FACTORS AFFECTING RESISTANCE OF TWO OLIVE CULTIVARS TO LEAF SPOT DISEASE IN THE NORTH WEST OF TUNISIA ABSTRACT

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "FACTORS AFFECTING RESISTANCE OF TWO OLIVE CULTIVARS TO LEAF SPOT DISEASE IN THE NORTH WEST OF TUNISIA ABSTRACT"

Transcription

1 Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 FACTORS AFFECTING RESISTANCE OF TWO OLIVE CULTIVARS TO LEAF SPOT DISEASE IN THE NORTH WEST OF TUNISIA Fethi Ouerghi Institut Ntionl Agronomique de Tunisie, Université de Crthge, TUNISIA Ali Rhoum Institut de l Olivier Tunis Sttion TUNISIA Neil Rss Ecole Supérieure d Agriculture du Kef Kef, TUNISIA Itissem Hennchi Institut Ntionl Agronomique de Tunisie, Université de Crthge, TUNISIA Bouzid Nsroui Institut Ntionl Agronomique de Tunisie, Université de Crthge, TUNISIA ABSTRACT Evlution of the incidence of the lef spot disese cused y the iotrophic pthogen Fusicldium olegineum on two olive cultivrs (Ole europe L.) ws crried out during six yers (29/215) in groves locted t Touiref (North West of Tunisi). The studies focused on Meski nd Chetoui cultivrs. The evluted folir incidence of disese ws nlyzed in reltionship with some fctors. Disese incidence vried gretly mong the tow cultivrs sumitted to similr conditions. Meski is the susceptile olive cultivr grown ut Chetoui is more resistnt to these pthogen infections (R² =.94). The otined results reveled tht disese incidence ws correlted with the height of the trees (R² =.8), with the direction (R² =.82), with the lef ge (R² =.78) nd the reltive humidity (R² =.91). During our studies, we were ttempted to collect the fllen leves under trees to survey the development of the fungus Fusicldium olegineum, ut no sexul form ws found. Keywords: Disese incidence, Fusicldium olegineum, olive, resistnt, susceptile. INTRODUCTION The olive (Ole europe) is the most importnt olive-growing in Tunisi country where occupied round 3 % of its cultivted lnd (1.68 million h). The nnul production is recently estimted to 79, t of olives in 214 (FAO, 214). The olive lef spot disese (pecock spot) is cused y the fungus Fusicldium olegineum (syn Spiloce olegine) cuses severe premture defolition of the olive tree (Ole europe), nd sometimes the deth of the whole plnt (Miller, 1949; Azeri, 1993). Tle olive cultivr Meski nd oil olive cultivr Chetoui re the most growing in the North West of Tunisi. The first one is susceptile to lef spot ut Chetoui is less susceptile. The disese is widespred in the world nd in specilized res of cultivtion of olive trees with yield losses estimted t more thn 2% (Wilson nd Miller, 1949). Moist wether conditions fvor fungus sporultion, conidi germintion nd infection, nd young leves re more susceptile to infection thn older ones (Grniti, 1993). Conidi germintion nd infection required continuous moisture for h nd tempertures rnging from 5 to 25 C (Onor et l., 28). This folir disese is very common in the humid regions of Tunisi nd widespred in mny olive-growing regions, including North West of the country. Infections re normlly ssocited with high humidity nd winter conditions, where high tempertures restrict spore germintion nd growth (Al-khti et l., 2). Symptoms were quickly determined ccording to the method of (Zrco et l., 27). Fusicldium olegineum (syn= S. olegin) is specific pthogen of olive (Ole europe L.), whose development is restricted to tissues cuticle ffected (Tenerini nd Loprieno, 196), s with the custive fungi the scs of fruit (Wheeler, 1969). The nme refers pthogen only the sexul stte fungus. The sexul stge, lthough it hs een suject of some reserch Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 39

2 Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 (Grniti nd Lviol, 1968; Lviol, 1966; 1968; Miller, 1949; Virueg et l, 1999), it is not known, ut could correspond with Venturi y nlogy with other species Spiloce, s with S. pomi, nmorph of Venturi inequlis, cusing the 'sc' or 'Mottled' pple (McHrdy, 1996). The life cycle of the custive gent, Spiloce olegin is dependent on climtic conditions, which the most importnt re temperture nd humidity (Onor et l, 28). According to results of previous studies (Onor et l, 211; Virueg et l, 211), the min risk period occurs during erly spring due to the presence of conidi of the pthogen, fvorle wether conditions tempertures from 15 to 2 C nd wetness durtion >24 h), nd the presence of developing leves (Virueg nd Trpero, 1999). Other uthors hve suggested tht infected fllen leves re n importnt inoculum source ut they did not provide ny epidemiologicl evidence to support this clim (Guechi nd Girre, 1994; Hudson, 1971), we cnnot exclude the possiility tht they might function s n inoculums source under different wether conditions, with different popultions of the pthogen, or in the presence of different sprophytic microorgnisms. Despite its importnce, there is little informtion on some fctors ffecting their development of this disese in our country. Thus, we conducted this ttempt of study in order to contriute in the understnding of the development the lef spot disese nd the effects of vrious fctors environmentl nd host on infection nd development of disese nd olive cultivrs resistnce to lef spot disese. METHODOLOGY Plnt mteril The olive groves were locted in Touiref (in El-Kef t the North West of Tunisi: E; 8.7 N, 516 m ove se level)). Fresh leves of two cultivrs (Chetoui, nd Meski) were collected in spring time, the min period of olive ttck y the lef spot disese, from orchrds plnted in 21, during the sesons eginning 29 nd finished on 215. A totl of Leves were collected from three trees of ech vriety selected nd then stored t 4 C in Crop disese lortory of ESA Kef. The determintion of the percentge of ltent infections of olive cultivrs y the lef spot disese ws sed on the method of (Zrco et l., 27). It consists on immersing leves in 5 % sodium hydroxide solution for 2 minutes t 22 C. After this tretment, visile lesions were more prominent nd ltent infections ppered s lck circulr spots, clerly differentited from helthy green tissue. Assessment of incidence disese for different cultivrs leves, visily infected, were rndomly collected from 2 trees of the sme ge (plnted in 21) for ech cultivr (Meski nd Chetoui). Ltent infections were determined y immerging leves in NOH 5% solution for 2-3 min (Zrco et l., 27). The numer of infected leves ws recorded. For ech vriety, three repetitions were done. Assessment of incidence disese for different level of reltive humidity Trils were conducted on Meski nd Chetoui cultivrs, the first which is highly susceptile to OLS (Grniti, 1993); the second is modertely susceptile (Triki et l., 23). Mesurements of reltive humidity were tken rndomly in ech spring for ll 6 yers y mens of Lutron HT-31F Digitl Humidity / Temperture Meter. Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 4

3 Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 Assessment of incidence disese for different heights of trees A totl of 9 leves were collected from the 4 trees of 2 cultivrs (Meski nd Chetoui). For ech tree 3 leves were collected from the ottom, 3 from the middle nd 3 from the down. The percentge of infected leves. Assessment of incidence disese for different ges of leves 9 leves from ech vriety were chosen rndomly: 3 leves new formed (for the current yer), 3 leves from the lst yer nd 3 oldest leves were collected nd evluted for the ltent infection. Evlution of ltent infections ws crried out y method descried y Zrco et l. (27). Assessment of incidence disese for different directions For the field trils, ltent infections were sed on totl of leves tken rndomly from ech cultivr with 2 leves on per rnch on five rnches selected in vrious directions. The smpling ws repeted three times nd dt were trnsformed to meet the requirement for norml distriution. Fungl mteril Leves fllen down the trees were collected in two sesons in order to study the cycle of the fungus Fusicldium olegineum. In Phytomycology lortory of El-Kef High School of Agriculture conidi were otined from fresh disesed leves of olive tree cv Meski (susceptile) nd cv Chetoui (less susceptile). In order to otin the suspension, the infected leves were dried t mient temperture for 2 weeks nd then stored t 5 C in drkness (Trpero et l., 1994) nd then were gitted in sterile distilled wter for 2 h t 8 rpm t mient temperture. The conidil suspension ws then filtered through doule lyer of cheesecloth to eliminte vegetle mtter (Alonso et l., 26). Oservtions of germintion were done on slides for ech smple. Dt nlysis A dt incidence diseses ws pplied on the nlysis of vrince nd the Men vlues were compred using Fisher protected LSD test t P =.5 (SAS, 1985). All mesurements were repeted t lest once nd results show the verge vlues of experiments. The results were nlyzed using nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) nd Duncn s multiple rnge tests (Softwre SAS System, 1985). RESULTS Evlution of ltent infections of cultivrs Since the symptoms re invisile efore 176 dys fter inocultion, it ws importnt to use ltents infections technique. The results shown in Fig.1 revel n importnt vrition in the susceptiility of the cultivrs to the disese. The nlysis of vrince nd the mens comprison reveled significnt differences etween the cultivrs. Indeed, the Meski cultivr ws the most susceptile nd Chetoui the most resistnt to the disese since 8 % ltent infections were oserved. The However, cv. Meski ws the most susceptile to the disese, with the percentge of ltent infections rnging from 33 % to 52 % (figure 1). Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 41

