1 Chapter 28 Nervous Systems PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko
2 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? Spinal cord injuries disrupt communication between The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) The rest of the body Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
3 Spinal cord
4 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? The late actor Christopher Reeve Suffered a spinal cord injury during an equestrian competition in 1995 Was an influential advocate for spinal cord research Died of complications to the injury in 2004 Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
6 Introduction: Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? Over 10,000 Americans suffer spinal cord injuries each year Current research shows promise Steroids reduce damage if used within hours of damage Coaxing damaged nerve cells to regenerate Transplants of nerve cells or stem cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
7 NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
8 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands The nervous system Obtains sensory information Processes sensory information Sends commands to effector cells (muscles) that carry out appropriate responses Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
9 Sensory input Sensory receptor Integration Motor output Effector cells Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Brain and spinal cord Central nervous system (CNS)
10 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands The central nervous system (CNS) consists of Brain Spinal cord (vertebrates) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Located outside the CNS Consists of Nerves (bundles of fibers of sensory and motor neurons) and Ganglia (clusters of cell bodies of the neurons) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
11 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands Sensory neurons Conduct signals from sensory receptors To the CNS Interneurons in the CNS Integrate information Send it to motor neurons Motor neurons convey signals to effector cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
13 28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems Neurons are Cells specialized for carrying signals The functional units of the nervous system A neuron consists of A cell body Two types of extensions (fibers) that conduct signals Dendrites Axons Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
14 28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems Myelin sheaths Enclose axons Form a cellular insulation Speed up signal transmission Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
15 Signal direction Dendrites Cell body Cell Body Layers of myelin sheaths Nucleus Axon Schwann cell Myelin sheath Signal pathway Nodes of Ranvier Synaptic terminals Node of Ranvier Nucleus Schwann cell
16 NERVE SIGNALS AND THEIR TRANSMISSION Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
17 28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane At rest, a neuron s plasma membrane Has potential energy the membrane potential Just inside the cell is slightly negative Just outside the cell is slightly positive Resting potential voltage across the plasma membrane Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
18 28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane The resting potential exists because of differences in ion concentration inside and outside a cell Inside a cell K + high Na + low Outside a cell K + low Na + high Animation: Resting Potential Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
19 Neuron Axon Plasma membrane Outside of cell Na + K + Na + K + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + channel Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Na + Plasma membrane K + Na + -K + pump Na + Protein K + Inside of cell K + channel K + K + K + Na + K + K + K + K + K +
20 28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential A stimulus Alters the permeability of a section of membrane Allows ions to pass through Changes the membrane s voltage Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
21 28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential A nerve signal an action potential A change in the membrane voltage From the resting potential To a maximum level And back to the resting potential Animation: Action Potential Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
22 Membrane potential (mv) Na + Na + 3 K + Additional Na channels open, K channels are closed; interior of cell becomes more positive. Na + 50 Action potential 4 K + Na channels close and inactivate. K channels open, and K rushes out; interior of cell more negative than outside K + A stimulus opens some Na channels; if threshold is reached, action potential is triggered. Na + Sodium channel Potassium channel Threshold 1 Resting potential Time (msec) The K channels close relatively slowly, causing a brief undershoot. K + Neuron interior Plasma membrane Neuron interior Na + 1 Resting state: voltage-gated Na and K channels closed; resting potential is maintained. 1 K + Return to resting state.
23 Membrane potential (mv) 50 0 Action potential Threshold 1 Resting potential Time (msec) 1 Resting state: voltage-gated Na and K channels closed; resting potential is maintained. Na + Sodium channel Potassium channel Neuron interior Plasma membrane K +
24 Membrane potential (mv) Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) A stimulus opens some Na channels; if threshold is reached, action potential is triggered. 2 Na + K +
25 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) 3 3 Na + Additional Na channels open, K channels are closed; interior of cell becomes more positive. K +
26 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) 3 4 Na channels close and inactivate. K channels open, and K rushes out; interior of cell more negative than outside. 4 Na + K +
27 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) The K channels close relatively slowly, causing a brief undershoot.
