1 Chapter 4 PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS M.G.Rajanandh, Department of Pharmacy Practice, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM University.
2 OBJECTIVES Review basic pulmonary anatomy and physiology. Understand the reasons pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are performed. Understand the technique and basic interpretation of spirometry. Know the difference between obstructive and restrictive lung disease. Know how PFTs are clinically applied.
3 What do the lungs do? Primary function is gas exchange Let oxygen move in Let carbon dioxide move out
4 How do the lungs do this? First, air has to move to the region where gas exchange occurs. For this, you need a normal ribcage and respiratory muscles that work properly (among other things).
5 Conducting Airways Air travels via laminar flow through the conducting airways comprised of the following: trachea, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi, small bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles.
6 How do the lungs do this? The airways then branch further to become transitional/respiratory bronchioles. The transitional/respiratory zones are made up of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.
7 How do the lungs do this? Gas exchange takes place in the acinus. This is defined as an anatomical unit of the lung made of structures supplied by a terminal bronchiole.
8 From Netter Atlas of Human Anatomy, 1989
9 How does gas exchange occur? Numerous capillaries are wrapped around alveoli. Gas diffuses across this alveolar capillary barrier. This barrier is as thin as 0.3 μm in some places and has a surface area of square meters!
10 Gas Exchange From Netter Atlas of Human Anatomy, 1989
11 What exactly are PFTs? The term encompasses a wide variety of objective methods to assess lung function. (Remember that the primary function is gas exchange). Examples include: Spirometry Lung volumes by helium dilution or body plethysmography Blood gases Exercise tests Diffusing capacity Bronchial challenge testing Pulse oximetry
12 Why do I care about PFTs? Add to diagnosis of disease (pulmonary and cardiac) May help guide management of a disease process Can help monitor progression of disease and effectiveness of treatment Aid in pre operative assessment of certain patients
13 Yes, PFTs are really wonderful but They do not act alone. They act only to support or exclude a diagnosis. A combination of a thorough history and physical exam, as well as supporting laboratory data and imaging will help establish a diagnosis.
14 Where would I perform PFTs? At home peak expiratory flow meter/pulse ox Doctor s office Formal PFT laboratory
15 When would I order PFTs? INDICATIONS FOR SPIROMETRY Diagnostic To evaluate symptoms, signs, or abnormal laboratory tests Symptoms: dyspnea, wheezing, orthopnea, cough, phlegm production, chest pain Signs: diminished breath sounds, overinflation, expiratory slowing, cyanosis, chest deformity, unexplained crackles Abnormal laboratory tests: hypoxemia, hypercapnia, polycythemia, abnormal chest radiographs To measure the effect of disease on pulmonary function To screen individuals at risk of having pulmonary diseases Smokers Individuals in occupations with exposures to injurious substances Some routine physical examinations To assess preoperative risk To assess prognosis (lung transplant, etc.) To assess health status before enrollment in strenuous physical activity programs Monitoring To assess therapeutic interventions bronchodilator therapy Steroid treatment for asthma, interstitial lung disease, etc. Management of congestive heart failure Other (antibiotics in cystic fibrosis, etc.) To describe the course of diseases affecting lung function Pulmonary diseases Obstructive airways diseases Interstitial lung diseases Cardiac diseases Congestive heart failure Neuromuscular diseases Guillain Barre Syndrome To monitor persons in occupations with exposure to injurious agents To monitor for adverse reactions to drugs with known pulmonary toxicity
16 When would I order PFTs? Disability/Impairment Evaluations To assess patients as part of a rehabilitation program Medical Industrial Vocational To assess risks as part of an insurance evaluation To assess individuals for legal reasons Social Security or other government compensation programs Personal injury lawsuits Others Public Health Epidemiologic surveys Comparison of health status of populations living in different environments Validation of subjective complaints in occupational/environmental settings Derivation of reference equations (From ATS, 1994)
17 Spirometry Spirometry is a medical test that measures the volume of air an individual inhales or exhales as a function of time. (ATS, 1994)
18 Silhouette of Hutchinson Performing Spirometry
19 Lung Volumes and Capacities 4 volumes: inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume 2 or more volumes comprise a capacity. 4 capacites: vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity
20 Tidal Volume (TV): volume of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath during quiet breathing Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): maximum volume of air inhaled from the end inspiratory tidal position Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): maximum volume of air that can be exhaled from resting end expiratory tidal position Lung Volumes
21 Residual Volume (RV): Volume of air remaining in lungs after maximium exhalation Indirectly measured (FRC ERV) not by spirometry Lung Volumes
22 Total Lung Capacity (TLC): Sum of all volume compartments or volume of air in lungs after maximum inspiration Vital Capacity (VC): TLC minus RV or maximum volume of air exhaled from maximal inspiratory level Inspiratory Capacity (IC): Sum of IRV and TV or the maximum volume of air that can be inhaled from the end expiratory tidal position Lung Capacities
23 Lung Capacities Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): Sum of RV and ERV or the volume of air in the lungs at end expiratory tidal position Measured with multiplebreath closed circuit helium dilution, multiple breath open circuit nitrogen washout, or body plethysmography (not by spirometry)
24 What information does a spirometer yield? A spirometer can be used to measure the following: FVC and its derivatives (such as FEV1, FEF 25 75%) Forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC) Peak expiratory flow rate Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) Slow VC IC, IRV, and ERV Pre and post bronchodilator studies
25 Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity The volume exhaled after a subject inhales maximally then exhales as fast and hard as possible. Approximates vital capacity during slow expiration, except may be lower (than true VC) patients with obstructive disease How is this done?
