Introduction to Neurobiology

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction to Neurobiology"

Transcription

1 Biology 240 General Zoology Introduction to Neurobiology Nervous System functions: communication of information via nerve signals integration and processing of information control of physiological and behavioral responses neurons - functional cells of the nervous system (Cajal, 1890s) - neurons are excitable cells that produce electrical signals - action potentials - neurons use electrical signals to receive and transmit information within the cell and chemical signals to communicate between cells. Structure of a Neuron DRAW NEURON HERE cell body contains the nucleus and most organelles dendrites branch from the cell body; receive signals from other neurons (input) axon (= nerve fiber) extends from cell body; conducts action potentials (output) axon hillock joins the axon to the cell body (integration area / trigger zone). axon terminals at the end of the axon form synapses to communicate with other cells. Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of: nerves - bundles of axons ganglia - groups of cell bodies located outside of the CNS sensory receptors - modified neurons or specialized cells that detect sensory stimuli Functional categories of neurons: sensory (afferent) neurons carry signals from sensory receptors to the CNS motor (efferent) neurons carry signals from the CNS to effector cells (muscles, glands) interneurons communicate information within the CNS Reflex arc - simplest neural circuit (Sherrington, early 1900s) 1. sensory receptor 2. sensory neuron. integrating center (CNS) 4. motor neuron 5. effector PNS CNS PNS STIMULUS sensory sensory integrating motor RESPONSE effector receptor neuron center neuron

2 Electrical Properties of Neurons ions -, K, Cl, Ca 2 - carry charge and electrical currents in excitable cells membrane potential - separation of and charge across the cell membrane, between the intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF); measured in millivolts ion channels - integral membrane proteins, enable ions to pass through the membrane Neural signals are changes in membrane potential caused by movement of ions through channels. Resting membrane potential (RMP) - membrane potential of an unexcited cell - due to unequal distribution of ions between the ICF and ECF - around 70 mv (negative inside) in resting neurons Formation of the RMP 1. The sodium-potassium pump transports out and K in, which maintains concentration gradients of and K across the cell membrane. 2. K diffuses out of the cell down its concentration gradient through K leak channels. Outward movement of K leaves excess negative charge inside the cell, creating a negative electrical potential inside.. Negative potential creates an inward electrical gradient for K that opposes the concentration gradient. 4. At some potential, the electrical gradient exactly balances the concentration gradient. This point is the equilibrium potential* for K (E K 90 mv). If the membrane is only permeable to K, then the membrane potential will be equal to E K. 5. The resting membrane is slightly permeable to. Some leaks into the cell which moves the potential slightly above E K, so RMP 70 mv. *The equilibrium potential of an ion can be calculated using the Nernst Equation: E ion (60/z) log(c out /C in ) Factors that determine the membrane potential: 1) Concentration gradients of permeable ions (mostly K and ) across the membrane. [K ] in > [K ] out, E K = 90 mv [ ] out > [ ] in, E Na = 60 mv Membrane potential can be altered by changes in concentration of ions in the ECF and ICF; more permeable ions have a greater effect. 2) Relative permeability of the membrane to ions (K versus ). The membrane potential moves toward the equilibrium potential of the most permeable ion(s). The resting membrane is more permeable to K than to, so RMP is close to E K. Membrane potential changes rapidly when permeability changes due to opening or closing of specific ion channels. Neural Signals - rapid, transient changes in potential that result from movement of ions across the membrane - function to receive and transmit information within neurons - two types: graded potentials and action potentials ICF ICF 70 mv K [K ] = 150 mm [ ] = 15 mm 70 mv K ECF conc. gradient elec. gradient ECF [K ] = 5 mm [ ] = 150 mm K 2