28 Membrane potential (mv) 50 Action potential Threshold 1 2 Resting potential Time (msec) Return to resting state. Neuron interior Na + K +
29 28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron Action potentials Are self-propagated in a one-way chain reaction along a neuron Are all-or-none events Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
30 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment
31 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment K + Action potential 2 Na + K +
32 Axon Action potential 1 Na + Axon segment K + Action potential 2 Na + K + K + Action potential 3 Na + K +
33 28.5 The action potential propagates itself along the neuron The strength of the stimulus changes The frequency of action potentials But not the strength of action potentials Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
34 28.6 Neurons communicate at synapses Synapses are junctions where signals are transmitted between Two neurons Or between neurons and effector cells Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
35 28.6 Neurons communicate at synapses Electrical synapses Electrical signals pass between cells Chemical synapses Sending (presynaptic) cell secretes a chemical signal, a neurotransmitter The neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft The neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on the surface of the receiving (postsynaptic) cell Animation: Synapse Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
36 Axon of sending neuron Sending neuron 1 Action Vesicles potential arrives Synaptic terminal 2 Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane 3 Neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft Synapse Synaptic cleft Receiving neuron Receiving neuron Ion channels Neurotransmitter molecules 4 Neurotransmitter binds to receptor Neurotransmitter Receptor Neurotransmitter broken down and released Ions 5 Ion channel opens 6 Ion channel closes
37 Axon of sending neuron Sending neuron Vesicles Synaptic terminal 1 Action potential arrives 2 Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane 3 Neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft Synapse Synaptic cleft Receiving neuron Receiving neuron Ion channels Neurotransmitter molecules 4 Neurotransmitter binds to receptor
38 Neurotransmitter Receptor Neurotransmitter broken down and released Ions 5 Ion channel opens 6 Ion channel closes
39 28.7 Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible Some neurotransmitters Excite the receiving cell Inhibit the receiving cell s activity by decreasing its ability to develop action potentials Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
40 28.7 Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible A neuron may receive information From hundreds of other neurons Via thousands of synaptic terminals The summation of excitation and inhibition Determines if a neuron will transmit a nerve signal Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
44 28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters Many small, nitrogen-containing molecule serve as neurotransmitters Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter In the brain Between neurons and muscle cells Biogenic amines Important in the CNS Serotonin and dopamine affect sleep, mood, attention Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
45 28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters Amino acids important in the CNS Some are excitatory Some are inhibitory Neuropeptides Substance P mediates perceptions of pain Endorphins decrease perception of pain Nitric oxide A dissolved gas Triggers erections Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
46 28.9 CONNECTION: Many drugs act at chemical synapses Many psychoactive drugs Act at synapses Affect neurotransmitter action Caffeine counts inhibitory neurotransmitters Nicotine acts as a stimulant Alcohol is a depressant Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
48 AN OVERVIEW OF ANIMAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
49 28.10 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: The evolution of animal nervous systems reflects changes in body symmetry Radially symmetrical animals Nervous system arranged in a weblike system of neurons Nerve net Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
50 Nerve net Neuron A Hydra (cnidarian)
51 28.10 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: The evolution of animal nervous systems reflects changes in body symmetry Most bilaterally symmetrical animals exhibit Centralization presence of a central nervous system Cephalization concentration of the nervous system in the head region Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
52 Eyespot Brain Nerve cord Transverse nerve B Flatworm (planarian)
53 Brain Ventral nerve cord Segmental ganglion C Leech (annelid)
54 Brain Ventral nerve cord Ganglia D Insect (arthropod)
55 Brain Giant axon E Squid (mollusc)
56 28.11 Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized Vertebrate nervous systems are Highly centralized Cephalized Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
57 28.11 Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized Central nervous system (CNS) The brain and spinal cord Contains fluid-filled spaces In ventricles of the brain In the central canal of the spinal cord Surrounding the brain Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nerves cranial nerves and spinal nerves Ganglia Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
58 Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Cranial nerves Ganglia outside CNS Spinal nerves
59 Brain Cerebrospinal fluid Meninges White matter Gray matter Dorsal root ganglion (part of PNS) Ventricles Central canal Spinal nerve (part of PNS) Central canal of spinal cord Spinal cord Spinal cord (cross section)
60 28.12 The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy Two functional components of the PNS Somatic nervous system mostly voluntary Autonomic nervous system (ANS) mostly involuntary Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
61 28.12 The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy Somatic nervous system Carries signals to and from skeletal muscles Mainly in response to external stimuli Autonomic nervous system Regulates the internal environment Controls Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Organs of various body systems Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
62 Peripheral nervous system Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division Enteric division
63 28.13 Opposing actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment Parasympathetic division of ANS Primes the body for activities that gain and conserve energy for the body Sympathetic division of ANS Prepares the body for intense, energy-consuming activities Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