4 Ltent infections (%) Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, MESKI CHETOUI Figure 1. Effects of reltive humidity of collected leves on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese Vriety Incidence disese for different levels of reltive humidity The nlysis of results showed tht there is high significnt difference in the percentge of ltent infections of lef spot disese etween the two cvs nd different levels of reltive humidity. The reltive humidity is rising more thn the percentge of infesttion y olive lef spot is high. The Meski vriety presents the highest percentge of ltent infections with out 65% t RH>8%. If is less thn 6%, leves of the two cultivrs presented minimum lesions. Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 42

5 Ltent infections (%) Ltent infections (%) Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, c HR 4-6 Meski HR 6-8 Meski HR >8 Meski Figure 2. Effects of relive humidity of collected leves from Meski cv. on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese 16 Reltive humidity (%) c 2 HR 4-6 Chetoui HR 6-8 Chetoui HR >8 Chetoui Relive Humidity (%) Figure 3. Effects of reltive humidity of collected leves from Chetoui cv. on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 43

6 Ltent infections (%) Ltent infections (%) Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 Incidence disese for different heights of trees Mesurements of ltent infections percentge for three different level of tree height showed significnt differences mong the sme cultivr nd etween cultivrs. Ltent infections rnged etween 3 nd 11 % for the cv. Chetoui nd from 2 to 6% for cv. Meski. In ll cses, Chetoui cv. hd the lowest ltent infections percentge. Meski hs the highest percentge of infected leves for ll levels of height Height level Meski Medium level Meski Low level Meski Height Level of leves Figure 4. Effects of height level of collected leves from Meski cv. on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese Height level Chetoui Medium level Chetoui Low level Chetoui Height level of leves Figure 5. Effects of height level of collected leves from Meski cv. on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese. Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 44

7 Ltent infections (%) Ltent infections (%) Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 Incidence disese for different ges of leves The min effects of ge were highly significnt (P <.5), nd the mens of mesurements repets long 6 yers differ significntly. For ech cv. young leves showed the highest infection, ut oldest hd significntly fewer lef lesions (figure 6, 7). The effect of lef ge on the rte of infected leves ws highly significnt. Oldest leves presented the lowest ltent infections percentge which reduced y 7.3% for Chetoui cv. And 45% for Meski cv. This increse of degree of susceptiility of the olive tree to OLS disese with decrese of lef ge might e due to the cuticle thickness c Oldest leves Meski Lst yer leves Meski Current yer leves Meski Figure 6. Effects of ge of leves from Meski cv. on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese. 14 Lef ge Oldest leves Chetoui Lst yer leves Chetoui Current yer leves Chetoui Lef ge Figure 7. Effects of ge of leves from Chetoui cv. on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese. Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 45

8 Ltent infections (%) Ltent infections (%) Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 Incidence disese for different directions The efficcy of the different directions vried ws shown in fig 5. At ll trees, the leves sumitted to the north direction were the most ffected y lef spot disese with the men of ltent infection percentges rnging from 16 to 67% for Meski cv. Ltent infections for Meski cv. ws pproximtely reduced y 5% on trees tht exposed to south nd estern directions, compred with out 6% ltent infections for those of Chetoui cv. in the sme directions (Figure 8, 9) Meski Est Meski West Meski North Meski South Figure 8. Effects of direction on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese on Meski cv. 14 Direction Chetoui Est Chetoui West Chetoui North Chetoui South Direction Figure 9. Effects of direction on percentge of ltent infections of the lef spot disese on Chetoui cv. Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 46

9 Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 Fungl development Oservtions on slides contining Fusicldium olegineum showed conidi germintion on fllen leves until 12 dys in spring time, fter tht conidi development ws stopped in culture medi. Studies crried out on different cultivrs nd in vrious sesons showed tht no sexul form ws oserved on infected leves or in culture medi. DISCUSSION Our studies were crried out on two olive cultivrs in the north west of Tunisi in order to survey the effects of some iotic nd iotic fctors on their resistnce to olive lef spot disese. The olive lef spot disese, cused y the fungus Fusicldium olegineum is the disese most common olive in mny countries, cusing severe defolition tht weken progressively the tree nd cuse crop losses estimted t more thn 6%, lthough in some yers nd plces cn e ctstrophic. Most infected leves nd fruit fll to the ground. Olive oil otined from fllen fruit is of poor qulity ecuse vrious sprophytic fungi colonize the fruit nd chnge the cidity nd orgnoleptic chrcteristics of the oil (Andrés, 1991). Although symptoms my vry depending on the vriety olive, ge nd conditions of the lesion environment in which they develop, usully re esily identified (Trpero nd Blnco, 1999). It is known tht climtic conditions influence the development of the olive lef spot. The disese is very grve in humid res nd cuses very significnt yield losses (Wilson et Ogw, 1979). The fruit rot cused y Spiloce olegin ws oserved in the humid zones, cse of Clri region (Southern Itly) chrcterized y environmentl conditions fvoring the development of the epidemic (Grniti,1993) depends on other fctors: cultivr types, density nd ge of plnttions (Agostino, 27 ; Grniti, 1993 ; De Mrzo et l., 1993; Lviol et Scrito,,1993; Mcdonld et l., 2). Ltent infections of disese were mesured in spring nd utumn sesons, the min periods of development of lef spot in Tunisi. López-Doncel et l. (1994, 1998, nd 1999) hs used the sme method in lortory to evlute the resistnce olive cultivrs to olive lef spot disese nd to determine the influence of fctors environmentl nd host the infection nd lef spot disese development (Virueg nd Trpero, 1999). Our results showed tht Meski is susceptile thn Chetoui to this disese. Mny studies showed tht Meski cultivr is the most susceptile nd Chetoui is less susceptile ut Picholine vriety is more resistnt to OLS (Triki et l., 23). Mesurements crried on the lef ge, height nd direction of trees on two olive cultivrs Meski nd Chetoui showed difference etween vrieties. The reltive humidity effects were significntly different for the cultivrs on the disese incidence. Wether conditions nd the presence of developing leves during erly spring re usully dequte for lef infection in olive growing res in southern Spin (Virueg et l, 211; Onor et l, 211; Roul et l, 212). Studies conducted on olive inoculted with S. olegin hve reveled tht the severity of infections is correlted liner nd negtively with ge leves, eing very young leves extremely susceptile. Becuse the mture olive leves hve importnt resistnce to infection Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 47

10 Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 y S. olegin, the min infection periods occur during the lef growth (Onor et l, 211; Virueg et l, 211). These results re consistent with those of Lόpez-Doncel et l. (2) who found tht younger leves were more susceptile to olive lef spot thn older leves. The otined results definitely clrify the controversy existing etween uthors ssigned incresed susceptiility to the old leves (Andreucci nd Bonifcio, 1962; Petri, 1913; Prot, 1958; Wilson nd Miller, 1949) nd those who thought otherwise (D'Armini nd Rggi, 1966; Lvee, 199; Tenerini, 1964), sed minly on oservtions country. Typiclly, disese severity on the youngest leves ws out three to five times higher thn the oldest leves, nd there ws more rpid increse in the severity etween 6 nd 24 h of wetness for the youngest leves thn for the other two lef ges (Onor, 211). McHrdy (1996) reported tht the decrese of olive sc severity with incresing lef ge is cse of resistnce, or ge-relted resistnce, which hs een reported for mny plnt diseses including pple sc. The pthosystems hs een ssocited with vrious physicl nd chemicl fetures of the lef cuticle in Cliforni (Miller, 1949; Grniti, 1993; Guechi nd Girre, 1994). The differences could lso e ssocited with the wter-repellent wxes tht re uilt up on lef surfces s they ge. The wxes prevent formtion of wter films in which pthogens might germinte (Agrios, 1997). In ddition, the thicker cuticle of older leves cn etter impede penetrtion thn in young leves (Jeyrmrj et l., 25), n importnt fctor for S. olegin which infects y direct cuticle penetrtion (Grniti, 1993). The results of this study showed tht the leves exposed to north nd west directions presented more lesions on upper surfce of Meski vriety nd then were more susceptile to the OLS then those in the estern nd south fronts. In Morocco, Besri nd Outssourt (1984) hve worked on the olive lef spot distriution on two fces (North nd South) of the some trees cnopy in two olive-growing regions: Béni Melll nd Mrrkech. Both uthors noted tht the percentge of leves infection exposed to North is significntly higher thn leves exposed to South. Tjnri (1999) lso studied the disese distriution in the region o f Kel Srghn in Morocco. He noted tht the exposed fce of the olive tree in the North is the most contested, followed y the West, South nd Est. The interior of the cnopy is more ttcked thn the outside nd the ottom of the cnopy is more infested thn the top. For The height of tree influences, otined results showed tht percentge of ltent infections decreses with incresing distnce from the lnd. Grniti (1993) indicted tht environmentl fctors such s temperture nd humidity re the driving forces of infection nd spred of the disese. The dispersl distnce nd its response to wether conditions hve not een reported for olive sc s it hs een for the scosporic phse of similr pthogens, such s Venturi inequlis nd V. pirin (Aylor, 1995). Conidil germintion occurs during cold nd riny wether (Tjnri, 1999). The excess of free wter increses the humidity in the folige of the olive trees; the lef surfce ecomes wet which promotes the dissemintion, contmintion nd germintion of conidi1 (Lviol et Scrito, 1993). In the sence of rin nd when the humidity is ove 7%, there is dispersion of conidi y wind which ffect severity of the olive lef spots (Tjnri, 1999; Besri et Outssout, 1984). Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 48