3 Membrane Potential (mv) 1) Graded Potentials small, localized potential change occur at the cell body and dendrites spread passively and decrease in strength with distance variable size, dependent on stimulus strength can be depolarization (positive change) or hyperpolarization (negative change) from RMP. 2) Action Potential (nerve impulse) large, rapid potential change; large depolarization ( 70 0 mv) followed by repolarization formed at the axon spreads actively down the axon, does not decrease in strength constant amplitude, independent of stimulus strength Mechanism of the Action Potential (Hodgkin and Huxley, 1940s) - electrical stimulus is needed to produce an initial depolarization of the membrane - depolarization must reach threshold level (about 55 mv) in order to get an AP Three phases of the action potential: 1. Depolarization (rising) phase - voltage-gated sodium channels open (activation gate opens) moves in depolarization more channels open (positive feedback cycle). - potential peaks at about 0 mv 2. Repolarization (falling) phase - voltage-gated channels close (inactivation gate closes), entry stops - voltage-gated potassium channels open K moves out repolarization of the membrane toward RMP. Hyperpolarization (undershoot) phase - K channels stay open, continued K outflow pushes potential slightly below RMP - when voltage-gated K channels close after a few milliseconds, RMP is restored. Summa ry of Events in a n Action Potenti al K Resting potential Time (ms) K Rising phase of action potential 2 & 2. & K Falling phase of action potential

4 Properties of action potentials: threshold - stimulus must reach a certain minimum strength to form an impulse "all or none" - amplitude of an AP is constant and does not depend on stimulus strength regenerative - AP is actively regenerated along the axon and does not decrease in strength refractory period - short delay following the AP before another AP can be formed Synapses - junctions where a neuron communicates with another cell (neuron or effector cell) - most synapses are chemical synapses - information is transmitted from one neuron (the presynaptic cell) to another cell (postsynaptic cell) by a chemical neurotransmitter Parts of a synapse: 1. axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron - contains synaptic vesicles filled with neurotransmitter molecules 2. synaptic cleft - narrow gap between presynaptic and postsynaptic cell. postsynaptic membrane - contains receptors that bind to neurotransmitter molecules Binding of neurotransmitters to receptors causes chemically-gated ion channels to open in the postsynaptic membrane which alters the permeability of the membrane to specific ions (, K, or Cl - ). The resulting movements of ions causes a graded potential change called a postsynaptic potential. The neuromuscular junction is a well-studied system for synaptic transmission. - acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction. Synaptic Transmission at the Neuromuscular Junction presynaptic cell 1. Action potential arrives at the presynaptic axon terminal. Ca 2 2. Voltage-gated calcium (Ca 2 ) channels open in the presynaptic membrane, allowing Ca 2 ions to enter the presynaptic cell.. Synaptic vesicles migrate to the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine (ACh) into the synaptic cleft. ACh postsynaptic cell 4. ACh molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to ACh receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. 5. Binding of ACh to the receptors opens chemically-gated ion channels in the postsynaptic membrane that are permeable to and K ions. 6. ions move into the postsynaptic cell, causing a graded depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane (an EPSP). 7. ACh is broken down by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase; choline is transported back to the presynaptic cell (reuptake); ion channels close and membrane returns to resting state. Major neurotransmitters in the PNS and CNS acetylcholine (ACh) - neuromuscular junction, autonomic NS, CNS norepinephrine (NE) - autonomic NS, CNS glutamate - CNS dopamine - CNS serotonin - CNS 4

5 Study Questions 1. Diagram the basic structure of a neuron and show which parts of the neuron function in signal reception (input), signal processing (integration), and signal transmission (output). 2. identify the major components of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS).. Identify the three functional types of neurons. Diagram the components of a reflex arc and show the pathway of information flow from stimulus to response. What is the minimum number of synapses required for a simple spinal reflex such as the knee-jerk reflex? 4. Understand the ionic basis of the resting membrane potential. What is the approximate value of the RMP in an unstimulated neuron? What ion has the dominant effect on the RMP, and why dos it have a dominant effect? What ion channels are open in an unstimulated neuron? 5. Distinguish between graded potentials and action potentials. Summarize properties of each type of signal. 6. Summarize the mechanism of formation of an action potential. Distinguish between the three phases of the action potential. What specific ion channels and gates are open during the rising phase of the action potential? What gates close and what channels open during the falling phase? What causes the action potential to undershoot? 7. List four unique properties of action potentials. 8. Contrast between electrical and chemical signaling by neurons. 9. Describe the general structure and function of a chemical synapse. Summarize the steps of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. What is the neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction? What is the response of the postsynaptic cell to the neurotransmitter? How is the synaptic signal turned off? 5

Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling

Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling 7.1. Overview of the Nervous System (Figure 7.1) 7.2. Cells of the Nervous System o Neurons are excitable cells which can generate action potentials o 90%

More information

6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis

6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis 6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis IB Biology SL Part 1 - Nerves Outcomes Part 1 6.5.1State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves, and is composed

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Homeostasis Strand Introduction In general, a nervous system has three overlapping functions : 1. Sensory input conduction of signals from sensory receptors to integration centres 2.

