One Month _4 _5 6 7_

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1 rviws Advancs in Gophysics, Volum 10. Editd by H. E. Landsbrg and J. Van Mighm. Nw York, Acadmic Prss, xi pags. Pric $ Volum 10 of this sris offrs fiv articls authord by workrs formost in thir rspctiv filds. Th ffort has bn to xplor th frontirs, as of publication, in slctd aras of gophysics. Air-sa intraction, lightning spctroscopy, light scattring by arosols, tnsor calculus in atmosphric mchanics and radar mtorology ar tratd in this issu. Th volum is rcommndd rading, spcially for thos concrnd with th atmosphric scincs. Atlantic Air-Sa Intractions (pags 1-8) by J. Bjrkns is "concrnd with th causs of th variations in th surfac tmpratur of th Atlantic Ocan from yar to yar and ovr longr priods." Th articl is a scholarly qualitativ diagnosis, basd on mpirical findings, of larg-scal intractions. It considrs and prsnts data from as far back as 1780 and succds in making availabl a comprhnsiv rviw of major rlatd litratur (8 rfrncs) xtnding from 1877 to 196. Th rsults and conclusions prsntd lav littl doubt rgarding th association btwn sa surfac tmpraturs and its anomalis on on hand, and th atmosphric circulation and its changs on th othr. Sinc sa tmpratur anomalis ar shown to lag thos of th wind, th lattr ar justifiably assumd causal. Matrial prsntd in sctions 1-5, giving a brif rsum of classical thoris on mtorological control of ocan currnts and of nrgy xchangs across th air-sa intrfac, forms th basis for subsqunt discussions prsntd in th rmaining sctions, Th brif rsum considrs th pur wind drift, gostrophic ocan currnts, th ocanic hat budgt, and th normal hat balanc of th North Atlantic aftr Svrdrup and Jacobs as wll as variations in this balanc aftr Arkhipova. Th dominant rol of th wind in airsa intractions and rsulting sa surfac tmpraturs is th primary concrn of th papr. Rlationships and rsults of intraction ar amply shown in thr tabls and 49 wll prpard sktchs, graphs and maps. Th author prsnts a comprhnsiv discussion of th rspons of sa tmpratur to changs in th atmosphric circulation as dpictd by prssur charts. Th influnc of wind on ocan currnts and on nrgy xchang procsss form th basis of a wll intgratd, though ncssarily qualitativ, prsntation. Of particular intrst to this radr ar sctions on trans-quatorial hat xchang, and mridional hat flux in th Northrn Hmisphr. Throughout th papr, th author givs many suggstions for ndd futur rsarch. Guy A. Francschini Th Optical Spctrum of Lightning (pags 83-98) by Lon E. Salanav is a brif rviw, with 6 litratur citations, of th prsnt stat of lightning spctroscopy. Spcial mphasis 60 is givn to discussion and illustration of th diffrncs btwn slit and slitlss spctrographs for lightning obsrvation. Slitlss spctroscopy prmits infrncs of th distributions of prssur, tmpratur and ionization for a givn discharg by mans of th rlativ widths and intnsitis of slctd lins in th mission spctrum. A slit spctrograph rquirs a succssion of flashs as it intgrats th radiation from th con-of-accptanc of th collimator. A lowr ionization lvl is vidncd in split spctra than in slitlss, although th lvl is quit variabl in th lattr. Variations in lin intnsitis btwn th two typs of spctra ar discussd in th txt. Th probabl physical xplanations ar xplord only brifly in th articl and somwhat mor compltly in a rfrnc articl addd in proof. Striking xampls of slitlss spctra ar shown in Sc. 3.. Th various lins ar idntifid so that th untraind radr can follow th discussion. Evn th comparison of rlativ lin intnsitis can b apprciatd, although som dtail may b lost in th rproduction. A prior rviw of quantum slction ruls and notation will b hlpful for most. This is spcially tru for th discussion of obsrvations of th ultraviolt spctrum of lightning. A litratur rviw of th tmpratur of lightning is givn in th concluding sction. Scattrd Radiation in th Atmosphr and th Natural Arosol (pags 99-60) by Kurt Bullrich is as much a substantial contribution to th litratur on arosol and molcular scattring in th atmosphr as a critical rviw. A discussion of th arosol siz distribution, composition and rfractiv indx is givn. Within th limitations of th modling constraints, th scattring charactristics of th hazy atmosphr ar dtrmind in dtail. Extndd computations of th basic scattring functions ar usd, along