26 Performance of FVC maneuver Check spirometer calibration. Explain test. Prepare patient. Ask about smoking, recent illness, medication use, etc.
27 Performance of FVC maneuver Give instructions and demonstrate: Show nose clip and mouthpiece. Demonstrate position of head with chin slightly elevated and neck somewhat extended. Inhale as much as possible, put mouthpiece in mouth (open circuit), exhale as hard and fast as possible. Give simple instructions.
28 Performance of FVC maneuver Patient performs the maneuver Patient assumes the position Puts nose clip on Inhales maximally Puts mouthpiece on mouth and closes lips around mouthpiece (open circuit) Exhales as hard and fast and long as possible Repeat instructions if necessary be an effective coach Repeat minimum of three times (check for reproducibility.) (adapted from ATS, 1994)
29 Special Considerations in Pediatric Patients Ability to perform spirometry dependent on developmental age of child, personality, and interest of the child. Patients need a calm, relaxed environment and good coaching. Patience is key. Even with the best of environments and coaching, a child may not be able to perform spirometry. (And that is OK.)
30 Flow-Volume Curves and Spirograms Two ways to record results of FVC maneuver: Flow volume curve flow meter measures flow rate in L/s upon exhalation; flow plotted as function of volume Classic spirogram volume as a function of time
31 Normal Flow-Volume Curve and Spirogram
32 Spirometry Interpretation: So what constitutes normal? Normal values vary and depend on: Height Age Gender Ethnicity
33 Acceptable and Unacceptable Spirograms
34 Measurements Obtained from the FVC Curve FEV 1 the volume exhaled during the first second of the FVC maneuver FEF 25 75% the mean expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC maneuver; reflects flow through the small (<2 mm in diameter) airways FEV 1 /FVC the ratio of FEV1 to FVC X 100 (expressed as a percent); an important value because a reduction of this ratio from expected values is specific for obstructive rather than restrictive diseases
35 Spirometry Interpretation: Obstructive vs. Restrictive Defect Obstructive Disorders Characterized by a limitation of expiratory airflow so that airways cannot empty as rapidly compared to normal (such as through narrowed airways from bronchospasm, inflammation, etc.) Examples: Asthma Emphysema Cystic Fibrosis Restrictive Disorders Characterized by reduced lung volumes/decreased lung compliance Examples: Interstitial Fibrosis Scoliosis Obesity Lung Resection Neuromuscular diseases Cystic Fibrosis
36 Normal vs. Obstructive vs. Restrictive (Hyatt, 2003)
37 Spirometry Interpretation: Obstructive vs. Restrictive Defect Obstructive Disorders FVC nl or FEV1 FEF25 75% FEV1/FVC TLC nl or Restrictive Disorders FVC FEV1 FEF 25 75% nl to FEV1/FVC nl to TLC
38 Spirometry Interpretation: What do the numbers mean? FVC Interpretation of % predicted: % Normal 70 79% Mild reduction 50% 69% Moderate reduction <50% Severe reduction FEV1 Interpretation of % predicted: >75% Normal 60% 75% Mild obstruction 50 59% Moderate obstruction <49% Severe obstruction <25 y.o. add 5% and >60 y.o. subtract 5
39 Spirometry Interpretation: What do the numbers mean? FEF 25 75% Interpretation of % predicted: >79% Normal 60 79% Mild obstruction 40 59% Moderate obstruction <40% Severe obstruction FEV1/FVC Interpretation of absolute value: 80 or higher Normal 79 or lower Abnormal
40 What about lung volumes and obstructive and restrictive disease? (From Ruppel, 2003)
41 Maximal Inspiratory Flow Do FVC maneuver and then inhale as rapidly and as much as able. This makes an inspiratory curve. The expiratory and inspiratory flow volume curves put together make a flow volume loop.
42 Flow Volume Loops (Rudolph and Rudolph, 2003)
43 How is a flow volume loop helpful? Helpful in evaluation of air flow limitation on inspiration and expiration In addition to obstructive and restrictive patterns, flowvolume loops can show provide information on upper airway obstruction: Fixed obstruction: constant airflow limitation on inspiration and expiration such as in tumor, tracheal stenosis Variable extrathoracic obstruction: limitation of inspiratory flow, flattened inspiratory loop such as in vocal cord dysfunction Variable intrathoracic obstruction: flattening of expiratory limb; as in malignancy or tracheomalacia
44 Spirometry Pre and Post Bronchodilator Obtain a flow volume loop. Administer a bronchodilator. Obtain the flow volume loop again a minimum of 15 minutes after administration of the bronchodilator. Calculate percent change (FEV1 most commonly used so % change FEV 1= [(FEV1 Post FEV1 Pre)/FEV1 Pre] X 100). Reversibility is with 12% or greater change.
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