More information

The Nervous System. Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output

The Nervous System. Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output The Nervous System Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output The Nervous System 2 Parts of the Nervous System 1. central

More information

Na + K + pump. The beauty of the Na + K + pump. Cotransport. The setup Cotransport the result. Found along the plasma membrane of all cells.

Na + K + pump. The beauty of the Na + K + pump. Cotransport. The setup Cotransport the result. Found along the plasma membrane of all cells. The beauty of the Na + K + pump Na + K + pump Found along the plasma membrane of all cells. Establishes gradients, controls osmotic effects, allows for cotransport Nerve cells have a Na + K + pump and

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 48 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions

More information

Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters

Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters Nervous System Master controlling and communicating system of the body Interacts with the endocrine system to control and coordinate the body s responses to changes in its environment, as well as growth,

More information

Portions from Chapter 6 CHAPTER 7. The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses. Chapter 7 Outline. and Supporting Cells

Portions from Chapter 6 CHAPTER 7. The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses. Chapter 7 Outline. and Supporting Cells CHAPTER 7 The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses Chapter 7 Outline Neurons and Supporting Cells Activity in Axons The Synapse Acetylcholine as a Neurotransmitter Monoamines as Neurotransmitters Other

More information

NEURONS Chapter Neurons: specialized cells of the nervous system 2. Nerves: bundles of neuron axons 3. Nervous systems

NEURONS Chapter Neurons: specialized cells of the nervous system 2. Nerves: bundles of neuron axons 3. Nervous systems NEURONS Chapter 12 Figure 12.1 Neuronal and hormonal signaling both convey information over long distances 1. Nervous system A. nervous tissue B. conducts electrical impulses C. rapid communication 2.

More information

Chapter 7. The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement

Chapter 7. The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement Chapter 7 The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways

More information

Chapter 7. Objectives

Chapter 7. Objectives Chapter 7 The Nervous System: Structure and Control of Movement Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways

More information

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts:

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts: Animals: Nervous system Neuron and connection of neurons Outline 1. Key concepts 2. An Overview and Evolution 3. Human Nervous System 4. The Neurons 5. The Electrical Signals 6. Communication between Neurons

More information

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites.

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites. 10.1: Introduction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial

More information

The Nervous System. Overall Function

The Nervous System. Overall Function The Nervous System The Nervous System Overall Function COMMUNICATION Works with the endocrine system in regulating body functioning, but the nervous system is specialized for SPEED Neurons A neuron is

More information

Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system. Myelinated neurons Nerve signal transmission Nerve Synapse

Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system. Myelinated neurons Nerve signal transmission Nerve Synapse Outline Nervous System - Neurons Biol 105 Lecture Packet 9 Chapter 7 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system Nervous system cells Myelinated neurons Nerve signal

More information

35-2 The Nervous System Slide 1 of 38

35-2 The Nervous System Slide 1 of 38 1 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System The nervous system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli. 2 of 38 Neurons Neurons The messages carried by

More information

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5 P1 OF 5 The nervous system controls/coordinates the activities of cells, tissues, & organs. The endocrine system also plays a role in control/coordination. The nervous system is more dominant. Its mechanisms

More information

The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body

The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body Functions: -Sensory input -Integration -Motor output Organization of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) -Brain

More information

Endocrine System Nervous System

Endocrine System Nervous System Cells Endocrine System Nervous System Tissues Controls Organs Nervous System vs Endocrine System Electrical signals (graded potentials and action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters) Fast

More information

NEURAL TISSUE (NEUROPHYSIOLOGY) PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA

NEURAL TISSUE (NEUROPHYSIOLOGY) PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA PART I (A): NEURONS & NEUROGLIA Neural Tissue Contains 2 kinds of cells: neurons: cells that send and receive signals neuroglia (glial cells): cells that support and protect neurons Neuron Types Sensory

