Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

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1 Immunity or Resistance Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Ability to ward off damage or disease through our defenses 2 types of immunity Innate or nonspecific immunity present at birth No specific recognition of invaders, no memory component 1 st and 2 nd line of defenses Adaptive or specific immunity Specific recognition of invaders with a memory component Lymphatic system structure and function Components of the Lymphatic System Consists of lymph, lymphatic vessels, structures and organs containing lymphatic tissue, red bone marrow Functions of the lymphatic system 1. Drain excess interstitial fluid 2. Transport dietary lipid 3. Carry our immune responses Lymphatic vessels and lymph circulation Lymphatic capillaries Vessels begin as lymphatic capillaries Closed at one end Unite to form large lymphatic vessels Resemble veins in structure but thinner walls and more valves Passes through lymph nodes Encapsulated organs with masses and B and T cells Slightly large diameter that blood capillaries Unique one-way structure Permits interstitial fluid to flow in but not out Anchoring filaments pull openings wider when interstitial fluid accumulates Small intestine has lacteal for dietary lipid uptake Chyle is lymph with lipids 1

2 Lymphatic Capillaries Lymph trunks and ducts Vessels unite to form lymph trunks Principal trunks are the lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian and jugular Passes from lymph trunks into 2 main channels (thoracic and right lymphatic ducts) before draining into venous blood Routes for drainage of lymph Formation and flow of lymph More fluid filters out of blood capillaries than returns to them by reabsorption Excess filtered fluid about 3L/day drains into lymphatic vessels and become lymph Important function of lymphatic vessels to return lost plasma proteins to blood stream Contain valves Same 2 pumps aiding venous return also used Skeletal muscle pump milking action Respiratory pump pressure changes during breathing Relationship of the Lymphatic System to the Cardiovascular System Lymphatic tissues and organs 2 groups based on function 1. Primary lymphatic organs Sites where stem cells divide and become immunocompetent Red bone marrow and thymus 2. Secondary lymphatic organs Sites where most immune response occurs Lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules 2

3 Thymus and Medulla Thymus Thymus Outer cortex composed of large number of T cells Immature T cells migrate here from red bone marrow where they proliferate and begin to mature Dendritic cells derived from monocytes assist in T cell maturation Specialized epithelial cells help educate T cells through positive selection only about 25% survive Macrophages clear out dead and dying cells Medulla More mature T cells migrate here from cortex More epithelial cells, dendritic cells and macrophages Thymus shrinks with age from 70g in infants to 3g in old age Lymph nodes Structure of a Lymph Node Located along lymphatic vessels Scattered throughout body Stroma supporting connective tissue Capsule, trabeculae, reticular fibers and fibroblasts Parenchyma functional part Outer cortex aggregates of B cells called lymphatic nodules (follicles) site of plasma cell and memory B cell formation Inner cortex mainly T cells and dendritic cells Medulla B cells, antibody producing plasma cells from cortex, and macrophages Lymph Lymph flows through a node in 1 direction only Enters through afferent lymphatic vessels Directs lymph inward Lymph enters sinuses (irregular channels) Into medulla Medullary sinuses drain into efferent lymphatic vessels Conveys lymph, antibodies and activated T cells out of the node Lymph nodes function as a filter Foreign substances trapped Destroyed by macrophages or immune response of lymphocytes Spleen Largest single mass of lymphatic tissue in the body Stroma capsule, trabeculae, reticular fibers, and fibroblasts Parenchyma White pulp lymphatic tissue (lymphocytes and macrophages) B cells and T cells carry out immune function Red pulp 3

4 Red Pulp Structure of the Spleen Red pulp blood-filled venous sinuses and splenic (Bilroth s) cords red blood cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes Macrophages remove ruptured, worn out or defective blood cells Storage of up to 1/3 of body s platelet supply Production of blood cells during fetal life Lymphatic nodules Not surrounded by a capsule Scattered throughout lamina propria of mucous membranes lining GI, urinary, reproductive tract Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) of respiratory tract Most small and solitary Some larger tonsils, Peyer s patches, appendix Innate immunity First line of defenses: Skin and mucous membranes Provide both physical and chemical barriers Physical barriers Epidermis closely packed, keratinized cells Periodic shedding Mucous membranes Mucus traps microbes and foreign substances Nose hairs trap and filter Cilia of upper respiratory tract propel trapped particles up and out Innate Immunity Second line of defenses: Internal defenses Fluids Lacrimal apparatus of eye Washing action of tears Lysozyme breaks down bacterial cell walls also present in saliva, perspiration, nasal secretions, and tissue fluids Saliva washes mouth Urine cleanses urinary system Vaginal secretions, defecation and vomiting Chemicals Sebaceous (oil) glands secrete sebum protective film, acid Perspiration, gastric juice, vaginal secretions all acidic Antimicrobial substances 1. Interferons Produced by lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts infected by viruses Prevents replication in neighboring uninfected cells 2. Complement Proteins in blood plasma and plasma membranes complement or enhance certain immune reactions Causes cytolysis of microbes, promotes phagocytosis, contributes to inflammation 4

