Introduction to the helminth parasites. Why are helminths important? Lecture topics. Morphology. BVM&S Parasitology Tudor W Jones

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1 Taxonomic Relationships of the Helminth Parasites Parasitic Helminths Introduction to the helminth parasites BVM&S Parasitology Tudor W Jones Platyhelminthes "Flatworms" Trematodes "Flukes" Cestodes "Tapeworms" Nemathelminthes "Roundworms" Roundworms Lungworms Hookworms Pinworms Acanthocephala "Spiny-headed worms" Introduction to the helminths 2 Why are helminths important? Production losses due to Competition for nutrients Damage to body systems e.g. gut, liver Death Animal welfare Companion animals Food animals Public health (zoonotic infections) Introduction to the helminths 3 BRAIN LUNGS Lungworm In the environment BLOOD Flukes Filarial worms Where do helminths live? ABOMASUM MUSCLE LIVER Fluke Tapeworm larvae Skin Filarial worms LARGE INTEST. SMALL INTEST. Adult tapeworms Introduction to the helminths 4 Lecture topics Diagnosis & disease Morphology Feeding Reproduction Behaviour in the host Epidemiology & control Life cycles Survival strategies External features Size Shape Functional anatomy Internal features Outer layer Structural Functional Morphology Introduction to the helminths 5 Introduction to the helminths 6 1

2 Same parasite - different appearance Adults Males Females Eggs Juvenile Cysts Larvae Passive feeders Browsers Tissue feeders Solid tissues Blood Feeding Introduction to the helminths 7 Introduction to the helminths 8 Asexual Multiplication Parthenogenesis Sexual Monoecius Dioecius Reproduction Behaviour in the host Non-migratory Migratory Hepato-tracheal Somatic Introduction to the helminths 9 Introduction to the helminths 10 Direct Indirect Definitive Host Intermediate host Arthropod (vector) borne Life cycles Example of a simple, direct life cycle Adults L 5 L 4 Egg L 1 L 3 L 2 Introduction to the helminths 11 Introduction to the helminths 12 2

3 Example of a complex, indirect life cycle Definitive host ingests ant while grazing Larval stage passed out in slime ball Eggs pass out in faeces Larval stage develops inside egg Host types Definitive host Host where adult stages develop Intermediate host Host where immature stages develop, indirect life cycle only Transport host Immature stage not retained, no parasite development Paratenic host Immature stage retained but no parasite development 2 nd intermediate host ingests slime ball 1 st intermediate host ingests egg Introduction to the helminths 13 Introduction to the helminths 14 Survival strategies Ascarid egg Permanent parasites Temporary parasites Morphological adaptations Physiological adaptations Hypobiosis Critical hatching conditions Peripatruriant rise Introduction to the helminths 15 Introduction to the helminths 16 Hypobiosis Physiological - Toxocara Larvae enter hypobiotic state in tissues Larvae reactivated during pregnancy in dogs & cats and infect foetus Seasonal - Ostertagia Larvae taken in during Autumn overwinter in the gastric glands of the abomasum Larval development resumes in Spring giving rise to new generation of adults Critical Hatching Conditions Larvae overwinter on the pasture inside the egg stage. Larvae hatch onto pasture only after receiving an environmental trigger Trigger is usually a change in temperature. Introduction to the helminths 17 Introduction to the helminths 18 3

4 Periparturient (Spring) Rise Increase in parasite egg counts around parturition time usually spring in UK Impact large numbers of infective larvae on the pasture when Pasture conditions optimum for survival Young animals available for infection Trichinella Introduction to the helminths 19 Introduction to the helminths 20 Characteristics of helminths Trematode Cestode Nematode Appearance Leaf-like Tape-like Worm-like Crosssection Flattened Flattened Cylindrical Body cavity Fluid-filled Blind sack True gut Life cycle Indirect Indirect Direct & indirect Reproduction Monoecious Monoecious Dioecious Introduction to the helminths 21 Introduction to the helminths 22 Internal structure - Internal structure - Trematodes Introduction to the helminths 23 Introduction to the helminths 24 4

5 Internal structure - Cestodes Adult stages of the helminths (not to scale) Trematodes Cestodes Introduction to the helminths 25 Introduction to the helminths 26 Browsing Feeding adaptations Blood feeding Bursa Males & Females Vulval flap Tissue feeding Introduction to the helminths 27 Introduction to the helminths 28 Helminth Body Structure (TS) Trematode In Two forms of migration Out In Out Nematode Solid parenchyma Solid parenchyma Uterus with eggs Nerve chord Cestode Testes Uterus with eggs Introduction to the helminths 29 Lung Hepato-tracheal migration Liver Somatic tissues Somatic migration Introduction to the helminths 30 5

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