More information

Physiology of the nerve

Physiology of the nerve Physiology of the nerve Objectives Transmembrane potential Action potential Relative and absolute refractory period The all-or-none law Hoorweg Weiss curve Du Bois Reymond principle Types of nerve fibres

More information

Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer

Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer Name Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Period Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer 1. What is

More information

1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System

1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I OBJECTIVES 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Cranial

More information

Neural Tissue. Chapter 12 Part B

Neural Tissue. Chapter 12 Part B Neural Tissue Chapter 12 Part B CNS Tumors - Neurons stop dividing at age 4 but glial cells retain the capacity to divide. - Primary CNS tumors in adults- division of abnormal neuroglia rather than from

More information

Functions of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System Chapter 11 Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue 11-1 Functions of the Nervous System 1. Sensory input. Monitor internal and external stimuli 2. Integration. Brain and spinal cord process sensory input

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Neurons & Impulses

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Neurons & Impulses THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Neurons & Impulses Organization of the Nervous System: Two Major Portions: The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). CNS = Brain/Spinal Cord PNS = Nerves-provide

More information

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure Chapter 10 Nervous System I Divisions of the Nervous System Cell Types of Neural Tissue neurons neuroglial cells Central Nervous System brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System nerves cranial nerves

More information

Neurons: Structure and communication

Neurons: Structure and communication Neurons: Structure and communication http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/gall1.html Common Components of a Neuron Dendrites Input, receives neurotransmitters Soma Processing, decision Axon Transmits

More information

Communication within a Neuron

Communication within a Neuron Neuronal Communication, Ph.D. Communication within a Neuron Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons The Membrane Potential The Action Potential Conduction of the Action Potential 1 The withdrawal reflex

More information

Axon Nerve impulse. Axoplasm Receptor. Axomembrane Stimuli. Schwann cell Effector. Myelin Cell body

Axon Nerve impulse. Axoplasm Receptor. Axomembrane Stimuli. Schwann cell Effector. Myelin Cell body Nervous System Review 1. Explain a reflex arc. 2. Know the structure, function and location of a sensory neuron, interneuron, and motor neuron 3. What is (a) Neuron Axon Nerve impulse Axoplasm Receptor

More information

You can follow the path of the neural signal. The sensory neurons detect a stimulus in your finger and send that information to the CNS.

You can follow the path of the neural signal. The sensory neurons detect a stimulus in your finger and send that information to the CNS. 1 Nervous system maintains coordination through the use of electrical and chemical processes. There are three aspects: sensory, motor, and integrative, which we will discuss throughout the system. The

More information

Tips. Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures. Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg

Tips. Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures. Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg Tips Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures Lectures will be posted after class Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg The Nervous System N E U

More information

Chapter 11: Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Chapter 11: Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Objectives: 1. List the basic functions of the nervous system. 2. Explain the structural and functional divisions of the nervous system.

More information

Chapter 45 Neurons and Nervous Systems

Chapter 45 Neurons and Nervous Systems Nervous System Cells Neuron a cell Chapter 45 Neurons and Nervous Systems signal direction dendrites cell body Structure fits function many entry points for signal one path out axon signal direction transmits

More information

Electrophysiology. General Neurophysiology. Action Potentials

Electrophysiology. General Neurophysiology. Action Potentials 5 Electrophysiology Cochlear implants should aim to reproduce the coding of sound in the auditory system as closely as possible, for best sound perception. The cochlear implant is in part the result of

More information

1/20/ : Overview of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System

1/20/ : Overview of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System. Divisions of the Nervous System 10.1: Overview of the Nervous System Chapter 10 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission

More information

The Brain & Homeostasis. The Brain & Technology. CAT, PET, and MRI Scans

The Brain & Homeostasis. The Brain & Technology. CAT, PET, and MRI Scans The Brain & Homeostasis Today, scientists have a lot of information about what happens in the different parts of the brain; however they are still trying to understand how the brain functions. We know

More information

Notes are online at The Neuron

Notes are online at  The Neuron Notes are online at http://cogsci.ucsd.edu/~clovett/neuronotescogs17.pdf A. What is a neuron? The Neuron 1. A neuron is a type of cell that receives and transmits information in the Central Nervous System

More information

What effect would an AChE inhibitor have at the neuromuscular junction?