with variation of paramtrs of Jung's arosol siz distribution modl, to valuat th scattring charactristics for a unit volum of hazy air. Th computations ar compard with xprimntal rsults, including an stimat of th multipl scattring ffct. Translation of th lngthy articl is wll don. An xcption (p. 117) rfrs to th ratio (particl circumfrnc/wav lngth) as an angl. Although Fig. 1 (a) is mislabld and a sign rror is found on p. 151, th txt is rmarkably fr of misprints. Th intrstd, but not xprt, radr may find it asir to follow th arly dvlopmnt aftr rading th Appndix. Th workr in a rlatd fild may b disconcrtd to find that th "cross sction" is dimnsionlss, but th quantitis ar wll-dfind within th txt and thr is no ambiguity. Th dilctric proprtis of th various arosols ar considrd in sction., lading to an ffctiv ral rfractiv indx of 1.5. By prsuming that this valu applis to all frquncis and all arosols, a considrabl simplification is obtaind in th computation of th scattring functions for

2 On Month 1 3 _4 _5 6 7_ DAY RECORDERS Tmpratur Humidity Prssur Prcipitation Battry-Powrd */Spring-wound* No SW. Compact thrmograph, 31-day rcording priod, complt with monthy charts. No SW. Hygrothrmograph, 31-day rcording priod, complt with monthly charts. No SW; No BP. Hygrothrmograph of U.S.W.B. spcifications, with 31-day rcording priod, battry-powrd or springdrivn, spcify on. Complt. No BP. Rcording Rain and Snow Gag of U.S.W.B. spcifications. Complt with monthy charts. No BP. Microbarograph of U.S.W.B. spcifications. Complt with monthly charts. * All battry-powrd (BP) chart drivs mploy a small flashlight battry with a normal oprating lif of six months. * All spring-wound (SW) chart drivs mploy a havy duty spring rquiring winding onc vry 31 days. Scinc Associats, Inc. 30 Nassau St. P.O. Box 30 Princton, N.J. Bulltin Amrican Mtorological Socity 61

3 sphrical particls. Curiously, th shap factor so ssntial in th solution of th diffraction problm in th Mi rgion is not xplord for low rlativ humiditis. Tnsor Calculus in Atmosphric Mchanics (pags ) by Pirr Dfris has as its objctiv "a compact and slfcontaind xposition of th tnsor calculus and its application to atmosphric mchanics." A rviw of th lmnts of tnsor calculus is followd by a discussion of th intrnal kinmatics of a dformabl body in sc. 3. Hr th usful concpt of th Li drivativ is introducd. A mor dtaild intrprtation is found in sction 4 whr th kinmatics of motion with rspct to an arbitrary, dformabl rfrnc body ar xamind. Th topics xamind in sction 5 includ th strss tnsor, th quations of motion and continuity, th curl of th acclration and vorticity quations, th divrgnc of th acclration and divrgnc quations, and prturbation rlations. Th gnral balanc quation of a tnsor is dvlopd in sction 6. Th sourc and intrnal flux ar givn for variations of th atmosphric kintic nrgy, total nrgy, absolut and rlativ momntum, and absolut vorticity. In subsqunt sctions th author trats avraging procsss, anholonomic coordinats and spcial coordinat systms. Th articl fulfills its objctiv. Howvr, a mor dtaild prsntation and intrprtation of th Li drivativ with changs in th rfrnc body would hav rducd th burdn on th radr. Although it srvs only to outlin rsults of this usful formalism, this work should prov to b a stimulant for th radr familiar with classical tnsor analysis. J. J. Stphns Th writing of this monograph (Advancs in Radar Mtorology, pags ) must hav bn a labor of lov for David Atlas: no on brings to such a task bttr qualifications for summarizing th progrss that has bn achivd in this fild sinc Stwart Marshall, Waltr Hitschfld, and Knrick Gunn first prformd th function in 1955 ("Advancs in Radar Wathr," Advancs in Gophysics, Vol, pp. 1-56). Th arlir work citd among its 131 rfrncs a most-rcnt on that was datd 1955; th prsnt work cits 44 rfrncs (31 of thm rdundant with th 1955 dition), of which th fiv most rcnt ar for Proprly this is not a primary sourc of information but a tru rviw. Howvr, th author conforms to th policy of this sris by contributing som original matrial to his critical appraisal of th 10 yars of litratur that has pourd off th prsss sinc Volum. Th rsult is a cohrnt synthsis of radar mtorology with a libral sasoning of mtorological radar (th two ar somtims confusd, vn hr). Th work is organizd in a short introduction (sction 1), svn