5 Internal Defenses Internal Defenses 3. Iron-binding proteins Inhibit growth of bacteria by reducing available iron 4. Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) Short peptides that have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity Can attract dendritic cells and mast cells that participate in immune responses Natural Killer (NK) cells Lymphocyte but not a B or T cell Ability to kill wide variety of infected body cells and certain tumor cells Attack any body cell displaying abnormal or unusual plasma membrane proteins Can release perforin (makes perforations) or granzymes (induce apoptosis) Phagocytes Neutrophils and macrophages (from monocytes) Migrate to infected area 5 steps in phagocytosis Phagocytosis of a microbe 1 CHEMOTAXIS Microbe Phagocyte 2 ADHERENCE 3 INGESTION Pseudopod Lysosome Plasma membrane Digestive enzymes 4 DIGESTION 5 KILLING Digested microbe in phagolysosome Residual body (indigestible material) Phases of phagocytosis Inflammation Nonspecific, defensive response of body to tissue damage 4 signs and symptoms redness, pain, heat and swelling Attempt to dispose of microbes, prevent spread, and prepare site for tissue repair 3 basic stages Vasodilation and increased blood vessel permeability Emigration Tissue repair Vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels Increased diameter of arterioles allows more blood flow through area bringing supplies and removing debris Increased permeability means substances normally retained in the blood are permitted to pass out antibodies and clotting factors Histamine, kinins, prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs), complement 5

6 Inflammation Emigration of phagocytes Depends on chemotaxis Neutrophils predominate in early stages but die off quickly Monocytes transform into macrophages More potent than neutrophils Pus pocket of dead phagocytes and damaged tissue Adaptive immunity Maturation of T cells and B cells Ability of the body to defend itself against specific invading agents Antigens (Ags) substances recognized as foreign and provoking an immune response Distinguished from innate immunity by Specificity Memory Both develop from pluripotent stem cells originating in red bone marrow B cells complete their development in red bone marrow T cells develop from pre-t cells that migrate from red bone marrow to the thymus Helper T cells (CD4 T cells) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8 T cells) Immunocompetence ability to carry out adaptive immune response Have antigen receptors to identify specific antigen Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity 2 types of adaptive immunity Cell-mediated Cytotoxic T cells directly attack invading antigens Particularly effective against intracellular pathogens, some cancer cells and foreign tissue transplants Antibody-mediated B cells transform into plasma cells making antibodies (Abs) or immunoglobulins Works against extracellular pathogens in fluids outside cells Helper T cells aid in both types 2 types of immunity work together 6

7 Clonal selection Antigens Process by which a lymphocyte proliferates and differentiates in response to a specific antigen Clone population of identical cells all recognizing the same antigen as original cell Lymphocyte undergoes clonal selection to produce Effector cell active helper T cell, active cytotoxic T cell, plasma cell, die after immune response Memory cell do not participate in initial immune response, respond to 2 nd invasion by proliferating and differentiating into more effector and memory cells, long life spans Antigens have 2 characteristics Immunogenicity ability to provoke immune response Reactivity ability of antigen to react specifically with antibodies it provoked Entire microbes may act as antigen Typically, just certain small parts of large antigen molecule triggers response (epitope or antigenic determinant) Diversity of antigen receptors Pathways of antigen processing Human immune system able to recognize and bind to at least a billion different epitopes Result of genetic recombination shuffling and rearranging of a few hundred versions of several small gene segments Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens MHC or human leukocyte antigens (HLA) Normal function to help T cells recognize foreign or self Class I MHC (MHC-I) built into all body cells except RBCs Class II MHC (MHC-II) only on antigen presenting cells B cells can recognize and bind to antigens T cells must be presented with processed antigens Antigenic proteins are broken down into peptide fragments and associated with MHC molecules Antigen presentation antigen-mhc complex inserted into plasma membrane Pathway depends on whether antigen is outside or inside body cells Exogenous and Endogenous Antigens Exogenous Antigens Exogenous antigens present in fluid outside body cells Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) include dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells Ingest antigen, process, place next to MHC-II molecule in plasma membrane, and present to T cells Endogenous antigens antigens inside body cells Infected cell displays antigen next to MHC-I 7

