Chapter 23 Immunity Exam Study Questions

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1 Chapter 23 Immunity Exam Study Questions 1. Define 1) Immunity 2) Neutrophils 3) Macrophage 4) Epitopes 5) Interferon 6) Complement system 7) Histamine 8) Mast cells 9) Antigen 10) Antigens receptors 11) Antibody or immunoglobulin 12) Inflammation 13) Clonal selection (expansion) 14) MHC 15) Class I MHC 16) Class II MHC 1

2 17) Primary immune response 18) Secondary immune response 19) Vaccination 20) Allergies 21) Autoimmune diseases 22) Immunization 23) Immunodeficiency 23.1 Anatomy of the Immune System 1. List the physical barriers. 2. List the chemical barriers and its location. 3. The elevation of this phagocyte, is used clinically as an indication of infection. 4. List the two central lymphoid tissues: and. B cells mature in. T cells reach maturity in. 5. Name seven peripheral lymphoid tissues: and. 6. lymphoid tissues are the site of lymphoid tissues production and maturation 7. lymphoid tissues trap foreign invaders. 8. Matching 2

3 Cells Function i. Neutrophils Humoral response, secrete antibodies ii. Eosinophils Secrete histamine iii. Basophils Cell mediated immune response, destroy infected cells iv. Monocytes Important against infection v. B cells Kill parasites vi. T cells Involved in inflammation and allergic reaction vii. Mast cells Mature into macrophages 23.2 Pathogens That Activate the Immune System 1. What are pathogens? 2. What are the smallest pathogens? 3. What is the difference between endotoxin and exotoxin? 23.3 Organization of the Body s Defenses 1. Match the function and the nonspecific defense mechanism. Nonspecific Defense Definition i. Physical barrier A series of events causing accumulation of protein, fluid, and phagocytic cells around the infected site ii. Interferon iii. Natural killer cells iv. Inflammation a group of plasma proteins forma MAC to lyse bacterial infected cells Prevent viral infection by interfering viral replication Skin and mucus secretion traps pathogen v. Complement system Recognize and kill infected or abnormal cells by releasing perforins 2. What are the five major events of local inflammatory response? 3. List and explain the four features of specific immune response. 3

4 4. Explain two advantages of having memory cells when a pathogen is encountered for a second time. 5. What are the three pathways for complement activation? Which are specific? 6. What are the four actions of complement system 23.4 Humoral Immunity 1. Explain the basic structure of an antibody (CD exercise). 1) Antibodies can be found on the plasma membrane of (where they act as antigen receptors) or free in the extracellular fluid, here they are known as. 2) Antibodies consist of two types of polypeptide chains: Two chains located on the inside of the Y-shaped molecule. Two chains located on the outside of the Y- shaped molecule. The chains are held together by bonds. Each chain has a region which is unique for each antigen and a region which is the same for each antibody in a given class of antibodies. 3) Each arm of the Y-shaped antibody has identical sites. The shape of these sites must match the shape of the on the antigen in order to bind. 4) List the five classes of antibodies: and 2. (T/F) Antibodies are classified based on their functions and type of heavy chains. 3. Matching (CD Ex) Feature 4 Antibody i. Involved in allergy and body infested with parasitic worms IgM ii. These are dimers and are found in tears, sweat, saliva and breast milk iii. Antigen receptor on B cells iv. This pentamer antibody is secreted in response to a new antigen (primary response) v. The major class produced in secondary response, provide passive immunity to the fetus and new born IgD IgG IgE IgA 4. List and explain five the antibody-mediated mechanisms of antigen disposal (use IgG as an example (Figure 23.16)).

5 Antibody Function Neutralization Agglutination Opsonization Complement activation Enhanced NK cell activity Definition 1. Antigens are clumped together and are aggregated by antibodies 2. Antibodies mark the abnormal cells for NK to destroy 3. Antibodies act as opsonins as they bind to antigen and phagocytic cells 4. Antibodies bind to antigens to block its activity 5. Antibodies bound to antigens activate the complement cascade resulting cell lysis 5. Quick Test 23.5 Explain the two differences between plasma cells and memory B cells Cell-Mediated Immunity 23.6 Immune Responses in Health and Disease 1. What is cell mediated immunity? 2. Which lymphocyte type is responsible for this immunity? 3. Match the three major types of T cells and their functions. T Cells Function i. Helper T cells Destroy the infected cells directly ii. Cytotoxic T cells Release inhibitory cytokines that suppress the activity of B cells, helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells iii. Suppressor (regulatory) T Cells Activate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity and secret cytokines 4. Helper T cells are activated by a or b while cytotoxic T cells are activated by a or b? a. Binding with class II MHC-foreign antigen complex on the surfaces of macrophage, dendritic cells and B cells and Inducing signal IL-1 b. Class I MHC-foreign antigen complex on the surface of a virus infected cell and inducing signal IL2. 5

6 5. From your interactive CD exercise: 1) Complete the table (Figure page 689). Class I MHC Protein Displayed by Class II MHC Protein Recognized by Source of foreign antigen Displayed foreign antigens meant 2) The first exposure to an antigen is called. As a result, IgE antibodies are present on and. During the second exposure, the allergen causes the release of and other inflammatory mediators. 3) As a result of the actions of the chemical released, the affected person gets a runny nose (due to ) and has difficulty breathing (due to ). are drugs that bind and block histamine receptors, thus alleviating the allergy symptoms. 4) Allergic reactions to peanuts can be very serious, causing a systemic allergic reaction known as. 5) Humoral immunity can be acquired either actively or passively. Define each and give an example of the naturally and artificially acquired forms. 6) Active Immunity: a. Naturally acquired: b. Artificially acquired: 7) Passive Immunity: a. Naturally acquired: b. Artificially acquired: 8) proteins are matched as close as possible to decrease the chance of organ rejection. 6

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