Sexually Transmitted Infections. Naluce Manuela Morris, MPH, CHES

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1 Sexually Transmitted Infections Naluce Manuela Morris, MPH, CHES

2 Handshake Activity

3 Handshake Activity Mrs. or Mr. X Mrs. or Mr. Y Carry this glove but do not put it on Put this glove on before shaking hands Eat this candy before shaking hands You are person A only shake hands and sign the card of person B You are person B only shake hands and sign the card of person A Do not shake anyone s hand, do not sign anyone s card, and do not let anyone sign your card

4 What is an Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)?

5 Some STIs are transmitted through the skin-toskin contact while others are transmitted thought the bodily fluids exchange such as: - blood - semen - vaginal secretion and - pre-cum (in the case of HIV/AIDS: breast milk should be added to the above list)

6 Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Common STIs that can be treated and cured: Syphilis (Treponema pallidum ) Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) These STIs are caused by bacteria Trichomoniasis (single-celled protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis)

7 Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Common STIs that can be treated but NOT cured: Genital Warts (human papillomavirus (HPV) Genital Herpes (herpes simplex viruses (HSV) Most genital herpes is caused by HSV type 2. Hepatitis B (hepatitis B virus (HBV) HIV/AIDS These STIs are caused by virus

8 HIV can be transmitted By having sex, particularly unprotected sex (anal, vaginal, or oral) with an HIV-infected person, By sharing needles, syringes, or injection equipment with an intravenous (IV) drug user who is infected with HIV

9 HIV can be transmitted From HIV-infected women to babies before or during birth, Through HIV-infected woman breastfeeding after birth. Through transfusions of infected blood or blood clotting factors.

10 Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or venereal diseases (VDs), are transmitted through various forms of sexual contact or activity.

11 All plants and animals that reproduce sexually may develop sexually transmitted infections. STI They are also very common among humans.

12 STI Many people consider STIs a moral issue. Stigma and shame may lead people to neglect taking good care of their sexual health.

13 STI Many people find it very difficult to talk about their sexual health. Discomfort and shame can keep people from practicing safer sex and getting periodic sexual health checkups with their health care providers.

14 Sexually Transmitted Infections are still a major problem in the United States: An estimated 65 million Americans are living with an incurable STI 15 million Americans acquire an STI every year STI

15 1 in 3 sexually active Americans acquires an STI by the age of 24 STI The rates of STIs are times higher in the United States than in other industrial nations

16 STI Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) affect men and women of all backgrounds and economic levels.

17 STI STIs are extremely widespread in United States Most people in U.S. remain unaware of the risk and consequences of them Each year, STIs interventions add billions of dollars to the nation's healthcare costs

18 STI Many of STIs initially cause no symptoms, especially in women. Symptoms, when they do develop, may be confused with those of other diseases that are not necessarily transmitted through sexual contact.

19 STIs can still be transmitted person to person even if they do not show symptoms. Also, health problems caused by STIs tend to be more severe for women than for men.

20 Syphilis Primary Stage

21 Gonorrhea

22 Chlamydia

23 Syphilis Secondary Stage

24 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

25 Trichomoniasis (single-celled protozoan parasite)

26 Genital Warts

27 Genital Warts

28 Genital Herpes

29 Hepatitis B

30 HIV means: Human Immunodeficiency Virus

31 Can you tell just by looking at a person if he/she is infected with HIV?

32 Does the HIV test look for the virus?

33 HIV/AIDS HIV test looks for HIV-antibodies. Window Period is the time it takes for a person to produce antibodies in his/her system: About 96% of individuals may develop antibodies within 2-12 weeks after infection About 4% of individuals may develop antibodies up to 6 months after infection Within 24 hours after getting infected, anyone is able to transmit HIV

34

35 Terminologies Co-infection when HIV strain is resistant to the HIV medication Super-infection when someone is infected with two or more types of HIV strains Re-infection when someone is already infected with HIV and get re-infected

36 Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) If STIs are left untreated they can: be painful and make the individual very sick. A few can even cause death. Make it hard for a woman to get pregnant when she wants to. Make a man unable to father a child Cause birth defects or other health problems for a newborn. Millions of people have STIs.

37 STIs Most people who get STIs are under the age of 30. STIs are common Anyone can have more than one STI at a time. Anyone can get the same STI more than once

38 Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Some of the risk factors for acquiring a STI include: - Number of sexual partners - Age - Recent new partner - Previous STI infection - Partner has symptoms - Partner has other partners

39 Prevention Information & Communication Sexual Transmission - Abstinence - Safer Sex Being in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and you know is uninfected Correct and consistent use of the male or female latex condoms can reduce the risk of STI transmission

40 Prevention For persons whose sexual behaviors place them at risk for STIs: No protective method is 100% effective, and Condom use cannot guarantee absolute protection against any STI.

41 When you will use condoms make sure they are: - Latex or polyurethane - Lubricated with spermicides (nonoxynol- 9) or lubricated with water-based lube Never use oil-based lubrications on latex condoms Lambs skin condoms do not protect from any STIs Always check for the expiration date Prevention

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