1 Lecture 1 Dr.JabarEtaby Cutaneous Larva Migrains: The Creeping Eruption Background Cutaneous larva migrants (CLM), frequentlytermed creeping eruption, isa parasitic skin infection that is caused by the filariform larvae of various animalhookworm nematodes. CLM has a worldwide distribution wherever humanshave had skin contact with soil contaminated with infected animal feces. Thedisease most commonly occurs in subtropical and tropical regions, but mayalso occur in temperate climates particularly during the summer months andduring rainy seasons. In the United States, CLM is seen in individuals living inthe southeastern states, Florida and the Gulf Coast states, in travelers returningfrom sandy beaches and in military personnel returning from tropical postings.children develop the disease by walking barefoot in sandy areas or playing in dirtor sandboxes that contain infected animal feces. Electricians, plumbers, utilityworkers and pest exterminators who have contact with soil under houses or atconstruction sites are at risk, as are fisherman, hunters, farmers and gardenerswho handle contaminated soil. Causative Agents Ancylostomabraziliense, a hookworm of wild and domestic dogs and cats is themost commonly identified etiologic agent of CLM. A.brazilienseis distributedthroughout the tropics and subtropics, especially on the warm sandy beaches ofthe southeastern and Gulf
2 Coast states, the Caribbean and Southeast Asia wheredogs and cats are permitted to defecate. Ancylostomacaninum(dog hookworm), Ancylostomaceylanicum(dog and cat hookworm) and Ancylostomatubaeform(cat hookworm) may also produce cutaneous lesions. Whereas the skin lesionsof A. braziliensemay persist for months, the skin lesions that are seen with otherancylostomaspecies resolve within several weeks.a number of other nematodes have been associated with CLM-like lesions.strongyloidesspecies such as S. papillosus, S. westeri, S. stercoralis, S. procyonisand S. myopotami, nematodes found in the small intestine of mammals, migratemore quickly in human skin than hookworm larva to form skin eruptions calledlarva currens( racing larva ). Gnathostomaspecies, a dog and cat roundwormfound in Southeast Asia and Dirofilariarepens, a filarial nematode of dogs, Medical Parasitologycats and wild carnivores, can travel through the skin and cause dermatitis, swelling and subcutaneous nodules. Uncinariastenocephala(doghookworm)and Bunostomumphlebotomum(cattle hookworm) may also cause cutaneousdisease. Ancylostomaduodenaleand Necatoramericanus, human hookworms, that, upon larval migration in the skin, produce a pruritic dermatitis ( grounditch ) similar to CLM of animal hookworms. Free-living nematodes such aspelodermastrongyloideshave also been described as a rare cause of cutaneousinfection in humans.
3 Life Cycle Unlike the classical hookworm life cycle, the cycle of the organisms that aretypically associated with CLM is much abbreviated.a.braziliensethird stageinfective larvae (L3) enter the epidermis andmigrate laterally in epidermis,generally unable to penetrate the basement membrane of the epidermal dermal junction. Humans are thus incidental dead-end hosts.
