Brain Spinal cord (vertebrates) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Located outside the CNS Consists of Nerves (bundles of fibers of sensory and motor neurons) and Ganglia (clusters of cell bodies of the neurons) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
11 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands Sensory neurons Conduct signals from sensory receptors To the CNS Interneurons in the CNS Integrate information Send it to motor neurons Motor neurons convey signals to effector cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
13 28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems Neurons are Cells specialized for carrying signals The functional units of the nervous system A neuron consists of A cell body Two types of extensions (fibers) that conduct signals Dendrites Axons Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
14 28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems Myelin sheaths Enclose axons Form a cellular insulation Speed up signal transmission Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
15 Signal direction Dendrites Cell body Cell Body Layers of myelin sheaths Nucleus Axon Schwann cell Myelin sheath Signal pathway Nodes of Ranvier Synaptic terminals Node of Ranvier Nucleus Schwann cell
16 NERVE SIGNALS AND THEIR TRANSMISSION Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
17 28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane At rest, a neuron s plasma membrane Has potential energy the membrane potential Just inside the cell is slightly negative Just outside the cell is slightly positive Resting potential voltage across the plasma membrane Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
18 28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane The resting potential exists because of differences in ion concentration inside and outside a cell Inside a cell K + high Na + low Outside a cell K + low Na + high Animation: Resting Potential Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
19 Neuron Axon Plasma membrane Outside of cell Na + K + Na + K + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + channel Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Plasma membrane K + Na + -K + pump Na + Protein K + Inside of cell K + channel K + K + K + Na + K + K + K + K + K +
20 28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential A stimulus Alters the permeability of a section of membrane Allows ions to pass through Changes the membrane s voltage Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
21 28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential A nerve signal an action potential A change in the membrane voltage From the resting potential To a maximum level And back to the resting potential Animation: Action Potential Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
22 Membrane potential (mv) Na + Na + 3 K + Additional Na channels open, K channels are closed; interior of cell becomes more positive. Na + 50 Action potential 4 K + Na channels close and inactivate. K channels open, and K rushes out; interior of cell more negative than outside K + A stimulus opens some Na channels; if threshold is reached, action potential is triggered. Na + Sodium channel Potassium channel Threshold 1 Resting potential Time (msec) The K channels close relatively slowly, causing a brief undershoot. K + Neuron interior Plasma membrane Neuron interior Na + 1 Resting state: voltage-gated Na and K channels closed; resting potential is maintained. 1 K + Return to resting state.
23 Membrane potential (mv) 50 0 Action potential Threshold 1 Resting potential Time (msec) 1 Resting state: voltage-gated Na and K channels closed; resting potential is maintained. Na + Sodium channel Potassium channel Neuron interior Plasma membrane K +
24 Membrane potential (mv) Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) A stimulus opens some Na channels; if threshold is reached, action potential is triggered. 2 Na + K +
25 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) 3 3 Na + Additional Na channels open, K channels are closed; interior of cell becomes more positive. K +
26 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) 3 4 Na channels close and inactivate. K channels open, and K rushes out; interior of cell more negative than outside. 4 Na + K +
27 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) The K channels close relatively slowly, causing a brief undershoot.