11 Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 The conidi germintion ws stopped fter less thn week. These results re in concordnce with those otined y Vrueg nd Trpero (1999) which reported tht the conidi formed in leves on fllen leves cn survive for severl months; lthough once they hve seprted from the conidiophores they lose their germintion ility in less thn week. Sexul fruiting odies of S. olegin were not oserved in this study or found in previous reserch done in Cliforni (Miller, 1949; Grniti, 1993; Guechi nd Girre, 1994). According to other uthors, however, the most importnt inoculum sources re infected leves tht hve fllen to the soil surfce (Asswh, 1967; Guechi nd Girre, 1994; Lviol, 1968). Under humid conditions, the pthogen could not e detected on fllen leves fter 3 months ecuse the leves were colonized y sprophytic fungi (Virueg et l., 211). CONCLUSIONS Finlly, our study demonstrted tht in North West of Tunisi, utumn nd spring survey of development of OLS on Meski nd Chetoui cultivrs in the similr field conditions, indicted tht there re correltion etween some prmeters like cultivr, lef ge, height of tree, direction of leves nd reltive humidity nd the severity disese of lef spot. REFERENCES Al-Khti, M., Alhussen, K., El-Bnn, N., & Zydeh, M. (2) Biologicl control of olive lef spot (pecock spot disese) cused y Cycloconium oleginum (Spiloce olegine). Journl of Microiology nd Antimicroils, 6, Alonso, R., Besor, J. nd Perdices, M. (26) Efficci del product lnzder core (Agrométodos, S.A.) contr el repilo en plntones de olivo inoculdos rtificilmente con Spiloce olegin. In, Fruticultur profesionl, 16, 1-4. Agostino T., Tomesi S., Milgros S., Fernndez-escor, R., Riccrdo, A., Antonell, L., et Jrdk, T. (27) Techniques de production en oléiculture. 34 pp. Agrios G.N. (25) Plnt Pthology. Fifth Ed. Elsevier Acdemic Press, 984 p. Andrés, F. De. (1991) Enfermeddes y plgs del olivo. 2 ed. Riquelme y Vrgs Ediciones, Jén, Spin. Andreucci, E. Y. nd Bonifcio, A. (1962) Richerche su Cycloconium oleginum in lcune zone deli Toscn Settentrionle. Phytopthol. Medit., 1, Asswh, M. W. (1967) Cycloconium lef spot of olive in Egypt. Phytopthol. Mediterr., 6, Aylor, D. E. (1995) Verticl vrition of eril concentrtion of Venturi inequlis scospores in pple orchrd. Phytopthology, 85, Azeri, T. (1993) Reserch on olive lef spot, olive knot nd Verticillium wilt of olive in Turkey. EPPO Bull., 23, Besri M. et Outssout (1984) Influence de l'exposition de l frondison de l'rre sur l mnifesttion de Cycloconium oleginum Cst., gent de l mldie de l'oeil de pon de l'olivier. Olive, 3, De Mrzo L., Frisullo S., Lops F. nd Rossi V. (1993) Possile dissemintion of Spiloceolegin conidi y insects (Ectopsocus riggsi). Bull. OEPP/EPPO Bull., 23, D Armini, M. nd Rggi, V. (1966) Alcuni crtteri morfologici e fisiologici di cultivrs d olivo in relzione ll loro divers resistenz Spiloce olegin (Cst) Hugh. Phytopthol. Med., 5, FAOSTAT (214) http,//fostt3.fo.org/downlod/q/qc/e Grniti, A. (1993) Olive sc, Review. EPPO Bull., 23, Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 49

12 Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 Grniti, A. Lviol, C. (1968) Epidemiology of Spiloce olegin on olive in Itly. First Interntionl Congress of Plnt Pthology (Astrcts Ppers), London, pp. 68. Guechi, A., nd Girre, L. (1994) Sources of Cycloconium oleginum (Cst.) conidi for infection of olive leves nd conditions determining lef spot disese development in the region of Sétif, Algeri. Mycopthologi, 125, Hudson, H. J. (1971) The development of the sprophytic fungl flor s leves senesce nd fll. Pges in, Ecology of Lef Surfce Microorgnisms. T. F. Preece nd C. H. Dickinson, eds. Acdemic Press, London. Jyrmrj, P.R., Pius, P.K., Mnin, S., Nithy Meenkshi, S. (25) Certin Fctors ssocited with Blister light resistnce in Cmelli sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Physiol. mol. PlntPthol., 67, Lvee, S. (199) Aims, methods, nd dvnces in reeding of new olive (Ole europe L.) cultivre. Act Hort., 286, Lviol, C. (1966) Contriution to the knowledge of the iology of Spiloce olegin (Cst.) Hugh, in Apuli. Proc. First Congr. Medit. Phytopth. Union, Bri. pp Lviol, C. (1968) Aspetti iologici ed epifitologici di Spiloce olegin (Cst.) Hugh, in Itli. Ann. Fc. Agrri Univ. Bri, 22, Lviol C. nd Scrito G. (1993) Oservtions on spore production in Spiloce olegin in southern Itly. Bull. OEPP/EPPO Bull., 23, López-Doncel, L. M; Virueg, J. R. nd Trpero, A. (1994) Respuest del olivo l inoculción con Spiloce olegin. VII Congreso de l Sociedd Esp- ñol de Fitoptologí, Sitges. pp. 48. López-Doncel, L. M.; Grcí-Berenguer, A. nd Trpero, A. (1998) Resistenci del olivo l Repilo cusdo por Spiloce olegin. IX Congreso de l Sociedd Espñol de Fitoptologí, Slmnc, pp López-Doncel, L. M.; Grcí-Berenguer, A. nd Trpero, A. (1999) Resistnce of olive tree cultivrs to lef spot cused y Spiloce olegin. Act Hort., 474, López-Doncel, L. M., Virueg-Puente, J. R., & Trpero-Css, A. (2) Respuest del olivo l inoculcion con Spiloce olegin, gente del repilo. Boletin de Snidd Vegetle Plgs, 26, Mcdonld, D., Crtree J.R., Wiesinger G., Dx T., Stmou N., Fleury P., Gutierrez-Lzpit J. et Gion A. (2) Agriculturl ndonment in mountinres of Europe, environmentl consequences nd policy responses. Journl of Environmentl Mngement, 59, Mchrdy, W. E. (1996) Apple sc, iology, epidemiology, nd mngement. APS Press, St. Pul, Minnesot. 545 pp. Miller, H.N. (1949) Development of the lef spot fungus in the olive lef. Phytopthology, 39, Onor, F.O., Wlter, M., Jones, E.E. nd Jspers, M.V. (28) Effect of temperture, reltive humidity, lef witness nd lef ge on Spiloce olegin conidium germintion on olive leves. Europen Journl of Plnt Pthology, 12, Onor, F. O., Wlter, M., Jones, E. E., nd Jspers, M. V. (211) Effects of temperture, inoculum concentrtion, lef ge, nd continuous nd interrupted wetness on infection of olive plnts y Spiloce olegin. Plnt Pthol., 6, Petri, L. (1913) Studi sulle mlttie del Polivo. Mem. R. Stz. Ptol. Veg., Rom. 16 pp. Prot, U. (1958) Contriuti li ptologi dell'olivo coltivto in Srdegn. Studi Sssresi, 6, Roul, C., Regis, S., nd Nicot, P. C. (212) Field models for the prediction of lef infection Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 5