4 Disease Signs and Symptoms The most common portals of entry by the larvae are the exposed areas ofthe body such as the dorsum of the feet, lower legs, arms and hands. The buttocks,thighs and abdomen also may be involved, probably due to lying directlyon contaminated sand. CLM also occurs in the interdigital spaces of the toes,the anogenital region, knees and rarely on the face. Symptoms usually occur within the first hours of larval infection, although, occasionally, the larvae maylie dormant for several weeks. The first sign of infection is a stinging, tingling orburning sensation at the site of larval entry, followed by the development ofan edematous, erythematous pruritic papule. The larvae migrate laterally fromthe papule and form raised 2-4 mm wide serpinginous tracks. These tracks markthe migratory route of the larvae and may advance from a few millimeters toseveral centimeters each day, hence the name creeping eruption. As they burrow,the larvae produce hydrolytic enzymes that provoke the intense inflammatoryreaction that characterizes CLM. In heavy infections, an individual may have hundreds of tracts. Severe inflammatoryreactions may cause such an intensepruritis that individuals are unable to sleep, develop anorexia and even becomepsychotic. Secondary bacterial infections such as impetigo or cellulitis fromscratching the skin are common complications. CLM is a usually a self-limited disease. The larvae, unable to complete theirlife cycle, die in the epidermis within several weeks to months if left untreated. There are reports of larvae that have migrated for over one year. The skinlesions ulitmately resolve
5 although there may be scarring. Rarely larva maymigrate past the dermis to cause myositis, pneumonitis (Loffler s syndrome)or an eosinophilic enteritis (viz., A. caninum) of the small intestine. A pruriticfolliculitis is another uncommon form of CLM that presents with serpiginoustracks interspersed with papules and pustules confined to a particular area ofthe body, usually the buttocks. Cutaneous Larva Migrans Diagnosis The diagnosis of CLM is based on a history of exposure and the characteristicclinical appearance of the skin eruption. There may be a delay in diagnosis in chroniccases due to superimposed allergic dermatitis, secondary bacterial infection orlack of recognition of CLM by health care personnel. Peripheral eosinophilia andincreased IgE levels are found in a minority of patients. Skin biopsies are usuallynot effective at establishing the diagnosis. Histologic examination usually reveals only an eosinophilic infiltrate or a nonspecific inflammatory response, although,occasionally, a skin biopsy taken at the leading edge of the track may contain alarva trapped in a follicular canal, stratum cornea or dermis. The differential diagnosis of CLM should also include cercarial dermatitis( swimmer s itch ), migratory myiasis, scabies, jelly fish sting, photoallergic dermatitis, epidermaldermatophytosis, erythema chronicummigrans of Lyme diseaseand photoallergic dermatitis. Vesicular lesions may be mistaken for viral infectionsor phytophotodermatitis.
6 Prevention and Prophylaxis CLM can be prevented by avoiding skin contact with soil contaminated withinfected animal feces. In geographic areas where the infection is endemic, oneshould avoid touching soil with bare hands, walking barefoot or lying directly onmoist,warm, shady soil or warm, dry, sandy beaches protected from tidal movement. Beaches should also be kept free of dogs and cats. Pets should be examined. Lecture 2 Dr. JabarEtaby Visceral Larva Migrans VLM occurs primarily in young and preschool children. Most infections areasymptomatic, but fulminant disease and death do occur. Children come to medicalattention with unexplained prolonged fever, cough, hepatosplenomegaly, wheezeand eosinophilia. Other clinical signs and symptoms include lymphadenopathy, skin lesions,pruritus, anemia, failure to thrive, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, headacheand pneumonia, as well as behavioral and sleep disturbances. In children withtoxocariasis, pica or geographia are common. Myocarditis, respiratory failure or seizures may complicate overwhelming infection. Other less frequently reportedcomplications included multiple ecchymosed with eosinophilia, pyogenic live abscess, urticaria or prurigo, HenochSchonleinpurpura, nephrotic syndrome,secondary thrombocytosis and eosinophilic arthritis. There is a report of VLMmimicking lymphoma with hilar and mediastinal
7 lymphadenopathy and anotherof systemic vasculitis with lymphocytic temporal arteritis. Both of these two complicationsoccurred in patients over 60 years of age.toxocariasis has been suggested to be an environmental risk factor for asthmaamong children living in urban areas, but supportive evidence for this hypothesisis lacking. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication reportedmore frequently in adults. Toxocariasis should be considered as a causative agentin patients with eosinophilicmeningoencephalitis or meningitis. T. canishas been reported to cause epileptic seizures, particularly late-onset partial epilepsy. Ocular Larva Migrans Ocular toxocariasis occurs primarily in young adults and older children whopresent with unilateral visual loss over days to weeks. OLM follows entrapment ofa larva in the eye causing an intense eosinophilic inflammatory reaction. Posteriorpole granuloma is the most common form of OLM in children between 6 and 14years and causes decreased vision. Peripheral granuloma is usually seen at an olderage in association with macular heterotropia, strabismus and decreased vision.endophthalmitis occurs in younger children aged 2 to 9 years inwhom there ismarked visual impairment with evidence of vitritis and anterior uveitis. Retinaldetachment may be seen on fundoscopic examination. OLM should be included in the differential diagnosis of any child with leukocoria.