28 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) Return to resting state. Neuron interior Na + K +
29 28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron Action potentials Are self-propagated in a one-way chain reaction along a neuron Are all-or-none events Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
30 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment
31 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment K + Action potential 2 Na + K +
32 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment K + Action potential 2 Na + K + K + Action potential 3 Na + K +
33 28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron The strength of the stimulus changes The frequency of action potentials But not the strength of action potentials Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
34 28.6 Neurons communicate at synapses Synapses are junctions where signals are transmitted between Two neurons Or between neurons and effector cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
35 28.6 Neurons communicate at synapses Electrical synapses Electrical signals pass between cells Chemical synapses Sending (presynaptic) cell secretes a chemical signal, a neurotransmitter The neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft The neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on the surface of the receiving (postsynaptic) cell Animation: Synapse Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
36 Axon of sending neuron Sending neuron 1 Action Vesicles potential arrives Synaptic terminal 2 Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane 3 Neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft Synapse Synaptic cleft Receiving neuron Receiving neuron Ion channels Neurotransmitter molecules 4 Neurotransmitter binds to receptor Neurotransmitter Receptor Neurotransmitter broken down and released Ions 5 Ion channel opens 6 Ion channel closes
37 Axon of sending neuron Sending neuron Vesicles Synaptic terminal 1 Action potential arrives 2 Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane 3 Neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft Synapse Synaptic cleft Receiving neuron Receiving neuron Ion channels Neurotransmitter molecules 4 Neurotransmitter binds to receptor
38 Neurotransmitter Receptor Neurotransmitter broken down and released Ions 5 Ion channel opens 6 Ion channel closes
39 28.7 Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible Some neurotransmitters Excite the receiving cell Inhibit the receiving cell s activity by decreasing its ability to develop action potentials Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
40 28.7 Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible A neuron may receive information From hundreds of other neurons Via thousands of synaptic terminals The summation of excitation and inhibition Determines if a neuron will transmit a nerve signal Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
44 28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters Many small, nitrogen-containing molecule serve as neurotransmitters Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter In the brain Between neurons and muscle cells Biogenic amines Important in the CNS Serotonin and dopamine affect sleep, mood, attention Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
45 28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters Amino acids important in the CNS Some are excitatory Some are inhibitory Neuropeptides Substance P mediates perceptions of pain Endorphins decrease perception of pain Nitric oxide A dissolved gas Triggers erections Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
46 28.9 CONNECTION: Many drugs act at chemical synapses Many psychoactive drugs Act at synapses Affect neurotransmitter action Caffeine counts inhibitory neurotransmitters Nicotine acts as a stimulant Alcohol is a depressant Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
48 AN OVERVIEW OF ANIMAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
49 28.10 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: The evolution of animal nervous systems reflects changes in body symmetry Radially symmetrical animals Nervous system arranged in a weblike system of neurons Nerve net Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
50 Nerve net Neuron A Hydra (cnidarian)
51 28.10 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: The evolution of animal nervous systems reflects changes in body symmetry Most bilaterally symmetrical animals exhibit Centralization presence of a central nervous system Cephalization concentration of the nervous system in the head region Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
52 Eyespot Brain Nerve cord Transverse nerve B Flatworm (planarian)
53 Brain Ventral nerve cord Segmental ganglion C Leech (annelid)
54 Brain Ventral nerve cord Ganglia D Insect (arthropod)
55 Brain Giant axon E Squid (mollusc)
56 28.11 Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized Vertebrate nervous systems are Highly centralized Cephalized Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
57 28.11 Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized Central nervous system (CNS) The brain and spinal cord Contains fluid-filled spaces In ventricles of the brain In the central canal of the spinal cord Surrounding the brain Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nerves cranial nerves and spinal nerves Ganglia Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
58 Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Cranial nerves Ganglia outside CNS Spinal nerves
59 Brain Cerebrospinal fluid Meninges White matter Gray matter Dorsal root ganglion (part of PNS) Ventricles Central canal Spinal nerve (part of PNS) Central canal of spinal cord Spinal cord Spinal cord (cross section)
60 28.12 The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy Two functional components of the PNS Somatic nervous system mostly voluntary Autonomic nervous system (ANS) mostly involuntary Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
61 28.12 The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy Somatic nervous system Carries signals to and from skeletal muscles Mainly in response to external stimuli Autonomic nervous system Regulates the internal environment Controls Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Organs of various body systems Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
62 Peripheral nervous system Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division Enteric division
63 28.13 Opposing actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment Parasympathetic division of ANS Primes the body for activities that gain and conserve energy for the body Sympathetic division of ANS Prepares the body for intense, energy-consuming activities Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
64 Parasympathetic division Sympathetic division Brain Eye Constricts pupil Stimulates saliva production Salivary glands Dilates pupil Inhibits saliva production Constricts bronchi Lung Dilates bronchi Spinal cord Slows heart Stimulates stomach, pancreas, and intestines Stimulates urination Liver Intestines Heart Stomach Bladder Adrenal gland Pancreas Accelerates heart Stimulates epinephrine and norepinephrine release Stimulates glucose release Inhibits stomach, pancreas, and intestines Inhibits urination Promotes erection of genitals Genitalia Promotes ejaculation and vaginal contractions