13 Europen Journl of Advnced Reserch in Biologicl nd Life Sciences Vol. 4 No. 1, 216 nd ltent period of Fusicldium olegineum on olive sed on rin, temperture nd reltive humidity. Plnt Pthol. Online puliction. doi,.1111/j x SAS Institute. (1985) Softwre SAS System. SAS institute Inc. Tenerini, I. (1964) Richerche sull iologi ed epidemiologi deli Spiloce olegine (Cst.) Hugh., gente dell'occhio di pvone dell'olivo. Phytopthol. Medit., 3, Tenerini, I. nd Loprieno, N. (196) Ricerche istologiche sulle zone di insedimento del Cycloconium oleginum Cst., gente dell'occhio di pvone dell'olivo. Phytopthologische Zeitschriff, 39, Tjnri, H. (1999) L mldie de l œil de Pon. L Assocition Mrocine de Protection des plntes. Journée ntionle sur l protection phytosnitire de l olivier, Mrrkech, 27 mi 1999, Trpero, A.; Luque, F. nd Segur, R. (1994) Efecto de l tempertur y l humedd sore l germinción de conidis de Spiloce olegin, gente del repilo del olivo. VII Congreso de l Sociedd Espñol de Fitoptologí, Sitges, Brcelon, 56 pp. Trpero, A., nd Roc, L. F. (24) Bses epidemiológics pr el control integrdo de los Repilos del olivo. Phytom Espñ, 164, Triki, M.A.; Ftm, F. nd Hmdi, W. (23) Mldie de l œil de pon de l olivier en Tunisie, ioécologie et mesures de lutte. http,//www.irs.grinet.tn/ Virueg, J.R. nd Trpero, A. (1999) Epidemiology of lef spot of olive tree cused y Spiloce olegin in southern Spin. Act Hort., 474, Virueg, J. R.; Trpero, A. nd Moreno, S. (1999) Eficci del Kresoxim-metil sore Spiloce olegin, gente del Repilo del olivo. IX Simposium Científico Técnico Expoliv, Jén. Virueg, J. R., Roc, L.., Morl, J., nd Trpero, A. (211) Fctors ffecting infection nd disese development on olive leves inoculted with Fusicldium olegineum. Plnt Dis., 95, Wheeler, B. E. J. (1969) An introduction to plnt diseses. John Wiley & Sons, London. 374 pp. Wilson E.E. nd Miller, H.N. (1949) Olive lef spot nd its control with fungicides. Hilgrdi, 19, Wilson, E.E. Ogw, J.M. (1979) Fungl, cteril nd certin non-prsitic diseses of fruit nd nut crops in Cliforni. Clifornin Agriculturl Science Pulictions, Berkeley, Cliforni, USA. Zrco, A., Virueg, J. R., Roc, L. F., nd Trpero, A. (27) Detección de ls infecciones ltentes de Spiloce olegin en hojs de olivo. Bol. Sn. Veg. Plgs, 33, Progressive Acdemic Pulishing, UK Pge 51

Effect of fungicide timing and wheat varietal resistance on Mycosphaerella graminicola and its sterol 14 α-demethylation-inhibitorresistant

Effect of fungicide timing and wheat varietal resistance on Mycosphaerella graminicola and its sterol 14 α-demethylation-inhibitorresistant Effect of fungicide timing nd whet vrietl resistnce on Mycospherell grminicol nd its sterol 14 α-demethyltion-inhiitorresistnt genotypes Didierlurent L., Roisin-Fichter C., Snssené J., Selim S. Pltform

More information

Dr. Gary E. Vallad, Associate Professor, UF/IFAS, Gulf Coast REC

Dr. Gary E. Vallad, Associate Professor, UF/IFAS, Gulf Coast REC Dr. Gry E. Vlld, Associte Professor, UF/IFAS, Gulf Cost REC Florid Production: 35,ooo production crege $456 million production vlue Nerly yer-long production Florid Production: 35,ooo production crege

More information

Not for Citation or Publication Without Consent of the Author

Not for Citation or Publication Without Consent of the Author Not for Cittion or Puliction Without Consent of the Author AN AUTOMATED SEX PHEROMONE TRAP FOR MONITORING ADULT CM AND OFM AND THE INFLUENCE OF TRAP COLOR ON MOTH AND NON-TARGET CAPTURES Brin L. Lehmn

More information

Prevalence of Colletotrichum spp. Infecting Fruits in Southern Ethiopia

Prevalence of Colletotrichum spp. Infecting Fruits in Southern Ethiopia World Journl of Agriculturl Sciences 11 (1): 34-41, 2015 ISSN 1817-3047 IDOSI Pulictions, 2015 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjs.2015.11.1.1842 Prevlence of Colletotrichum spp. Infecting Fruits in Southern Ethiopi

More information

Clinical Study Report Synopsis Drug Substance Naloxegol Study Code D3820C00018 Edition Number 1 Date 01 February 2013 EudraCT Number

Clinical Study Report Synopsis Drug Substance Naloxegol Study Code D3820C00018 Edition Number 1 Date 01 February 2013 EudraCT Number EudrCT Number 2012-001531-31 A Phse I, Rndomised, Open-lbel, 3-wy Cross-over Study in Helthy Volunteers to Demonstrte the Bioequivlence of the Nloxegol 25 mg Commercil nd Phse III Formultions nd to Assess

More information

DR. MARC PAGÈS Project Manager R&D Biologicals - Coccidia Projects, HIPRA

DR. MARC PAGÈS Project Manager R&D Biologicals - Coccidia Projects, HIPRA DR. MARC PAGÈS Project Mnger R&D Biologicls - Coccidi Projects, HIPRA Dr. Mrc Pgès Bosch otined Microiology nd Genetics degree t the University of Brcelon in 1998. He otined his PhD working on the synptoneml

More information

Keywords: apple, apple scab, carbonate, organic orchards

Keywords: apple, apple scab, carbonate, organic orchards 52 Reviewed Ppers Preventtive nd curtive pplictions of crbontes ginst pple scb (Venturi inequlis) in orgnic pple orchrds M. Kelderer, C. Cser 2, E. Lrdschneider 3, A. L Torre 4 Abstrct In the EC, for long

More information

ON CITRUS TREES IN FLORIDA1

ON CITRUS TREES IN FLORIDA1 TRAMMEL AND SIMANTON: OILS EFFECTS ON TREES 9 PROPERTIES OF SPRAY OILS IN RELATION TO EFFECT ON CITRUS TREES IN FLORIDA Kenneth Trmmel nd Willim A. Simnton Abstrct Petroleum oil sprys re widely used s

More information

USE OF SORGHUM-BASED DISTILLERS GRAINS IN DIETS FOR NURSERY AND FINISHING PIGS

USE OF SORGHUM-BASED DISTILLERS GRAINS IN DIETS FOR NURSERY AND FINISHING PIGS Swine Dy 1996 USE OF SORGHUM-BASED DISTILLERS GRAINS IN DIETS FOR NURSERY AND FINISHING PIGS B. W. Senne, J. D. Hncock, I. Mvromichlis, S. L. Johnston, P. S. Sorrell, I. H. Kim, nd R. H. Hines Summry Two

More information

Distribution of Pathotypes with Regard to Host Cultivars in French Wheat Leaf Rust Populations

Distribution of Pathotypes with Regard to Host Cultivars in French Wheat Leaf Rust Populations Genetics nd Resistnce Distribution of Pthotypes with Regrd to Host Cultivrs in French Whet Lef Rust Popultions Henriette Goyeu, Robert Prk, Brigitte Scheffer, nd Christin Lnnou First nd fourth uthors:

More information

Recent advances in cryopreservation od salmonid fish semen. Andrzej Ciereszko

Recent advances in cryopreservation od salmonid fish semen. Andrzej Ciereszko Recent dvnces in cryopreservtion od slmonid fish semen Andrzej Ciereszko Institute of Animl Reproduction nd Food Reserch, Polish Acdemy of Sciences in Olsztyn, Polnd Justifiction for the studies Poor performnce

More information

Effects of Dietary Protein and Energy on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Betong Chickens (Gallus domesticus) During Growing Period

Effects of Dietary Protein and Energy on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Betong Chickens (Gallus domesticus) During Growing Period Interntionl Journl of Poultry Science 9 (5): 468-472, 2010 ISSN 1682-8356 Asin Network for Scientific Informtion, 2010 Effects of Dietry Protein nd Energy on Growth Performnce nd Crcss Chrcteristics of

More information

SYNOPSIS Final Abbreviated Clinical Study Report for Study CA ABBREVIATED REPORT

SYNOPSIS Final Abbreviated Clinical Study Report for Study CA ABBREVIATED REPORT Finl Arevited Clinicl Study Report Nme of Sponsor/Compny: Bristol-Myers Squi Ipilimum Individul Study Tle Referring to the Dossier (For Ntionl Authority Use Only) Nme of Finished Product: Yervoy Nme of

More information

The Ever Changing World of Feed Additives in The Poultry Industry

The Ever Changing World of Feed Additives in The Poultry Industry The Ever Chnging World of Feed Additives in The Poultry Industry B. S. Lumpkins nd G.F. Mthis Southern Poultry Reserch Inc. Athens, GA, USA Outline Southern Poultry Reserch Impct of ethnol production of

More information

A Study of Risk Factors Associated With the Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Villages Around Lake Atitlan, Guatemala

A Study of Risk Factors Associated With the Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Villages Around Lake Atitlan, Guatemala BJID 2004; 8 (August) 319 A Study of Risk Fctors Associted With the Prevlence of Cryptosporidium in Villges Around Lke Atitln, Guteml H. E. Luch 1, C. Z. Bentley 2, E. L. 1 Deprtment of Microiology, College

More information

Resistance to Mefenoxam and Metalaxyl Among Field Isolates of Phytophthora capsici Causing Phytophthora Blight of Bell Pepper

Resistance to Mefenoxam and Metalaxyl Among Field Isolates of Phytophthora capsici Causing Phytophthora Blight of Bell Pepper Resistnce to Mefenoxm nd Metlxyl Among Field Isoltes of Phytophthor cpsici Cusing Phytophthor Blight of Bell Pepper Gregory Prr nd Jen Begle Ristino, Deprtment of Plnt Pthology, North Crolin Stte University,

More information

Detecting Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Family History as a Risk Factor and Screening Tool. Rodolfo Valdez, Ph.D.