64 Parasympathetic division Sympathetic division Brain Eye Constricts pupil Stimulates saliva production Salivary glands Dilates pupil Inhibits saliva production Constricts bronchi Lung Dilates bronchi Spinal cord Slows heart Stimulates stomach, pancreas, and intestines Stimulates urination Liver Intestines Heart Stomach Bladder Adrenal gland Pancreas Accelerates heart Stimulates epinephrine and norepinephrine release Stimulates glucose release Inhibits stomach, pancreas, and intestines Inhibits urination Promotes erection of genitals Genitalia Promotes ejaculation and vaginal contractions
65 28.14 The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural tube The vertebrate brain evolved by the enlargement and subdivision of the Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
66 Embryonic Brain Regions Forebrain Midbrain Brain Structures Present in Adult Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres; includes cerebral cortex, white matter, basal ganglia) Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, pineal gland) Midbrain (part of brainstem) Hindbrain Pons (part of brainstem), cerebellum Medulla oblongata (part of brainstem) Cerebral hemisphere Diencephalon Midbrain Hindbrain Forebrain Embryo (one month old) Midbrain Pons Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Fetus (three months old)
67 Embryonic Brain Regions Forebrain Midbrain Brain Structures Present in Adult Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres; includes cerebral cortex, white matter, basal ganglia) Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, pineal gland) Midbrain (part of brainstem) Hindbrain Pons (part of brainstem), cerebellum Medulla oblongata (part of brainstem)
69 28.14 The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural tube In birds and mammals Size and complexity of the cerebrum Correlates with their sophisticated behavior Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
70 Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. THE HUMAN BRAIN
71 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain The human brain More powerful than the most sophisticated computer Composed of three main parts Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
73 Left cerebral hemisphere Right cerebral hemisphere Corpus callosum Basal ganglia
74 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain Midbrain, subdivisions of the hindbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus Conduct information to and from higher brain centers Regulate homeostatic functions Keep track of body position Sort sensory information Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
75 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain Cerebrum Part of the forebrain Largest and most complex part of the brain Most integrative power is in the cerebral cortex Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
77 28.16 The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions Cerebral cortex About 5 mm thick Accounts for 80% of brain mass Specialized integrative regions Somatosensory cortex Centers for vision, hearing, taste, and smell Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
78 28.16 The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions Motor cortex directs responses Association areas Make up most of the cerebrum Higher mental activities Reasoning Language Right and left cerebral hemispheres Specialize in different mental tasks Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
79 Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Frontal association area Taste Speech Somatosensory association area Reading Speech Smell Hearing Auditory association area Visual association area Vision Temporal lobe Occipital lobe
80 28.17 CONNECTION: Injuries and brain operations provide insight into brain function Brain injuries and surgeries reveal brain functions The case of Phineas Gage Stimulation of the cerebral cortex during surgery Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
83 28.18 CONNECTION: fmri scans can provide insight into brain structure and function fmri A scanning and imaging technology used to study brain functions Used on conscious patients Monitors changes in blood oxygen usage in the brain Correlates to regions of intense brain function Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
85 28.19 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal Sleep and arousal involve activity by the Hypothalamus Medulla oblongata Pons Neurons of the reticular formation Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
86 28.19 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal Sleep Is essential for survival Sleep is an active state Sleep may be involved in consolidating learning and memory Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
87 28.20 The limbic system is involved in emotions, memory, and learning The limbic system Is a functional group of integrating centers in Cerebral cortex Thalamus Hypothalamus Is involved in Emotions Memory Learning Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
89 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Many neurological disorders can be linked to changes in brain physiology Schizophrenia Depression Alzheimer s disease Parkinson s disease Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
90 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Schizophrenia A severe mental disturbance Characterized by psychotic episodes in which patients lose the ability to distinguish reality Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
91 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Depression Two broad forms of depressive illness have been identified Major depression Bipolar disorder manic-depressive disorder Treatments may include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
93 Prescriptions (millions) Year
94 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Alzheimer s disease is characterized by Confusion Memory loss A firm diagnosis is difficult to make Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
95 28.21 CONNECTION: Changes in brain physiology can produce neurological disorders Parkinson s disease Motor disorder Characterized by Difficulty in initiating movements Slowness of movement Rigidity Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
98 Dendrites Cell body Axon Myelin (speeds signal transmission) Synaptic terminals
99 Nervous system CNS PNS Brain Spinal cord Somatic: voluntary control over muscles Autonomic: involuntary control over organs Sympathetic division: fight or flight Parasympathetic division: rest and digest Enteric: regulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic
100 c. b. a. d. e. brain h. f. g. i.