8 Diagnosis The presence of eosinophilia in a child with unexplained fever, abdominalpain, hepatosplenomegaly and multisystem illness raises the possibility of VLM,especially if there is a history of geographia or pica and contact with puppies.for a child with unilateral visual loss and strabismus, a diagnosis of OLM mustbe excluded. In OLM the blood eosinophil count is frequently not elevated.leukocytosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased anti-toxocaraige serum concentrationand elevated isohemagglutinin titers to A and B blood group antigensmay be present in VLM. The diagnosis of both VLM and OLM is usually based on serologic tests.however, serologic tests do not reliably distinguish between recent and past infection. The most frequently performed test is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(elisa) which uses Toxocaraexcretorysecretory antigens of the second-stage larvae.baylisascariasis and Toxocariasis.This test is sufficiently specific to be the best indirect diagnostic assay. At a titer ofgreater than 1:32 the sensitivity of this test for diagnosing VLM is about 78%. TheELISA is less reliable for the diagnosis of OLM. The presence of elevated vitreousand aqueous fluid titers relative to serum titers supports the diagnosis of OLM. Microscopy A definitive diagnosis of VLM is based upon the visualization of the larvae ininfected tissue such as lung, liver, or brain. In OLM the larvae may be seen in theenucleated eye. Molecular Diagnostics and Radiographic
9 In OLM, ultrasound biomicroscopy has been used to detect the morphologicchanges of peripheral vitreoretinaltoxocariasis. Ultrasonographic findings of hepatic toxocariasis complicating VLM may include ill-defined focal lesions, hepatosplenomegaly, the presence of biliary sludgeand dilatation and periportal lymphadenopathy. If present, follow-up CT scan ormr imaging should be considered following treatment.in patients with cerebral granulomatous toxocariasis, multiple subcortical, cortical,or white matter lesions that were hypoattenuating on CT scan, hyperintense ont2-weighted MR images and homogeneously enhancing have been reported. Thesefindings are nonspecific. It has been suggested, nonetheless, that serial MR imagingmay be used to monitor the course of disease treated with anthelminthic therapy. Follow-Up after Treatment Within a week of treatment there is usually a rise in eosinophilia accompaniedby improvement in clinical parameters. By 4 weeks post-therapy, eosinophilia hasusually resolved and the antitoxocaraige has become negative. Prevention and Control Exposure to toxocariasis occurs primarily in overcrowded urban areas wherechildren are in close contact with dogs and cats. Public education and control effortsshould be directed at limiting exposure of children to soil contaminated withtoxocaraeggs in public parks, playgrounds, sandboxes, home gardens and otherareas where
10 children congregate. Dogs and cats should be restricted from enteringpublic areas where children play. Dog owners should clean up after their pets havedefecated and have their pets wormed regularly. Children should wash their hands after playing in a park or coming in close contact with dogs, especially puppies andcats. Lecture 3 Dr. JabarEtaby
13 Epidemiology: In Africa onchocerciasis is prevalent throughout the eastern, central and western.africa, where it is the major cause of blindness. In the Americas it is found in Guatemala, Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela. The disease is confined to neighborhoods of low elevation with rapidly flowing small streams where black flies breed. Man is the only host. Morphology: Adult female onchocerca measure 50 cm x 300 µm, male worms are much smaller. Infective larvae of O. volvulus are 500 µm x 25 µm. Life cycle: Infective larvae are injected into human skin by the female black fly.(simuliumdamnosum) where they develop into adult worms in 8-10 months. The adults usually inhabit as group of worms (2-3 females and 1-2 males) tightly coiled. The gravid female releases microfilarial larvae, which are usually distributed in the skin. They are picked up by the black fly during a blood meal. The larvae migrate from the gut of the black fly to the thoracic muscle where they develop into infective larvae in 6-8 days. These larvae migrate to the head of the fly and then are transmitted to a second host. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on symptoms, history of exposure to black flies and presence of microfilaria in nodules. Treatment and control:diethylcarbamazine is effective in killing the worm. Destruction of microfilaria produces extreme allergic reaction which can be controlled with corticosteroids. Prevention measures include vector control, treatment of infected individuals and avoidance of black fly.