65 28.14 The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural tube The vertebrate brain evolved by the enlargement and subdivision of the Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
66 Embryonic Brain Regions Forebrain Midbrain Brain Structures Present in Adult Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres; includes cerebral cortex, white matter, basal ganglia) Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, pineal gland) Midbrain (part of brainstem) Hindbrain Pons (part of brainstem), cerebellum Medulla oblongata (part of brainstem) Cerebral hemisphere Diencephalon Midbrain Hindbrain Forebrain Embryo (one month old) Midbrain Pons Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Fetus (three months old)
67 Embryonic Brain Regions Forebrain Midbrain Brain Structures Present in Adult Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres; includes cerebral cortex, white matter, basal ganglia) Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, pineal gland) Midbrain (part of brainstem) Hindbrain Pons (part of brainstem), cerebellum Medulla oblongata (part of brainstem)
69 28.14 The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural tube In birds and mammals Size and complexity of the cerebrum Correlates with their sophisticated behavior Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
70 Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. THE HUMAN BRAIN
71 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain The human brain More powerful than the most sophisticated computer Composed of three main parts Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
73 Left cerebral hemisphere Right cerebral hemisphere Corpus callosum Basal ganglia
74 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain Midbrain, subdivisions of the hindbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus Conduct information to and from higher brain centers Regulate homeostatic functions Keep track of body position Sort sensory information Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
75 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain Cerebrum Part of the forebrain Largest and most complex part of the brain Most integrative power is in the cerebral cortex Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
77 28.16 The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions Cerebral cortex About 5 mm thick Accounts for 80% of brain mass Specialized integrative regions Somatosensory cortex Centers for vision, hearing, taste, and smell Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
78 28.16 The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions Motor cortex directs responses Association areas Make up most of the cerebrum Higher mental activities Reasoning Language Right and left cerebral hemispheres Specialize in different mental tasks Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
79 Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Frontal association area Taste Speech Somatosensory association area Reading Speech Smell Hearing Auditory association area Visual association area Vision Temporal lobe Occipital lobe
80 28.17 CONNECTION: Injuries and brain operations provide insight into brain function Brain injuries and surgeries reveal brain functions The case of Phineas Gage Stimulation of the cerebral cortex during surgery Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
83 28.18 CONNECTION: fmri scans can provide insight into brain structure and function fmri A scanning and imaging technology used to study brain functions Used on conscious patients Monitors changes in blood oxygen usage in the brain Correlates to regions of intense brain function Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
85 28.19 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal Sleep and arousal involve activity by the Hypothalamus Medulla oblongata Pons Neurons of the reticular formation Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
86 28.19 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal Sleep Is essential for survival Sleep is an active state Sleep may be involved in consolidating learning and memory Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
87 28.20 The limbic system is involved in emotions, memory, and learning The limbic system Is a functional group of integrating centers in Cerebral cortex Thalamus Hypothalamus Is involved in Emotions Memory Learning Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
89 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Many neurological disorders can be linked to changes in brain physiology Schizophrenia Depression Alzheimer s disease Parkinson s disease Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
90 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Schizophrenia A severe mental disturbance Characterized by psychotic episodes in which patients lose the ability to distinguish reality Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
91 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Depression Two broad forms of depressive illness have been identified Major depression Bipolar disorder manic-depressive disorder Treatments may include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
93 Prescriptions (millions) Year
94 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Alzheimer s disease is characterized by Confusion Memory loss A firm diagnosis is difficult to make Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
95 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Parkinson s disease Motor disorder Characterized by Difficulty in initiating movements Slowness of movement Rigidity Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
98 Dendrites Cell body Axon Myelin (speeds signal transmission) Synaptic terminals
99 Nervous system CNS PNS Brain Spinal cord Somatic: voluntary control over muscles Autonomic: involuntary control over organs Sympathetic division: fight or flight Parasympathetic division: rest and digest Enteric: regulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic
100 c. b. a. d. e. brain h. f. g. i.
102 You should now be able to 1. Describe the structural and functional subdivisions of the nervous system 2. Describe the three parts of a reflex, noting the three types of neurons involved in the reaction 3. Explain how an action potential is produced and the resting membrane potential restored 4. Compare the structures, functions, and locations of electrical and chemical synapses Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
103 You should now be able to 5. Describe the types and functions of neurotransmitters known in humans 6. Explain how drugs can alter chemical synapses 7. Describe the diversity of animal nervous systems 8. Describe the general structure of the brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves of vertebrates 9. Compare the functions of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
104 You should now be able to 10. Describe the parts and functions of the human brain 11. Explain how injuries, illness, and surgery provide insight into the functions of the brain 12. Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatments of schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer s disease, and Parkinson s disease Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
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