102 You should now be able to 1. Describe the structural and functional subdivisions of the nervous system 2. Describe the three parts of a reflex, noting the three types of neurons involved in the reaction 3. Explain how an action potential is produced and the resting membrane potential restored 4. Compare the structures, functions, and locations of electrical and chemical synapses Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
103 You should now be able to 5. Describe the types and functions of neurotransmitters known in humans 6. Explain how drugs can alter chemical synapses 7. Describe the diversity of animal nervous systems 8. Describe the general structure of the brain, spinal cord, and associated nerves of vertebrates 9. Compare the functions of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
104 You should now be able to 10. Describe the parts and functions of the human brain 11. Explain how injuries, illness, and surgery provide insight into the functions of the brain 12. Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatments of schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer s disease, and Parkinson s disease Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 CAN AN INJURED SPINAL CORD BE FIXED? Injuries to the spinal cord disrupt communication between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body
NERVOUS SYSTEM Monitor changes External / internal Integrate input Primary Functions Process, interpret, make decisions, store information Initiate a response E.g., movement, hormone release, stimulate/inhibit
AP BIOLOGY ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 NAME DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON SIMPLE REFLEX RESTING POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL GRAPH TRANSMISSION ACROSS A SYNAPSE QUESTIONS:
Chapter 49 Nervous Systems Concept 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons and supporting cells Nervous System Organization The simplest animals with nervous systems, the cnidarians, have neurons
Nervous System- Chapters 7, 8 1 Surgical Papyrus Egyptian hieroglyphics. 17 th Century B.C. Oldest known surgical treatise. 48 case histories are outlined. 2 Organization of the Nervous System Consists
UNIT 5 REVIEW GUIDE - NERVOUS SYSTEM State the 3 functions of the nervous system. Briefly describe the general function(s) of each of the following neuron types: a) SENSORY NEURONS: b) INTERNEURONS: c)
Honors Biology Guided Notes Chapter 28 Nervous System Name 28.10 28.19 The CNS and PNS: How is our Nervous System Organized? ANIMAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS Define Cephalization and Centralization. What type of
Nervous Systems: Diversity & Functional Organization Diversity of Neural Signaling The diversity of neuron structure and function allows neurons to play many roles. 3 basic function of all neurons: Receive
Biology 3201 Nervous System #2- Anatomy Components of a Nervous System In any nervous system, there are 4 main components: (1) sensors: gather information from the external environment (sense organs) (2)
Chapter 7 Nervous System Two message centers: Functions of these systems: 1. * 2. * Overview of the Nervous System Parts: General Functions: Functions Sensory input: Sensation via nerves Integration: interpretation
NEURONS ARE ORGANIZED INTO NERVOUS SYSTEMS 34.5 INTRODUCTION The cnidarians have nerve nets, the most simple type of nervous system. The sea anemone has a nerve net that serves simple behaviours such as
1. Base of brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing 2. tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue 3. A thick band of axons that connects the
Warm-up Objective: Explain how membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentrations between cells' content and the extracellular fluid. Warm-up: Cells from this structure migrate to other parts
Chapter 9 I. Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors The Autonomic Nervous System Lecture PowerPoint Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Autonomic
Animals: Nervous system Neuron and connection of neurons Outline 1. Key concepts 2. An Overview and Evolution 3. Human Nervous System 4. The Neurons 5. The Electrical Signals 6. Communication between Neurons
Name: Period: Test Review: Chapter 2 1. The function of dendrites is to A) receive incoming signals from other neurons. B) release neurotransmitters into the spatial junctions between neurons. C) coordinate
Nervous System I. Nervous system Functions A. Detect Changes in the environment (stimuli) B. Interpret/evaluate those stimuli C. Initiate responses (trigger muscle contractions or glandular response) II.