Detecting Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Family History as a Risk Factor and Screening Tool. Rodolfo Valdez, Ph.D. Journl of Dietes Science nd Technology Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2009 Dietes Technology Society SYMPOSIUM Detecting Undignosed Type 2 Dietes: Fmily History s Risk Fctor nd Screening Tool Rodolfo, Ph.D. Astrct

More information

Infrared Image Edge Detection based on Morphology- Canny Fusion Algorithm

Infrared Image Edge Detection based on Morphology- Canny Fusion Algorithm , pp.42-46 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/stl.2016.137.08 Infrred Imge Edge Detection bsed on Morphology- Cnny Fusion Algorithm Tng Qingju 1, Bu Chiwu 2, Liu Yunlin 1, Zng Jinsuo 1, Li Dyong 1 1 School of

More information

Oregon Agricultural College

Oregon Agricultural College Sttion Bulletin 143 My, 1917 Oregon Agriculturl College Experiment Sttion Deprtment of Botny nd Plnt Pthology New Fcts Regrding the Period of Ascopore Dischrge of the Apple Scb Fungus BY LEROY CHLDS Entomologist

More information

Cattle Producer s Library

Cattle Producer s Library Western Beef Resource Committee Cttle Producer s Lirry Nutrition Section CL318 Supplementtion Strtegies for Grzing Beef Cttle C. P. Mthis, New Mexico Stte University D. W. Bohnert, Oregon Stte University

More information

ET 100 EXTERIOR FRONT DOOR BLACK OUT TAPE INSTALLATION

ET 100 EXTERIOR FRONT DOOR BLACK OUT TAPE INSTALLATION 100 EXTERIOR FRONT DOOR BLCK OUT TPE INSTLLTION The procedure descried elow is for the LH side. Use the sme procedure for oth the RH nd LH sides, unless otherwise specified. 1. INSTLL NO. 2 BLCK OUT TPE

More information

Codling moth damage assessment in apple fruit and its management using insecticide bioassays

Codling moth damage assessment in apple fruit and its management using insecticide bioassays Avilble online t wwwpelgireserchlibrrycom Pelgi Reserch Librry Europen Journl of Experimentl Biology, 14, 4(5):76-81 ISSN: 2248 9215 CODEN (USA): EJEBAU Codling moth dmge ssessment in pple fruit nd its

More information

2. Hubs and authorities, a more detailed evaluation of the importance of Web pages using a variant of

2. Hubs and authorities, a more detailed evaluation of the importance of Web pages using a variant of 5 Web Serch Outline: 1. Pge rnk, for discovering the most ëimportnt" pges on the Web, s used in Google. 2. Hubs nd uthorities, more detiled evlution of the importnce of Web pges using vrint of the eigenvector

More information

Second Analysis of Mortality of Nuclear Industry Workers in Japan,

Second Analysis of Mortality of Nuclear Industry Workers in Japan, RADIATION RESEARCH 9, 8 8 () -787/ $. y Rdition Reserch Society. All rights of reproduction in ny form reserved. Second Anlysis of Mortlity of Nucler Industry Workers in Jpn, 98 997 Tmiko Iwski,,e Motoi

More information

Using Load Research Data to Model Weather Response

Using Load Research Data to Model Weather Response 30 25 20 15 10-5 1,950 2,025 2,100 2,175 2,250 2,325 2,400 2,475 2,550 2,625 2,700 2,775 2,850 2,925 3,000 3,075 3,150 3,225 3,300 3,375 3,450 3,525 3,600 MW 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

More information

Effect of Mannanase on Broiler Performance, Ileal and In-vitro Protein Digestibility, Uric Acid and Litter Moisture in Broiler Feeding

Effect of Mannanase on Broiler Performance, Ileal and In-vitro Protein Digestibility, Uric Acid and Litter Moisture in Broiler Feeding Interntionl Journl of Poultry Science 4 (1): 21-26, 2005 Asin Network for Scientific Informtion, 2005 Effect of Mnnnse on Broiler Performnce, Ilel nd In-vitro Protein Digestiility, Uric Acid nd Litter

More information

Effect of orthodontic treatment on oral health related quality of life

Effect of orthodontic treatment on oral health related quality of life Originl Article Effect of orthodontic tretment on orl helth relted qulity of life Dniel Feu ; Jose Augusto M. Miguel ; Roger K. Celeste c ; Brnc Helois Oliveir d ABSTRACT Ojective: To ssess chnges in orl

More information

Opioid Use and Survival at the End of Life: A Survey of a Hospice Population

Opioid Use and Survival at the End of Life: A Survey of a Hospice Population 532 Journl of Pin nd Symptom Mngement Vol. 32 No. 6 December 2006 NHPCO Originl Article Opioid Use nd Survivl t the End of Life: A Survey of Hospice Popultion Russell K. Portenoy, MD, Un Sibircev, BA,

More information

Debra A. Ignaut, R.N., B.S., C.D.E., and Haoda Fu, Ph.D.

Debra A. Ignaut, R.N., B.S., C.D.E., and Haoda Fu, Ph.D. Journl of Dietes Science nd Technology Volume 6, Issue 2, Mrch 2012 Dietes Technology Society TECHNOLOGY REPORT Comprison of Insulin Diluent Lekge Postinjection Using Two Different Needle Lengths nd Injection

More information

SOME MECHANISTIC CONCEPTS IN ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION REACTIONS TO C=C BONDS

SOME MECHANISTIC CONCEPTS IN ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION REACTIONS TO C=C BONDS SM MANISTI NPTS IN LTPILI AITIN ATINS T = BNS The = ond is considered to e wek se/nucleophile. The high concentrtion of electron density mkes the pi ond Lewis se, ut in order to donte electrons the pi

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 160 (2016 )

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 160 (2016 ) Aville online t www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedi Engineering 160 (2016 ) 131 136 XVIII Interntionl Colloquium on Mechnicl Ftigue of Metls (ICMFM XVIII) Clcultion of stress intensity fctors K

More information

Impact of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and Natural Enemies on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestations in Pepper

Impact of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and Natural Enemies on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestations in Pepper Impct of Plnt Growth-Promoting Rhizocteri nd Nturl Enemies on Myzus persice (Hemipter: Aphidide) Infesttions in Pepper Author(s): Croline Boutrd-Hunt, Christine D. Smrt, Jennifer Thler, nd Brin A. Nult

More information

Bright Futures Medical Screening Reference Table 2 to 5 Day (First Week) Visit

Bright Futures Medical Screening Reference Table 2 to 5 Day (First Week) Visit Bright Futures Medicl Reference Tle 2 to 5 Dy (First Week) Visit Universl Action Metolic nd Verify documenttion of neworn metolic screening results, pproprite rescreening, nd needed follow-up. Document

More information

STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS IN EXCEL

STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS IN EXCEL Microrry Center STATISTICAL DATA ANALYSIS IN EXCEL Prt 1 Introduction to Sttistics Dr. Petr Nzrov 14-06-2010 petr.nzrov@crp-snte.lu Sttisticl dt nlysis in Excel COURSE OVERVIEW Objectives The course: Reminds

More information

M. Migden, R. Gutzmer, A. Guminski, T. Yi, S. Gogov, J. Lear, R. Dummer

M. Migden, R. Gutzmer, A. Guminski, T. Yi, S. Gogov, J. Lear, R. Dummer A 12-Month Updte of BOLT, Phse 2, Rndomized, Double- Blind Study of (LDE225) in Ptients With Loclly Advnced or Metsttic Bsl Cell Crcinom M. Migden, R. Gutzmer, A. Guminski, T. Yi, S. Gogov, J. Ler, R.