What effect would an AChE inhibitor have at the neuromuscular junction? CASE 4 A 32-year-old woman presents to her primary care physician s office with difficulty chewing food. She states that when she eats certain foods that require a significant amount of chewing (meat),

More information

BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology

BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology Roster Business Course Introduction and Syllabus Notecard Name E-mail Why you are taking the course Something interesting you did over break Lecture Tips Use the Study

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8

NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 NERVOUS SYSTEM C H A P T E R 2 8 CAN AN INJURED SPINAL CORD BE FIXED? Injuries to the spinal cord disrupt communication between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body

More information

Nervous System Organization

Nervous System Organization The Nervous System Chapter 44 All animals must be able to respond to environmental stimuli -Sensory receptors = Detect stimulus -Motor effectors = Respond to it -The nervous system links the two -Consists

More information

Cell communication. Gated ion channels. Allow specific ions to pass only when gates are open

Cell communication. Gated ion channels. Allow specific ions to pass only when gates are open increase decrease Cell communication Gated ion channels Allow specific ions to pass only when gates are open Triggered by: potential change, chemical binding, temperature change, stretching 1 Voltage-Gated

More information

Ch 7. The Nervous System

Ch 7. The Nervous System Ch 7 The Nervous System SLOs 7.1 7.2 Describe the different types of neurons and supporting cells, and identify their functions. Identify the myelin sheath and describe how it is formed in the CNS and

More information

Cell communication. Gated ion channels. Voltage-Gated Na + Channel. Allow specific ions to pass only when gates are open

Cell communication. Gated ion channels. Voltage-Gated Na + Channel. Allow specific ions to pass only when gates are open increase decrease Cell communication Gated ion channels Allow specific ions to pass only when gates are open Voltage-Gated Na + Channel Activation gate ECF Triggered by: change, chemical binding, temperature

More information

Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems

Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems Nervous System Cells Neuron a cell Chapter 44 Neurons and Nervous Systems signal direction dendrites cell body Structure fits function many entry points for signal one path out transmits signal signal

More information

BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE

BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE 1 Name: BIOLOGY 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM PRACTICE Date: 1) Identify structures X, Y and Z and give one function of each. 2) Which processes are involved in the movement of molecule Y from point X to point Z?

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment

Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment Name: Class: Date: Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which part of a neuron receives an impulse

More information

Primary Functions. Monitor changes. Integrate input. Initiate a response. External / internal. Process, interpret, make decisions, store information

Primary Functions. Monitor changes. Integrate input. Initiate a response. External / internal. Process, interpret, make decisions, store information NERVOUS SYSTEM Monitor changes External / internal Integrate input Primary Functions Process, interpret, make decisions, store information Initiate a response E.g., movement, hormone release, stimulate/inhibit

More information

Biology 12 Human Biology - The Nervous System Name. Main reference: Biology Concepts and Connects Sixth edition Chapter 28

Biology 12 Human Biology - The Nervous System Name. Main reference: Biology Concepts and Connects Sixth edition Chapter 28 Biology 12 Human Biology - The Nervous System Name Main reference: Biology Concepts and Connects Sixth edition Chapter 28 Vocabulary acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), action potential,

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Somatic (SNS) Fibers - transmit impulses from CNS to control voluntary action of skeletal muscle

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Somatic (SNS) Fibers - transmit impulses from CNS to control voluntary action of skeletal muscle NERVOUS SYSTEM The master controlling and communicating system of the body --- cells communicate via electrical and chemical signals. Signals are rapid, specific and cause almost immediate responses. Functions

More information

Nervous System Notes

Nervous System Notes Nervous System Notes The nervous system consists of a network of nerve cells or neurons. I. A nervous system is an important part of a cell s (or an organism s) ability to respond to the environment. A.

More information

LESSON 3.3 WORKBOOK. Why does applying pressure relieve pain? Workbook. Postsynaptic potentials

LESSON 3.3 WORKBOOK. Why does applying pressure relieve pain? Workbook. Postsynaptic potentials Depolarize to decrease the resting membrane potential. Decreasing membrane potential means that the membrane potential is becoming more positive. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) graded postsynaptic

More information

Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!)

Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!) Bio 201 Tissues and Skin 1 March 21, 2011 Biology 201-Worksheet on Nervous System (Answers are in your power point outlines-there is no key!) 1. The study of the normal functioning and disorders of the

More information

Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons

Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons Invertebrates Chapter 48-49: The Nervous System & Neurons Radial Symmetry - Nerve net Cnideria Bilateral Symmetry double, ventral, solid nerve cord brain (cephalization) Vertebrates Dorsal, single, hollow,

More information

Department of medical physiology 1 st week

Department of medical physiology 1 st week Department of medical physiology 1 st week Semester: summer Study program: Dental medicine Lecture: RNDr. Soňa Grešová, PhD. Department of medical physiology 1 st week 1. General neurophysiology 2. Central

More information

Neural and Hormonal Systems

Neural and Hormonal Systems PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Neural and Hormonal Systems Module 4 2 Neural and Hormonal Systems Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate

More information

Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM

Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM Module H NERVOUS SYSTEM Topic from General functions of the nervous system Organization of the nervous system from both anatomical & functional perspectives Gross & microscopic anatomy of nervous tissue

More information

Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2

Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2 NAME PER DATE Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2 Matching: 1. afferent nerves 2. autonomic nervous system 3. cell body 4. central nervous system (CNS) 5. dendrites 6. efferent nerves 7. myelin sheath

More information

Nervous System Review

Nervous System Review Nervous System Review Name: Block: 1. Which processes are involved in the movement of molecule Y from point X to point Z? A. exocytosis and diffusion B. endocytosis and diffusion C. exocytosis and facilitated

More information

Ion Channels (Part 2)

Ion Channels (Part 2) Ion Channels (Part 2) Graphics are used with permission of : adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) -57- Quiz Question #2: Ion Channels This question asks

More information

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi The Nervous System & Nervous tissue Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of the Nervous System 1. Nervous system and endocrine system are the chief control centers in maintaining body homeostasis. 2. Nervous

More information

ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON

ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON AP BIOLOGY ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 NAME DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON SIMPLE REFLEX RESTING POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL GRAPH TRANSMISSION ACROSS A SYNAPSE QUESTIONS:

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 CHAPTER 10 BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I

NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 CHAPTER 10 BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 Ch 10 A Ch 10 B This set CHAPTER 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 BASIC STRUCTURE and FUNCTION Dr. Lawrence G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy of McGraw-Hill.

More information

Functions of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System The Nervous System Functions of the Nervous System 1. Control center for all body activities 2. Responds and adapts to changes that occur both inside and outside the body (Ex: pain, temperature, pregnancy)

More information

Blood & Nervous Tissue. Blood. Nervous Tissue 10/13/2008. BY: Jeremiah Peters, Brett Maggard, Miranda Asher, and Benjamin Oakes

Blood & Nervous Tissue. Blood. Nervous Tissue 10/13/2008. BY: Jeremiah Peters, Brett Maggard, Miranda Asher, and Benjamin Oakes Blood & Nervous Tissue BY: Jeremiah Peters, Brett Maggard, Miranda Asher, and Benjamin Oakes Blood Fluid within blood vessels Doesn t connect or give mechanical support Transports Nutrients, wastes, respiratory

More information

1) Drop off in the Bi 150 box outside Baxter 331 or to the head TA (jcolas).

1) Drop off in the Bi 150 box outside Baxter 331 or  to the head TA (jcolas). Bi/CNS/NB 150 Problem Set 3 Due: Tuesday, Oct. 27, at 4:30 pm Instructions: 1) Drop off in the Bi 150 box outside Baxter 331 or e-mail to the head TA (jcolas). 2) Submit with this cover page. 3) Use a

More information

Body control systems. Nervous system. Organization of Nervous Systems. The Nervous System. Two types of cells. Organization of Nervous System

Body control systems. Nervous system. Organization of Nervous Systems. The Nervous System. Two types of cells. Organization of Nervous System Body control systems Nervous system Nervous system Quick Sends message directly to target organ Endocrine system Sends a hormone as a messenger to the target organ Slower acting Longer lasting response

More information

Lecture 14. Insect nerve system (II)

Lecture 14. Insect nerve system (II) Lecture 14. Insect nerve system (II) Structures (Anatomy) Cells Anatomy How NS functions Signal transduction Signal transmission Overview More on neurons: ions, ion channel, ligand receptor Signal transduction:

More information

Version A. AP* Biology: Nervous System. Questions 1 and 2. Name: Period

Version A. AP* Biology: Nervous System. Questions 1 and 2. Name: Period Name: Period Version A AP* Biology: Nervous System Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in

More information

Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System. Total 33 points

Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System. Total 33 points Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System Total 33 points Name: Circle the best response to the following: (33 points) 1. What do we call the long fibre that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body? A.