sctions of variabl lngth, and a short summary. Sction dvots 16 pags to a tratmnt of "Quantitativ Masurmnts." This is th bst summary of th application of statistical thory in radar tchniqus that this rviwr has sn. Sction 3, on "Rflctivity and Attnuation of Atmosphric Particls," is th longst part of th monograph 44 pags. A grat dal of cloud and prcipitation physics is covrd hr, but no rfrnc is mad to Cloud Physics, Khrgian (ditor and principal author), Gidromtorologichsko Izdatl'stvo, Lningrad, 1961 (English translation by Isral Program for Scintific Translations, Jrusalm, 1963, availabl through th Offic of Tchnical Srvics, U. S. D6 partmnt of Commrc). Th dat of this publication also prcluds mntion of Elmnts of Cloud Physics, Byrs, Univrsity of Chicago Prss, Howvr, th tratmnt that is prsntd is adquat. Two short sctions of six pags ach covr "Radar Masurmnts of Prcipitation" (sction 4) and "Th Masurmnt of Storm Dimnsions" (sction 5). Ths rprsnt succinct summaris of th status of ths topics. Sction 7, on "Instrumntation for Data Procssing, Display, and Transmission," is not much longr, nin pags, but contains a pla for automation of data handling to rscu th radar mtorologist from his gratst burdn. Th most loqunt sctions, "Signal Fluctuations and Dopplr Radar" (sction 6) and " 'Angl' Echos" (sction 8), rprsnt th author's most rcnt work and intrsts. Much of this matrial is nw. It is an xcllnt summary of th stat-of-th-art and must b considrd a major contribution to th litratur. Most of th advrs criticism is ditorial in natur. Som figurs do not fac th pags on which thy ar discussd. Thr is a spat of dangling participls, a sprinkling of disagrmnts in numbr btwn subjct and prdicat, an occasional typographical rror, and scattrd inconsistncis in punctuation. This rviwr dcris th swlling tndncy toward journalistic punctuation in glossy-pag publications; whil this may rduc th costs, it jopardizs as of comprhnsion, spcially among th uninitiatd. Morovr, th confusion btwn rflctivity factor, Z ( D ), and quivalnt rflctivity factor, Z (=P r /C), is compoundd by th addition of still anothr Z (= S^ATD/AD, Wxlr and Atlas, J. Appl. Mtor.,, 76-80, 1963), which is not th customary radar-masurd Z. Evn th author must b confusd, sinc h discusss this nw Z in th txt but shows it as Z in th accompanying diagram (Fig. 4, p. 370). In th Wxlr-Atlas quation abov, all th trms hav thir customary manings, but / is th ratio of Mi to Rayligh backscattring at diamtr D. This would hav bn a goldn opportunity to sttl th fussing about Z and Z ; instad, it now has bn worsnd. To b prissy about it, Z is strictly a function of D; Z (Rayligh) and Z (Mi) also dpnd on D. But Z is "masurd" by th radar. Howvr, Z and Z ar rlatd implicitly vn if not xplicitly and th bickring is ovr trivia. Only a vry littl jargon has crpt into th work. "Dry ic sphrs" mans "dry sphrs of ic," not "sphrs of dry ic." But in a subjct that lans so havily on cloud physics with its implications in th modification of cloud and prcipitation (and its wll-known tchniqu of sding with dry ic CO ), th nophyt may misconstru this turn of th phras. On pag 367, "... nar th uppr limit prmittd by natur..." dos not contrast with "... nar th natural uppr limit," although th ton of th statmnt is contrasty. On pag 369, thr is an inconsistncy of form btwn Eq. (3.5) and Eqs. (3.8) and (3.31). On pag 375, th dimnsions of Z hav bn omittd. On pag 408, th statmnt immdiatly prcding Eq. (6.36), in addition to opning with a dangling participl, lacks sufficint punctuation for rady undrstanding. On pag 440, thr is illustratd th dangr in gnralizing as a rsult of local obsrvations. Whil it may b tru that th work of Hay and Rid (196) showd an absnc of pointangl activity in Dcmbr and January in Canada, on sus6 r 6 { { s

4 Blfort manufacturs a full lin of mtorological instrumnts. Snd for our nw catalogu. MANUFACTURED TO MILITARY SPECIFICATION MIL W (SIG C) CAT. NO. 605 HAND WIND MEASURING SET Availabl for immdiat dlivry BELFORT INSTRUMENT COMPANY 4 North Cntral Avnu Baltimor, Maryland Bulltin Amrican Mtorological Socity 63