More information

LALR Analysis. LALR Analysis. LALR Analysis. LALR Analysis

LALR Analysis. LALR Analysis. LALR Analysis. LALR Analysis LLR nlysis Motivtion s eplined efore, in LR() prsers there re mny more sttes thn in the previous procedures, LR() nd LR(). This is ecuse there re sttes which contin the sme configurtions, ut with different

More information

R Martino 1, P Romero 1, M Subirá 1, M Bellido 1, A Altés 1, A Sureda 1, S Brunet 1, I Badell 2, J Cubells 2 and J Sierra 1

R Martino 1, P Romero 1, M Subirá 1, M Bellido 1, A Altés 1, A Sureda 1, S Brunet 1, I Badell 2, J Cubells 2 and J Sierra 1 Bone Mrrow Trnsplnttion, (1999) 24, 283 287 1999 Stockton Press All rights reserved 0268 3369/99 $12.00 http://www.stockton-press.co.uk/bmt Comprison of the clssic Glucksberg criteri nd the IBMTR Severity

More information

Am J Nephrol 2013;38: DOI: /

Am J Nephrol 2013;38: DOI: / Americn Journl of Nephrology Originl Report: Ptient-Oriented; Trnsltionl Reserch Am J Nephrol 213;38:333 341 Received: July 23, 213 Accepted: August 28, 213 Pulished online: Octoer 5, 213 Novel Approch

More information

Evaluation of damage to satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) by the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

Evaluation of damage to satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) by the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) J. Appl. Entomol. Evlution of dmge to stsum mndrin (Citrus unshiu) by the leffooted bug, Leptoglossus zontus (Hemipter: Coreide) Y. F. Xio 1,2 & H. Y. Fdmiro 1 1 Deprtment of Entomology nd Plnt Pthology,

More information

Comparative reproduction of Varroa destructor in different types of Russian and Italian honey bee combs

Comparative reproduction of Varroa destructor in different types of Russian and Italian honey bee combs Exp Appl Acrol (2008) 44:227 238 DOI 10.1007/s10493-008-9142-1 Comprtive reproduction of Vrro destructor in different types of Russin nd Itlin honey ee coms Lili I. de Guzmn Æ Thoms E. Rinderer Æ Amnd

More information

Skeletal and Soft Tissue Point A and B Changes Following Orthodontic Treatment of Nepalese Class I Bimaxillary Protrusive Patients

Skeletal and Soft Tissue Point A and B Changes Following Orthodontic Treatment of Nepalese Class I Bimaxillary Protrusive Patients Originl Article Skeletl nd Soft Tissue Point A nd B Chnges Following Orthodontic Tretment of Neplese Clss I Bimxillry Protrusive Ptients Jgn Nth Shrm ABSTRACT Objectives: To test the hypothesis tht there

More information

Original Article. Heon-Mook Park a ; Yang-Ku Lee b ; Jin-Young Choi c ; Seung-Hak Baek d

Original Article. Heon-Mook Park a ; Yang-Ku Lee b ; Jin-Young Choi c ; Seung-Hak Baek d Originl Article Mxillry incisor inclintion of skeletl Clss III ptients treted with extrction of the upper first premolrs nd two-jw surgery Conventionl orthognthic surgery vs surgery-first pproch Heon-Mook

More information

DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF VOCAL DURATION1

DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF VOCAL DURATION1 JOURNL OF THE EXPERMENTL NLYSS OF BEHVOR VOLUME 7, NUMBER JNURY, 1 964 DFFERENTL RENFORCEMENT OF VOCL DURTON1 HRLN LNE UNVERSTY OF MCHGN The effects of differentil reinforcement of vocl durtion were exmined

More information

EFFECTS OF MANNAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND DISEASE RESISTANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS LINNAEUS) FRY

EFFECTS OF MANNAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND DISEASE RESISTANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS LINNAEUS) FRY 8 th Interntionl Symposium on Tilpi in Aquculture 2008 345 EFFECTS OF MANNAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL AND DISEASE RESISTANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS LINNAEUS) FRY C. SAMRONGPAN*,

More information

Ecophysiological Responses of Two Olive Tree Cultivars (Olea europaea L. CV Koroneiki and Chemlali) Under Three Water Treatments

Ecophysiological Responses of Two Olive Tree Cultivars (Olea europaea L. CV Koroneiki and Chemlali) Under Three Water Treatments Europen Scientific Journl Jnury 2017 edition vol.13, No.3 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857-7431 Ecophysiologicl Responses of Two Olive Tree Cultivrs (Ole europe L. CV Koroneiki nd Chemlli) Under Three

More information

A Comparison of Serum Magnesium Level in Pregnant Women with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

A Comparison of Serum Magnesium Level in Pregnant Women with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Brief Report J Bbol Univ Med Sci Vol 18, Issu 12; Dec 2016. P:71-75 A Comprison of Serum Mgnesium Level in Pregnnt Women with nd without Gesttionl Dibetes Mellitus (GDM) Z. Bouzri (MD) 1, F. Elmi(MD) 2,

More information

HIV Surveillance in Women. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention

HIV Surveillance in Women. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention HIV Surveillnce in Women Ntionl Center for HIV/AIDS, Virl Heptitis, STD & TB Prevention Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention Dignoses of HIV Infection mong Adult nd Adolescent Femles, by Rce/Ethnicity, 2006

More information

Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for high-ocular tension

Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for high-ocular tension Interntionl Journl of Oesity (2010) 1 9 & 2010 Mcmilln Pulishers Limited All rights reserved 0307-0565/10 $32.00 www.nture.com/ijo ORIGINAL ARTICLE Metolic syndrome s risk fctor for high-oculr K Imi 1,

More information

Comparison of autologous peripheral blood stem cell dosing by ideal vs actual body weight

Comparison of autologous peripheral blood stem cell dosing by ideal vs actual body weight Bone Mrrow Trnsplnttion, (1999) 23, 867 873 1999 Stockton Press All rights reserved 0268 3369/99 $12.00 http://www.stockton-press.co.uk/bmt Comprison of utologous peripherl blood stem cell dosing by idel

More information

Radiographic evaluation of the technical quality of undergraduate endodontic competence cases in the Dublin Dental University Hospital: an audit

Radiographic evaluation of the technical quality of undergraduate endodontic competence cases in the Dublin Dental University Hospital: an audit Rdiogrphic evlution of the technicl qulity of undergrdute endodontic competence cses in the Dulin Dentl University Hospitl: n udit Précis: An udit exmining the technicl qulity of undergrdute endodontic

More information

T.S. Kurki a, *,U.Häkkinen b, J. Lauharanta c,j.rämö d, M. Leijala c

T.S. Kurki a, *,U.Häkkinen b, J. Lauharanta c,j.rämö d, M. Leijala c Europen Journl of Crdio-thorcic Surgery 20 (2001) 1183 1187 www.elsevier.com/locte/ejcts Evlution of the reltionship between preopertive risk scores, postopertive nd totl length of stys nd hospitl costs

More information

Treatment for Hearing Loss among the Elderly: Auditory Outcomes and Impact on Quality of Life

Treatment for Hearing Loss among the Elderly: Auditory Outcomes and Impact on Quality of Life Audiology Neurotology Proceedings Audiol Neurotol 216;21(suppl 1):29 35 DOI: 1.1159/448352 Pulished online: Novemer 3, 216 Tretment for Hering Loss mong the Elderly: Auditory Outcomes nd Impct on Qulity

More information

Dependency on Smartphone Use and Its Association with Anxiety in Korea

Dependency on Smartphone Use and Its Association with Anxiety in Korea Reserch Dependency on Smrtphone Use nd Its Assocition with Anxiety in Kore Kyung Eun Lee, MD Si-Heon Kim, MD Te-Yng H, MD Young-Myong Yoo, MD Ji-Jun Hn, MD Je-Hyuk Jung, MD Je-Yeon Jng, PhD ABSTRACT Objective.

More information

Estimated Prevalence and Economic Burden of Severe, Uncontrolled Asthma in the United States

Estimated Prevalence and Economic Burden of Severe, Uncontrolled Asthma in the United States Estimted Prevlence nd Economic Burden of Severe, Uncontrolled Asthm in the United Sttes Cheryl S. Hnkin 1 ; Amy Bronstone 1 ; Zhohui Wng 1 ; Mry Butti-Smll 2 ; Philip O. Buck 2 1 BioMedEcon, Moss Bech,

More information

Severe Gummy Smile with Class II Malocclusion Treated with LeFort I Osteotomy Combined with Horseshoe Osteotomy and Intraoral Vertical Ramus

Severe Gummy Smile with Class II Malocclusion Treated with LeFort I Osteotomy Combined with Horseshoe Osteotomy and Intraoral Vertical Ramus 2013 67 1 5560 Severe Gummy Smile with Clss II Mlocclusion Treted with LeFort I Osteotomy Comined with Horseshoe Osteotomy nd Introrl Verticl Rmus Osteotomy * 56 Shimo et l. Act Med. Okym Vol. 67, No.

More information

Diabesity & Associated Disorders in Australia

Diabesity & Associated Disorders in Australia Diesity & Associted Disorders in Austrli - 2000 The Accelerting Epidemic The Austrlin Dietes, Oesity nd Lifestyle Study (AusDi) Authors Dr D Dunstn, Professor P Zimmet, Professor T Welorn, Dr R Sicree,

More information

Trends in Mortality From COPD Among Adults in the United States

Trends in Mortality From COPD Among Adults in the United States [ Originl Reserch COPD ] Trends in Mortlity From COPD Among Adults in the United Sttes Erl S. Ford, MD, MPH BACKGROUND: COPD imposes lrge public helth burden interntionlly nd in the United Sttes. The objective

More information

See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION. Revised: 01/2018 FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS*

See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION. Revised: 01/2018 FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: CONTENTS* HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION These highlights do not include ll the informtion needed to use sfely nd effectively. See full prescriing informtion for. (rifximin) tlets, for orl use Initil U.S.