More information

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now?

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now? Bio11: The Nervous System Body control systems Nervous system Quick Sends message directly to target organ Endocrine system Sends a hormone as a messenger to the target organ Can target several organs

More information

Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells

Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue The Nervous System Components Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Responsible for Sensory perceptions,

More information

Nerve. (2) Duration of the stimulus A certain period can give response. The Strength - Duration Curve

Nerve. (2) Duration of the stimulus A certain period can give response. The Strength - Duration Curve Nerve Neuron (nerve cell) is the structural unit of nervous system. Nerve is formed of large numbers of nerve fibers. Types of nerve fibers Myelinated nerve fibers Covered by myelin sheath interrupted

More information

Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 11: Neural Tissue & The Nervous System

Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 11: Neural Tissue & The Nervous System Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 11: Neural Tissue & The Nervous System Question No. 1 of 10 The human body contains different types of tissue. The tissue is formed into organs and organ systems.

More information

LESSON 3.2 WORKBOOK How do our neurons communicate with each other?

LESSON 3.2 WORKBOOK How do our neurons communicate with each other? LESSON 3.2 WORKBOOK How do our neurons communicate with each other? This lesson introduces you to how one neuron communicates with another neuron during the process of synaptic transmission. In this lesson

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

The Nervous System : communication

The Nervous System : communication The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information

More information

Teacher Key. Big Idea Different types of neurons compose the nervous tissue that forms the communication system within the body.

Teacher Key. Big Idea Different types of neurons compose the nervous tissue that forms the communication system within the body. Big Idea Different types of neurons compose the nervous tissue that forms the communication system within the body. Introduction to Neurons An individual s survival and reproductive success depends upon

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Chapter 48-49

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Chapter 48-49 NERVOUS SYSTEM Chapter 48-49 Nervous System Function: coordinates and controls bodily functions with nerves and electrical impulses The system is composed of different types of nerve cells called neurons

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue 9/12/11 Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Overview of the nervous system Cells of the nervous system Electrophysiology of neurons Synapses Neural integration Subdivisions of the Nervous System 1 Subdivisions of

More information

Autonomic Nervous System. Lanny Shulman, O.D., Ph.D. University of Houston College of Optometry

Autonomic Nervous System. Lanny Shulman, O.D., Ph.D. University of Houston College of Optometry Autonomic Nervous System Lanny Shulman, O.D., Ph.D. University of Houston College of Optometry Peripheral Nervous System A. Sensory Somatic Nervous System B. Autonomic Nervous System 1. Sympathetic Nervous

More information

The Nervous System. Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine.

The Nervous System. Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine. The Nervous System Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine Http://10.10.10.151 Part 1. Summary of the nervous system The Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain + Spinal Cord Peripheral

More information

Neurotransmitters. Chemical transmission of a nerve signal by neurotransmitters at a synapse

Neurotransmitters. Chemical transmission of a nerve signal by neurotransmitters at a synapse Neurotransmitters A chemical released by one neuron that affects another neuron or an effector organ (e.g., muscle, gland, blood vessel). Neurotransmitters are small molecules that serve as messengers

More information

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES CHAPTER 3 1 LEARNING GOALS Discuss how the nervous system communicates internally. Describe the structure and function of neurons Describe how the neuron transmits information Describe

More information

Neural Basis of Motor Control

Neural Basis of Motor Control Neural Basis of Motor Control Central Nervous System Skeletal muscles are controlled by the CNS which consists of the brain and spinal cord. Determines which muscles will contract When How fast To what