14 Wuchereriabancrofti and W. (Brugia) malayi (elephantiasis)
15 Epidemiology:W. bancrofti is strictly a human pathogen and is distributed in tropical areas worldwide, whereas B. malay infects a number of wild and domestic animals and is restricted to South-East Asia. Mosquitoes are vectors for both parasites.
16 Morphology: These two organisms are very similar in morphology and the disease they cause. Adult female W. bancrofti found in lymph nodes and lymphatic channels are 10 cm x 250 µm whereas males are only half the size. Microfilaria found in blood are only 260 µm x 10 µm. Adult B. malayi are only half the size and its microfilaria are only slightly smaller than W. bancrofti. Life cycle: Filariform larvae enter the human body during the mosquito bite and migrate to tissues. There they may take up to a year to mature and produce microfilaria which migrate to lymphatics and, at night, enter the blood circulation. Mosquitos are infected during the blood meal.the microfilaria grow 4-5 fold in mosquito in days and become infective for man. Symptoms: Symptoms include lymphadenitis and recurrent high fever, every 8-10 weeks, which lasts 3-7 days. There is progressively lymphadenitis due to inflammatory response to the parasite lodged in the lymphatic channels and tissues. As the worm dies, the reaction continues and produces a fibro-proliferative granuloma which obstructs lymph channels and causes lymphedema and elephantiasis The stretched skin is susceptible to traumatic injury and infections. Microfilaria cause eosinophilia and some splenomegaly. Not all infections lead to elephantiasis. Prognosis, in the absence of elephantiasis, is good.
17 Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on history of mosquito bite in endemic areas, clinical findings, and presence of microfilaria in blood samples collected at night. Treatment and control:diethylcarbamazine quickly kills the adultsworms or sterilizes the female. It is given 2 gm/kg orally for 14 days. Steroids are help alleviate inflammatory symptoms. Cooler climate reduces the inflammatory reaction.
18 Loa loa (eye worm) Loasis is limited to the areas of African equatorial rain forest. The incidence in endemic areas varies greatly (8-75 percent). The larger, female organism is 60 mm x 500 µm; males are 35 x 300 µm in size.the circulating microfilaria are 300 µm x 7 µm; the infective larvae in the fly are 200 µm x 30 µm. The life cycle of Loa loa is
19 identical to that of onchocerca except that the vector for this worm is the deer fly. The infection results in subcutaneous (Calabar) swelling, measuring 5-10 cm in diameter, marked by erythema and angioedema, usually in the extremities. The organism migrates under the skin at a rate of up to an inch every two minutes. Consequently, the swelling appears spontaneously, persists for 4-7 days and disappears, and is known as fugitive or Calabar swelling. The worm usually causes no serious problems, except when passing through the orbital conjunctiva or the nose bridge. The diagnosis is based on symptoms, history of deer fly bite and presence of eosinophilia. Recovery of worm from the conjunctiva is confirmatory. Treatment and control are the same as those for onchocerciasis. Wuchereriabancrofti; W. brugiamalayi (elephantiasis) Mosquito bite Medical history, physical examination, microfilaria in blood (night sample) Recurrent fever, lymphadenitis, splenomegaly, lymphedema, elephantiasis Mebendazole; Diethylcarbamazine Nodular and Medical Onchocerca volvulus Black fly bite erythematous dermal lesions, history, physical examination, Mebendazole; Diethylcarbamazine eosinophilia, microfilaria in
20 urticaria, nodular blindness aspirate Loa loa Deer fly As in onchocerciasis As in onchocerciasis As above
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