More information

Department of Food Science, Via Sondrio 2/a, University of Udine, Udine, Italy

Department of Food Science, Via Sondrio 2/a, University of Udine, Udine, Italy Influence of mlxtion time on phenols nd voltile compounds of virgin olive oil otined from phenol enriched olive pste (Buž cv.) Vlerij Mjetić Germek, Oliver Koprivnjk, Bojn Butinr, Loren Pizzle c, Milen

More information

Physiological and biochemical responses to drought stress in Barbados cherry

Physiological and biochemical responses to drought stress in Barbados cherry 2012 BRAZILIAN SOCIETY OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY RESEARCH ARTICLE Physiologicl nd iochemicl responses to drought stress in Brdos cherry Dvid Bros Medeiros 1 *, Elizmr Cirico d Silv 2, Hugo Rfel Bentzen Sntos

More information

Chronic high-sodium diet intake after weaning lead to neurogenic hypertension in adult Wistar rats

Chronic high-sodium diet intake after weaning lead to neurogenic hypertension in adult Wistar rats Chronic high-sodium diet intke fter wening led to neurogenic hypertension in dult Wistr rts 1 Pul Mglhães Gomes; 2 Rento Willin Mrtins Sá; 1 Giovn Lopes Aguir; 1 Milede Hnner Sriv Pes; 1 Andréi Crvlho

More information

Factors affecting psychological stress in children who cooperate with dental treatment: a pilot study

Factors affecting psychological stress in children who cooperate with dental treatment: a pilot study K. Aoygi-Nk, A. Kod, T. Kwkmi, H. Kribe Deprtment of Peditric Dentistry, School of Life Dentistry, Nippon Dentl University, Tokyo, Jpn e-mil: h-kribe@tky.ndu.c.jp Fctors ffecting psychologicl stress in

More information

Effect of vitamin D on the recurrence rate of rheumatoid arthritis

Effect of vitamin D on the recurrence rate of rheumatoid arthritis 1812 Effect of vitmin D on the recurrence rte of rheumtoid rthritis JUNXIA YANG 1, LIN LIU 1, QINGLIN ZHANG 2, MEIRONG LI 1 nd JINGYA WANG 1 1 Deprtment of Rheumtology, 2 Centrl Lbortory, Xuzhou Centrl

More information

Effects of Intraruminal Saliva Flow on Feed Intake in Goats Fed on Alfalfa Hay Cubes

Effects of Intraruminal Saliva Flow on Feed Intake in Goats Fed on Alfalfa Hay Cubes 1738 Effects of Intrruminl Sliv Flow on Feed Intke in Gots Fed on Alflf Hy Cues Ktsunori Sungw*, Yoshifumi Nktsu, Yoriko Nishikuo, Tkeshi Ooshiro, Kout Nitou nd Itsuki Ngmine Fculty of Agriculture, University

More information

Orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala encode expected outcomes during learning

Orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala encode expected outcomes during learning Oritofrontl cortex nd solterl mygdl encode expected outcomes during lerning Geoffrey Schoenum 1, Andre A. Chi 2 nd Michel Gllgher 1 1 Deprtment of Psychology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Chrles

More information

Effects of humic substances derived from organic waste enhancement on the growth and mineral nutrition of maize

Effects of humic substances derived from organic waste enhancement on the growth and mineral nutrition of maize Effects of humic sustnces derived from orgnic wste enhncement on the growth nd minerl nutrition of mize Boris Eyherguiel, Jérôme Silvestre, Philippe Morrd To cite this version: Boris Eyherguiel, Jérôme

More information

Effects of Amylopectin Branch Chain Length and Amylose Content on the Gelatinization and Pasting Properties of Starch 1

Effects of Amylopectin Branch Chain Length and Amylose Content on the Gelatinization and Pasting Properties of Starch 1 Effects of Amylopectin Brnch Chin Length nd Amylose Content on the Geltiniztion nd Psting Properties of Strch 1 J. Jne, 2,3 Y. Y. Chen, 2 L. F. Lee, 2 A. E. McPherson, 2 K. S. Wong, 2 M. Rdosvljevic, 2

More information

Incidence of proteinuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Pima Indians

Incidence of proteinuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Pima Indians Kidney Interntionl, Vol. 35 (1989), pp. 681 687 Incidence of proteinuri in type 2 dibetes mellitus in the Pim Indins CHARLES L. KUNZELMAN,' WILLIAM C. KNOWLER, DAVID J. PETTITT, nd PETER H. BENNETT Dibetes

More information

Effect of Various Doses of Cinnamon on Lipid Profile in Diabetic Individuals

Effect of Various Doses of Cinnamon on Lipid Profile in Diabetic Individuals Pkistn Journl of Nutrition 2 (5): 312-319, 2003 Asin Network for Scientific Informtion 2003 Effect of Vrious Doses of Cinnmon on Lipid Profile in Dibetic Individuls Alm Khn, Mhpr Sfdr nd Mohmmd Muzffr

More information

The relationship between women s subjective and physiological sexual arousal

The relationship between women s subjective and physiological sexual arousal Psychophysiology, 42 (5), 116 124. Blckwell Publishing Inc. Printed in the USA. Copyright r 5 Society for Psychophysiologicl Reserch DOI: 1.1111/j.1469-8986.5.259.x The reltionship between women s subjective

More information

chapter 3. Squamous intraepithelial lesions: cytology histology correlation

chapter 3. Squamous intraepithelial lesions: cytology histology correlation chpter 3. Squmous intrepithelil lesions: cytology histology correltion CHAPTER 1 This chpter discusses the nturl history of cervicl precncer, HPV nd oncogenesis, cytology nomenclture, nd the cytologicl

More information

Do Different Casein Concentrations Increase the Adverse Effect of Rutin on the Biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)?

Do Different Casein Concentrations Increase the Adverse Effect of Rutin on the Biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)? 774 Septemer - Octoer 21 PEST MANAGEMENT Do Different Csein Concentrtions Increse the Adverse Effect of Rutin on the Biology of Anticrsi gemmtlis Hüner (Lepidopter: Noctuide)? M r i n C S lv d o r 1,2,

More information

Comparison of Major Nutrients in Eels Anguilla japonica Cultured with Different Formula Feeds or at Different Farms

Comparison of Major Nutrients in Eels Anguilla japonica Cultured with Different Formula Feeds or at Different Farms Originl Article Fish Aqut Sci 16(2), 85-92, 2013 Comprison of Mjor Nutrients in Eels Anguill jponic Cultured with Different Formul Feeds or t Different Frms Je-Sung Seo 1, Je-Hee Choi 2, Ji-Hun Seo 2,

More information

Digestible Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement of Male Turkeys During the 12 to 18 Week Period

Digestible Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement of Male Turkeys During the 12 to 18 Week Period Interntionl Journl of Poultry Science (): 8-, 00 Asin Network for Scientific Informtion 00 Digestible Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement of Mle Turkeys During the to 8 Week Period D. T. Moore, K. Bker, K. Thompson,

More information

REPLACEMENT OF CONVENTIONAL CHEESE COATINGS BY NATURAL WHEY PROTEIN EDIBLE COATINGS WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

REPLACEMENT OF CONVENTIONAL CHEESE COATINGS BY NATURAL WHEY PROTEIN EDIBLE COATINGS WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY Journl of Hygienic Engineering nd Design Originl scientific pper UDC 637.3.045.055 REPLACEMENT OF CONVENTIONAL CHEESE COATINGS BY NATURAL WHEY PROTEIN EDIBLE COATINGS WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY Mrt Henriques

More information

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection contributes approximately

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection contributes approximately Multiple Fctors Contribute to Positive Results for Heptitis A Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibody Adnn Altoom, MD, PhD; M. Qsim Ansri, MD; Jennifer Cuthbert, MD Context. In the United Sttes, successful vccintion

More information

Bagging Treatment Influences Production of C 6 Aldehydes and Biosynthesis-Related Gene Expression in Peach Fruit Skin

Bagging Treatment Influences Production of C 6 Aldehydes and Biosynthesis-Related Gene Expression in Peach Fruit Skin Molecules 2014, 19, 13461-13472; doi:10.3390/molecules190913461 OPEN ACCESS molecules ISSN 1420-3049 www.mdpi.com/journl/molecules Article Bgging Tretment Influences Production of C 6 Aldehydes nd Biosynthesis-Relted

More information

Teacher motivational strategies and student self-determination in physical education

Teacher motivational strategies and student self-determination in physical education Loughborough University Institutionl Repository Techer motivtionl strtegies nd student self-determintion in physicl eduction This item ws submitted to Loughborough University's Institutionl Repository

More information

Screening with guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests

Screening with guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests Effect of Temperture nd Time on Fecl Hemoglobin Stbility in 5 Fecl Immunochemicl Test Methods nd One Guic Method Peter Ctomeris, PhD; Nncy N. Bxter, MD, PhD; Sheil C. Boss, PhD; Lwrence F. Pszt, MD, PhD;

More information

Physiological Changes in Them in Post-Stress Emerging Ctenanthe setosa Plants under Drought Conditions 1

Physiological Changes in Them in Post-Stress Emerging Ctenanthe setosa Plants under Drought Conditions 1 ISSN 2-4437, Russin Journl of Plnt Physiology, 28, Vol. 55, No., pp. 48 53. Pleides Pulishing, Ltd., 28. RESEARCH PAPERS Physiologicl Chnges in Them in Post-Stress Emerging Ctennthe setos Plnts under Drought

More information

J.P. Syvertsen University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center. 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred.