More information

SYNAPTIC COMMUNICATION

SYNAPTIC COMMUNICATION BASICS OF NEUROBIOLOGY SYNAPTIC COMMUNICATION ZSOLT LIPOSITS 1 NERVE ENDINGS II. Interneuronal communication 2 INTERNEURONAL COMMUNICATION I. ELECTRONIC SYNAPSE GAP JUNCTION II. CHEMICAL SYNAPSE SYNAPSES

More information

Lecture 3 (Oct 5 th ): NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES Lecture Outline

Lecture 3 (Oct 5 th ): NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES Lecture Outline Lecture 3 (Oct 5 th ): NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES Lecture Outline 1) CNS vs. PNS 2) Structure of Neurons parts of a neuron: soma, dendrites, axons 3) Glial Cells 4) Mitosis and Regeneration in Neurons

More information

A. Subdivisions of the Nervous System: 1. The two major subdivisions of the nervous system:

A. Subdivisions of the Nervous System: 1. The two major subdivisions of the nervous system: BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 Ch 10 A Ch 10 B CHAPTER 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 BASIC STRUCTURE and FUNCTION Dr. Lawrence G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy of McGraw-Hill.

More information

Chapter 17. Nervous System Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands. !

Chapter 17. Nervous System Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands. ! Chapter 17 Sensory receptor Sensory input Integration Nervous System Motor output Brain and spinal cord Effector cells Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Central nervous system (CNS) 28.1 Nervous systems

More information

BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides

BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides BENG 260 Supplementary neurophysiology slides Fall 2013 Slides are taken from Vander s Human Physiology, 11 th edition, McGraw Hill (ISBN 0077216091)" These slides cover:" Chapter 6, Neuronal Signaling

More information

Announcements. Returning to Lecture. Measurement in Psychology 2/5/2014. C. Correlation. 1. Correlated = related 2. Coefficient of correlation (r)

Announcements. Returning to Lecture. Measurement in Psychology 2/5/2014. C. Correlation. 1. Correlated = related 2. Coefficient of correlation (r) Announcements Check Attendance/Grade Query Tool on class website (psy150a1.org) for: Attendance tracking Syllabus Quiz Chapter 2 Aplia Homework due next Monday (Feb 10) Aplia deadline for purchase extended

More information

Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue. Nervous System. Basic Divisions of the Nervous System C H A P T E R 12.

Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue. Nervous System. Basic Divisions of the Nervous System C H A P T E R 12. C H A P T E R 12 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Nervous System Sensory input Integration Motor output Figure 12.1 Basic Divisions of the Nervous System Brain CNS Spinal cord Nerves

More information

Warm-up. Warm-up. Warm-up. Chapter 48. Why do animals need a nervous system? 3/9/2012. Nervous System

Warm-up. Warm-up. Warm-up. Chapter 48. Why do animals need a nervous system? 3/9/2012. Nervous System Warm-up Objective: Explain how membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentrations between cells' content and the extracellular fluid. Warm-up: Cells from this structure migrate to other parts

More information

Overview of Neurons. Psychology 470. Introduction to Chemical Additions. Neurons2. Axons and Related Structures. Structures

Overview of Neurons. Psychology 470. Introduction to Chemical Additions. Neurons2. Axons and Related Structures. Structures Soma Collateral Overview of Neurons Psychology 470 Axon Hillock Teleodendria Introduction to Chemical Additions Steven E. Meier, Ph.D. Node of Ranvier Listen to the audio lecture while viewing these slides

More information

Bio11 schedule. Chapter 13 and 14. The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Organization of Nervous Systems. Nerves. Nervous and Sensory Systems

Bio11 schedule. Chapter 13 and 14. The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Organization of Nervous Systems. Nerves. Nervous and Sensory Systems Bio11 schedule Lecture Nervous system and senses Lab Current events reports (10 pts) Urinalysis Lecture exam 2 Thursday Feb 24 Same format as before Study guide will be posted Your total points so far

More information

Bio Factsheet

Bio Factsheet Number 155 Answering exam questions on neurones and synapses You must know the structure (histology) of a neurone, the functions of its component parts and be able to distinguish between different types

More information

13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology. Dendrite

13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology. Dendrite 13 - Cells of the Nervous System Taft College Human Physiology Dendrite Histology (Cells) of the Nervous System 2 major categories of cells are found in the nervous system: 1. Nerve cells (neurons) carry

More information