immunity defenses invertebrates chapter 49

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1 immunity chapter 49 defenses Animal defenses -- thinking about immunity two main types innate immunity acquired immunity mechanism of action non-specific defenses specific defenses invertebrates phagocytosis sponges archeocytes cnidarians ameobocytes annelids basophilic amoebocytes, acidophilic granulocytes coelomocytes, amoebocytes, hemocytes arthropod immune systems barrier defense phagocytic cells hemocytes antimicrobial compounds Toll receptors horseshoe crabs - limulus amebocyte lysate

2 non-specific defenses ingested microbes against infection epithelial tissue physical and chemical barrier skin acidity washing action secretions antimicrobial proteins lysozyme Giardia lamblia Stevens-Johnson syndrome nonspecific non-specific defenses granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) phagocytic white blood cells TLR - Toll-like receptors neutrophils % of white cells hepatitis A eosinophils - 2-5% of white cells multicellular threats basophils 0.5% of leukocytes degranulate - initiate inflammation monocytes - 5% of white cells

3 Pathogen Splinter NK cells large granular lymphocytes (LGL) Chemical signals Macrophage Fluid Mast cell Capillary Red blood cells Phagocytic cell Mast cells inflammatory response - triggered by damaged tissues chemokines histamine swelling, redness, heat systemic inflammatory responses- severe infection or tissue damage # of leukocytes goes way up in a short time Fever resets the body s thermostat sepsis interferons anti-viral proteins secreted by virus-infected cells. complement system anti-microbial peptides in blood Phagocytosis

4 specific defenses (immune system) internal Lymphocytes B-cells antigens T-cells development of self vs. non-self b-cells - bone marrow t-cells - thymus bone marrow lymphoid stem cell thymus B-cell T-cell blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, spleen, and others) self recognition MHC molecules class I MHC molecules bind to cytotoxic T-cells class II MHC molecules bind to helper T-cells during development, exposed to both types antigen presentation MHC molecules present protein fragments at cell surface some are foreign, some are not antigen receptors -- each cell has a single type of receptor B-cells T-cells b-cell t-cell

5 antibodies enhance phagocytosis neutralize toxins cell lysis humoral immunity mainly effective against bacteria, viruses, and toxins in body fluids. cell-mediated immunity mainly effective against infected cells and cancerous cells b-cell humoral 1st exposure engulfed antigen presenting cell helper t-cell memory helper t-cells cell-mediated stimulates gives rise to cytotoxic t- cell enhances leads to plasma cells memory b-cells 2nd exposure memory t- cells active cytotoxic t-cells antibodies primary immune response first exposure days clonal selection secondary immune response quicker, stronger response immunological memory b-cell plasma cells humoral memory b-cells 1st exposure engulfed antigen presenting cell helper t-cell memory helper t-cells 2nd exposure cell-mediated memory t- cells stimulates gives rise to cytotoxic t- cell active cytotoxic t-cells Immunity and health issues active immunity passive immunity vaccination / immunization antibodies

6 ABO blood groups... A, or B, or AB, or O alleles: IA IB i A (IAIA or IAi) B (IBIB or IBi) AB (IAIB ) AB O (ii) RH factor... organ transplantation anti-rejection drugs living-related, cadaveric MHC testing - highly variable HLA profiles must be ABO match must be good HLA match they look at 3 MHC loci Joseph Blow (best match is a 6) allergies -- anaphylaxis or anaphylactic inappropriate reaction to an antigen (allergen) IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils genetic and environmental component Histamine IgE Allergen Granule Mast cell shock... urticaria

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