Biol 067: Section 13 - Nervous System A. Overview of the nervous system: 1. 2 parts of the Nervous System: Nervous system Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 2. How CNS and PNS
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Homeostasis Strand Introduction In general, a nervous system has three overlapping functions : 1. Sensory input conduction of signals from sensory receptors to integration centres 2.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONCEPT 2: THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN IS REGIONALLY SPECIALIZED Images of the human brain in popular culture almost always focus on the cerebrum, the part of the brain whose surface lies just
Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System Total 33 points Name: Circle the best response to the following: (33 points) 1. What do we call the long fibre that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body? A.
action potential A large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber. afferent neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses
Nervous System Cells Neuron a cell Chapter 45 Neurons and Nervous Systems signal direction dendrites cell body Structure fits function many entry points for signal one path out axon signal direction transmits
17 The Nervous System: Autonomic Nervous System Introduction The autonomic nervous system: Functions outside of our conscious awareness Makes routine adjustments in our body s systems The autonomic nervous
Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM Topic from General functions of the nervous system Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical & functional perspectives Gross & microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue
PSYCH 260 Exam 2 March 2, 2017 Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name: 1 1 Main Please put in their proper order the steps that lead to synaptic communication between neurons. Begin with the
PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Neural and Hormonal Systems Module 4 2 Neural and Hormonal Systems Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate
Okami Study Guide: Chapter 2 1 Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer:
UNIT 5 REVIEW GUIDE - NERVOUS SYSTEM 1a) State the 3 functions of the nervous system. 1: sensory 2: integration 3: motor output 1b) Complete a flow chart showing the relationships within the nervous system
PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA Neural Tissue Contains 2 kinds of cells: neurons: cells that send and receive signals neuroglia (glial cells): cells that support and protect neurons Neuron Types Sensory
Biology 105 Midterm Exam 3 Review Sheet The third midterm exam will cover the following lecture material (lectures 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13): Skeletal System (from chapter 5 in the textbook), Nervous System
10.1: Introduction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial
Chapter 14: Nervous System Guided Notes (A-day) Nervous System Overview Major Function: Control the body's and. Divided into the Nervous System (CNS=Brain and Spinal Cord) and the Nervous System (PNS=Cranial
Nervous System Notes The nervous system consists of a network of nerve cells or neurons. I. A nervous system is an important part of a cell s (or an organism s) ability to respond to the environment. A.
Nervous System Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) 1 Learning Objectives Identify the main parts (anatomy) of a neuron. Identify the 2 divisions of nervous system. Classify the major types
Lab Exercise The Nervous System Objectives -You should be able to recognize a neuron and identify its components. - Be able to identify the principal components of the brain and be able to name at least
BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES CHAPTER 3 1 LEARNING GOALS Discuss how the nervous system communicates internally. Describe the structure and function of neurons Describe how the neuron transmits information Describe
Nervous System Unit 6.6 (6 th Edition) Chapter 7.6 (7 th Edition) 1 Learning Objectives Identify the main parts (anatomy) of a neuron. Identify the 2 divisions of nervous system. Classify the major types
Nervous System CHAPTER 9 Copyright 2016 by Elsevier, Inc. Neurons and Supporting Cells Copyright 2016 by Elsevier, Inc. 2 Communication and Control Systems nervous system endocrine system uses chemicals
Dr. Chris Doumen Week 5 2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Introduction Neural Tissue TextBook Readings Pages 388 through 397. Make use of the figures in your textbook ; a picture is worth a thousand words! Work
Chapter 10 Nervous System I Divisions of the Nervous System Cell Types of Neural Tissue neurons neuroglial cells Central Nervous System brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System nerves cranial nerves
Chemical Control of Behavior and Brain 1 of 9 I) INTRO A) Nervous system discussed so far 1) Specific 2) Fast B) Other systems extended in space and time 1) Nonspecific 2) Slow C) Three components that
C HAPT E R 15 The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Sensory Neurons The ANS and Visceral Sensory Neurons The ANS a system of motor neurons Innervates Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Glands Gl d Autonomic