8 Exogenous antigen 1 Phagocytosis or endocytosis of antigen 5 Vesicles containing antigen peptide fragments and MHC-II molecules fuse 6 Antigen peptide fragments bind to MHC-II molecules Key: Antigen peptide fragments MHC-II self-antigen Endogenous Antigens Phagosome or endosome 2 Digestion of antigen into peptide fragments Antigenpresenting cell (APC) 4 Packaging of MHC-II molecules into a vesicle 7 Vesicle undergoes exocytosis and antigen MHC-II complexes are inserted into plasma membrane 3 Synthesis of MHC-II molecules Endoplasmic reticulum APCs present exogenous antigens in association with MHC-II molecules Cell-mediated immunity Activation of T cells First signal in activation T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize and bind to a specific foreign antigen fragments that are presented in antigen-mhc complexes CD4 and CD8 proteins are coreceptors Second signal required for activation Costimulation 20 known substances (cytokines, plasma membrane molecules) May prevent immune response from occurring accidentally Anergy recognition without costimulation (in both B and T cells) leads to prolonged state of inactivity Activation and clonal selection of helper T cells Most that display CD4 develop into helper T cells (CD4 T cells) Recognize exogenous antigen fragments associated with MHC-II molecules on the surface of an APC After activation undergoes clonal selection Makes active helper T cells and memory helper T cells Active helper T cells secrete variety of cytokines Interleukin-2 (IL-2) needed for virtually all immune responses Memory helper T cells are not active cells can quickly proliferate and differentiate if the antigen appears again Activation and clonal selection of a helper T cell Activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells Most that display CD8 develop into cytotoxic T cells (CD8 T cells) Recognize antigens combined with MHC-I Maximal activation also requires presentation of antigen with MHC-II to cause helper T cells to produce IL-2 Undergoes clonal selection Active cytotoxic T cells attack body cells Memory cytotoxic T cells do not attack but wait for a antigen to appear again 8

9 Activation and clonal selection of a cytoxic T cell Elimination of invaders Cytotoxic T cells migrate to seek out and destroy infected target cells Kill like natural killer cells Major difference is T cells have specific receptor for particular microbe while NK cells destroy a wide variety of microbe-infected cells 2 ways to kill cells Granzymes cause apoptosis Perforin and/ or granulysin causes cytolysis Immunological surveillance Tumor antigens displayed on cancerous cells targeted by cytotoxic T cells, macrophages and natural killer cells Activity of cytoxic T cells Antibody-mediated immunity Activation and clonal selection of B cells During activation, antigen binds to B cell receptor (BCRs) Can respond to unprocessed antigen Response much more intense when B cell processes antigen Antigen taken into B cell, combined with MHC-II, moved to plasma membrane, helper T cell binds and delivers costimulation (interleukin-2 and other cytokines) B cell undergoes clonal selection Plasma cells secrete antibodies Memory B cells do not secrete antibodies but wait for reappearance of antigen Activation and clonal selection of B cells Antibodies (Ab) Can combine specifically with epitope of the antigen that triggered its production Belong to group of glycoproteins called globulins Ab are immunoglobulins (Igs) 4 polypeptide chains 2 heavy (H) chains, 2 light (L) chains Hinge region antibody can be T shape or Y shape Variable (V) region at tips of each H and L chain 2 antigen-binding sites - bivalent Constant (C) region remainder of H and L chain Same in each 5 classes determines type of reaction 9

10 Chemical structure of the immunoglobin (IgG) class of antibody Antibody actions Neutralizing antigen Immobilizing bacteria Agglutinating and precipitating antigen Enhancing phagocytosis Activating complement Defensive system of over 30 proteins Destroy microbes by causing phagocytosis, cytolysis, and inflammation Acts in a cascade one reaction triggers another 3 different pathways ass activate C3 C3 then begins cascade that brings about phagocytosis, cytolysis, and inflammation Complement activation and results of activation 2 C3 1 C3b C3a C5 Histamine 3 C5b C5a Microbe PHAGOCYTOSIS: Enhancement of phagocytosis by coating with C3b 4 C7 C6 C8 C9 Mast cell INFLAMMATION: Increase of blood vessel permeability and chemotactic attraction of phagocytes C5b C6 C7 C8 C9 Channel Microbial plasma membrane Membrane attack complex forms channel CYTOLYSIS: Bursting of microbe due to inflow of extracellular fluid through channel formed by membrane attack complex C5-C9 Immunological memory Thousands of memory cells exist after initial encounter with an antigen Next time antigen appears can proliferate and differentiate within hours Antibody titer measure of immunological memory Amount of Ab in serum Primary response Secondary response faster and stronger Self-recognition and self-tolerance Your T cells must have Self-recognition be able to recognize your own MHC Self-tolerance lack reactivity to peptide fragments from your own proteins Pre-T cells in thymus develop self-recognition via positive selection cells that can t recognize your own MHC undergo apoptosis Self-tolerance occurs through negative selection in which T and B cells that recognize self peptide fragments are eliminated Deletion undergo apoptosis Anergy remian alive but are unresponsive 10

11 Development of self-recognition and selftolerance End of Chapter 22 Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permission Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publishers assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of theses programs or from the use of the information herein. 11

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