J.P. Syvertsen University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center. 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred. ,.. \ ::>'\ \)'O?! q.,...j j AMR. Soc HORT SC 19(6):818!7. 1984. Light Acclimtion in Citrus Leves.. CO Assimiltion nd Light, Wter, nd itrogen Use fficiency J.P. Syvertsen University of Florid, FAS,

More information

of 333 children who had been successfully immunized close contact with measles patients. 1 million), Zhejiang Province, a closed area in

of 333 children who had been successfully immunized close contact with measles patients. 1 million), Zhejiang Province, a closed area in Durtion of immunity following immuniztion with live mesles vccine: 15 yers of observtion in Zhejing Province, Chin Di Bin,1 Chen Zhihui,2 Liu Qichng,3 Wu Ting,4 Guo Chengyin,4 Wng Xingzi,5 Fng Hnhu,1 &

More information

Summary. Effect evaluation of the Rehabilitation of Drug-Addicted Offenders Act (SOV)

Summary. Effect evaluation of the Rehabilitation of Drug-Addicted Offenders Act (SOV) Summry Effect evlution of the Rehbilittion of Drug-Addicted Offenders Act (SOV) The Rehbilittion of Drug-Addicted Offenders Act (SOV) ws lunched on April first 2001. This lw permitted the compulsory plcement

More information

Mitigation of salt stress in radish (Raphanus Sativus l.) by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

Mitigation of salt stress in radish (Raphanus Sativus l.) by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Roumnin Biotechnologicl Letters Vol. 13, No. 5, 28, pp. 3933 3943 Copyright 28 Buchrest University Printed in Romni. All rights reserved Roumnin Society of Biologicl Sciences ORIGINAL PAPER Mitigtion of

More information

A mouse model of vitamin D insufficiency: is there a relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and obesity?

A mouse model of vitamin D insufficiency: is there a relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and obesity? Seldeen et l. Nutrition & Metolism (217) 14:26 DOI 1.1186/s12986-17-174-6 RESEARCH Open Access A mouse model of vitmin D insufficiency: is there reltionship etween 25(OH) vitmin D levels nd oesity? Kenneth

More information

Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 1 (2002)

Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 1 (2002) Journl of Cystic Fibrosis 1 (2002) 276 280 Assessment of nutritionl sttus in children with cystic fibrosis: conventionl nthropometry nd bioelectricl impednce nlysis. A cross-sectionl study in Dutch ptients,

More information

The Medium, Not the Message. How Tattoos Correlate With Early Mortality. Henry J. Carson, MD ABSTRACT

The Medium, Not the Message. How Tattoos Correlate With Early Mortality. Henry J. Carson, MD ABSTRACT The Medium, Not the Messge How Tttoos Correlte With Erly Mortlity Henry J. Crson, MD From Mercy Hospitl, Iow City, IA. Key Words: Tttooing; Autopsy; Forensic sciences; Violence; Suicide; Drug overdose

More information

EFFECT OF PHOTOPERIOD AND TRYPTOPHAN AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PINEAL GLAND HORMONE (MELATONIN) AND ITS RELATION TO PERFORMANCE IN LOCAL STRAIN.

EFFECT OF PHOTOPERIOD AND TRYPTOPHAN AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PINEAL GLAND HORMONE (MELATONIN) AND ITS RELATION TO PERFORMANCE IN LOCAL STRAIN. Egypt. Poult. Sci. Vol (30) (IV): (927-960) EFFECT OF PHOTOPERIOD AND TRYPTOPHAN AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PINEAL GLAND HORMONE (MELATONIN) AND ITS RELATION TO PERFORMANCE IN LOCAL STRAIN. 1- EFFECT

More information

Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and body weight status in South African women

Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and body weight status in South African women Accurcy of reporting food energy intke: influence of ethnicity nd ody weight sttus in South Africn women Mchiz ZJ, PhD Goedecke JH, PhD Lmert EV, PhD Knowledge Systems, Nutrition Unit, Humn Science Reserch

More information

Urinary Tract Infection in Men

Urinary Tract Infection in Men C H A P T E R 1 9 Urinry Trct Infection in Men Toms L. Griebling, MD Associte Professor & Vice Chir of Urology University of Knss Knss City, Knss Contents INTRODUCTION........................................623

More information

Vitamin D is essential for bone health (1). The main and. Thresholds for Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations With Respect to Different Outcomes

Vitamin D is essential for bone health (1). The main and. Thresholds for Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations With Respect to Different Outcomes ORIGINAL ARTICLE Thresholds for Serum 25(OH)D Concentrtions With Respect to Different Outcomes E. Sohl, R. T. de Jongh, M. W. Heymns, N. M. vn Schoor, nd P. Lips Deprtment of Epidemiology nd Biosttistics

More information

Knowledge, Attitude, and Concussion-Reporting Behaviors Among High School Athletes: A Preliminary Study

Knowledge, Attitude, and Concussion-Reporting Behaviors Among High School Athletes: A Preliminary Study Journl of Athletic Trining 2013;48(5):645 653 doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-48.3.20 Ó y the Ntionl Athletic Triners Assocition, Inc www.ntjournls.org originl reserch Knowledge, Attitude, nd Concussion-Reporting

More information

Case Report Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings

Case Report Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy with Atypical Findings Cse Reports in Medicine Volume 24, Article ID 29696, 7 pges http://dx.doi.org/.55/24/29696 Cse Report Acute Zonl Occult Outer Retinopthy with Atypicl Findings Dimitrios Krginnis, Georgios A. Kontdkis,

More information

BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF PEACH LEAVES INFECTED WITH TAPHRINA DEFORMANS BERK/TUL.

BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF PEACH LEAVES INFECTED WITH TAPHRINA DEFORMANS BERK/TUL. ACTA UNIVERSITATIS AGRICULTURAE ET SILVICULTURAE MENDELIANAE BRUNENSIS Volume 65 90 Numer 3, 2017 https://doi.org/10.11118/ctun201765030871 BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF PEACH LEAVES INFECTED WITH TAPHRINA

More information

Fetal programming of coronary heart disease

Fetal programming of coronary heart disease 364 Review Fetl progrmming of coronry hert disese Dvid J.P. Brker People who develop coronry hert disese grow differently from other people both in utero nd during childhood. Slow growth during fetl life

More information

Analysis of Risk Factors for the Development of Incisional and Parastomal Hernias in Patients after Colorectal Surgery

Analysis of Risk Factors for the Development of Incisional and Parastomal Hernias in Patients after Colorectal Surgery Originl Article Journl of the Koren Society of J Koren Soc Coloproctol 2012;28(6):299-303 http://dx.doi.org/10.3393/jksc.2012.28.6.299 pissn 2093-7822 eissn 2093-7830 Anlysis of Risk Fctors for the Development

More information

Influenza outbreak causes reduction in semen quality of boars

Influenza outbreak causes reduction in semen quality of boars Peer reviewed Cse report Influenz outrek cuses reduction in semen qulit of ors Drew W. Lugr, MS; Drrl Rglnd, DVM, PhD; Kr R. Stewrt, MS, PhD Summr An influenz outrek occurred t Purdue Universit s swine

More information

Anti-Obesity Potential of Gallic Acid from Labisia pumila, through Augmentation of Adipokines in High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice

Anti-Obesity Potential of Gallic Acid from Labisia pumila, through Augmentation of Adipokines in High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice Advnces in Reserch 2(10): 556-570, 2014, Article no. AIR.2014.10.004 SCIENCEDOMAIN interntionl www.sciencedomin.org Anti-Oesity Potentil of Gllic Acid from Lisi pumil, through Augmenttion of Adipokines

More information

Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland,

Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland, C Interntionl Epidemiologic] Assocition 1998 Printed in Gret Britin Interntionl Journl of Epidemiology 1998,27:10381043 Wter trffic ccidents, drowning nd lcohol in Finlnd, 19691995 Philippe Lunett, Antti

More information

Discuss IBS-D with your doctor

Discuss IBS-D with your doctor Discuss IBS-D with your doctor Mke sure to tlk out your IBS-D symptoms with your doctor it s n essentil step in deciding on the tretment pln tht s est for your needs. You cn use this converstion guide

More information