Collin County Community College! BIOL 2401! Week 5 Nervous System 1 Nervous System The process of homeostasis makes sure that the activities that occur in the body are maintained within normal physiological
BIOH111 o Cell Module o Tissue Module o Integumentary system o Skeletal system o Muscle system o Nervous system o Endocrine system Endeavour College of Natural Health endeavour.edu.au 1 TEXTBOOK AND REQUIRED/RECOMMENDED
Organization and Overview of the Central Nervous System CNS 424 By Prof. Hisham Al-Matubsi Components Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Responsible for Sensory perceptions, mental activities,
Outline Nervous System - Neurons Biol 105 Lecture Packet 9 Chapter 7 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system Nervous system cells Myelinated neurons Nerve signal
Table of Contents # Date Title Page # 1. 01/20/15 Ch 8: Muscular System 1 2. 02/09/15 Ch 9: Nervous System 16 i 1 Anatomy and Physiology Sem 2 Ch 9 Nervous System.notebook 02/09/15 Ch. 9 Nervous System
Week 2 Psychology The Brain and Behavior In this lesson, we will focus on the nervous system. We will learn about the Nervous System and its Command Center the Brain Characteristics and Divisions of the
P1 OF 5 The nervous system controls/coordinates the activities of cells, tissues, & organs. The endocrine system also plays a role in control/coordination. The nervous system is more dominant. Its mechanisms
General Psychology Biology & Behavior: The Brain These are general notes designed to assist students who are regularly attending class and reading assigned material: they are supplemental rather than exhaustive
Nervous System Worksheet Name Section A: Intro to Nervous System The Nervous System regulates and coordinates activities within the body. It detects, interprets and responds to changes that occur internally
Module 5 : Anatomy The nervous system In this module you will learn: The main parts of the nervous system The different sections of the brain and how it functions The structure and function of the spinal
The Physiology of Pain Basic Neuroscience Sally Curtis email@example.com The behaviour of humans is a result of the actions of nerves. Nerves form the basis of Thoughts, sensations and actions both reflex
C H A P T E R 12 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Nervous System Sensory input Integration Motor output Figure 12.1 Basic Divisions of the Nervous System Brain CNS Spinal cord Nerves
6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis IB Biology SL Part 1 - Nerves Outcomes Part 1 6.5.1State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves, and is composed
Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Unit 7b Chetek High School Mrs. Michaelsen 9.12 Meninges A. Meninges 1. The organs of the CNS are covered by membranes a. The meninges are divided into 3 layers:
The Nervous System By Mr. Danilo Villar Rogayan Jr. Instructor I, Department of Natural Sciences College of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine RMTU San Marcelino Introduction Highly complex system of two
Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter Outline Module 14.1 Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System (Figures 14.1 14.3) A. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the involuntary arm of the peripheral
Nervous System Overview.I Histology.II Electrical Signals.III Signal Transmission at Synapses Neurotransmitters.V Neural Circuits.VI Repairs.VII Pathology.VIII.IV 1 Controls and integrates all body activities
Lecture - Chapter 13: Central Nervous System 1. Describe the following structures of the brain, what is the general function of each: a. Cerebrum b. Diencephalon c. Brain Stem d. Cerebellum 2. What structures
10.1: Overview of the Nervous System Chapter 10 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission
Chapter 22 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Sebastian Kaulitzki, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 22.1: The Nervous System Lesson 22.2: The
9/12/11 Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Overview of the nervous system Cells of the nervous system Electrophysiology of neurons Synapses Neural integration Subdivisions of the Nervous System 1 Subdivisions of
Human Anatomy and Physiology CLS 224 Lama Alzamil Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 3 rd floor/ office # 117 Chapter 7 The Nervous System The Nervous System 1.Organization of the nervous system. 2.Nervous tissue:
Chapter 12 Functional Organization of the Nervous System I. Two anatomic divisions: CNS and PNS A. central nervous system (CNS) 1. consists of the brain and spinal cord and is encased in bone. 2. Surrounded
BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology Roster Business Course Introduction and Syllabus Notecard Name E-mail Why you are taking the course Something interesting you did over break Lecture Tips Use the Study
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Seventh Edition The Nervous System Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Functions of the Nervous System 1. Sensory input gathering