5 pcts that this nd not apply to, say, Arizona, Florida, or Txas for th sam months. On pag 453, it is difficult to undrstand why th author calls N [= (m 1)10 ] th "modifid rfractiv indx," whras th trm "rfractivity" has bn widly adoptd for som yars; morovr, th symbol "m" is so widly usd to rprsnt th complx indx of rfraction (m = n ix), that this sms an ffort to turn back th whls of tim. In th opinion of this rviwr, who has facd th task of instructing many larg classs in both th ordinary and th unusual aspcts of radar mtorology, an adquat txtbook on th subjct has not yt bn writtn. Batan's 1959 book coms closst, but dos not hit th mark. Hisr and Frsman, 1959, contains mor radar than mtorology. This work by Atlas maks no prtns of bing a txt and isn't. Anyon who tachs radar mtorology still has th task of intgrating and intrprting a multiplicity of rsarch rports and monographs. Howvr, Atlas' rviw hlps to mak this task somwhat asir. Th author has mt his objctivs, has rviwd th basic principls and concpts of radar mtorology and mtorological radar. H is to b complimntd on a wll-don job. Vanc Moyr 6 Chmical Ractions in th Atmosphr. Discussions of th Faraday Socity, London. Washington, D. C., Buttrworth, Inc., pags. $ Procdings of confrncs ar apparntly publishd for a varity of motivs. A confrnc volum may b littl mor than a souvnir for th confrs. It may broadn its scop slightly to act in th mannr of a postcard, "Wish you wr hr," for thos prsons who would also hav attndd had thir grant funds prmittd. Finally, such a volum may b intndd as a full-fldgd mmbr of th opn litratur. It should also b obsrvd that th contributors to th book may diffr among thmslvs as to th rasons for this publication, and that it taks a strong-mindd ditor to assur that all paprs srv th intndd purpos. Volums of procdings ar also brutally candid snapshots of th mtings, in th sns that it is narly impossibl for th ditor to xclud a papr that was actually prsntd, mrly bcaus it is trivial or rronous. Rarly ar paprs rviwd as critically as thos in a journal. If w considr th prsnt volum in this contxt, it must b admittd that, on th avrag, th paprs ar of good quality. Howvr, th utility of th book is gratly dcrasd by svral quirks of diting and production. Th bibliographic styl is at bst annoying, sinc authors ar citd only by surnam, without initials. Fully half of th figurs lack captions, and on som do not hav labls on th axs. Thr ar nough obvious typographical rrors to rais qustions about th lss obvious ons, such as numbrs in tabls. On or two paprs appar to hav bn transcribd from th oral prsntations and inadquatly ditd. For xampl, th papr by Larkin and Thrush, p. 115, contains th statmnt that "hydrogn atoms ar rgnratd in subsqunt ractions: O + H 0 = 0H + 0 (6) H + HO = H + 0 (10a) = OH + OH (10b) =H0+O (10c) 0H + 0H = H (11) O + OH = H + 0 () H + OH = O + H (1)." a 64 Th raction chain involvd in rgnrating hydrogn atoms involvs, of this list, only ractions (6) and (), th initial raction of th st bing H M = H 0 + M. Corrctly or incorrctly, on infrs that thr was a slid containing all ths quations, to which th spakr pointd. Thr ar othr xampls lswhr of carlss construction (Nicolt, p. 1, dfins J and J, and thraftr uss J and G 03 Whil ths production problms plac unncssary burdns on th radr, it cannot b dnid that th volum contains xcllnt matrial. Th rviws by Nicolt, Bats, and Dalgarno of various classs of aronomic problms ar xcllnt. Cadl's discussion of daytim atmosphric 0( D) is also in th natur of a critical rviw with som nw conclusions arising from th rviw. Anothr papr involving no nw laboratory invstigations is asily th most xciting of th lot. This is Brknr and Marshall's spculation on th ris of oxygn in th primordial atmosphr. Thir us of th phras "oxygnic concntration" is pculiar and mildly objctionabl, but th work is a marvlous scintific dtctiv story. Today's picmal publication sldom affords such a complt prsntation of a dductiv chain, and fw conclusions rst upon information from so many disciplins. Whthr or not futur rsarch vindicats th authors, this papr is a plasur to rad. Th rsarch paprs ar of gnrally good quality, and svral rprsnt significant advancs in chmical aronomy. It can only b rgrttd that th production and diting of th book was not mor carful. Jams P. Lodg, Jr. X Th Dynamics of th Uppr Ocan. By O. M. Phillips. Cambridg, Cambridg Univrsity Prss, pags. $ Lik Gaul, Th Dynamics of th Uppr Ocan according to Phillips is dividd into thr parts: surfac wavs, intrnal wavs and turbulnc. As with Casar, th thr parts ar not tratd in qual dtail and th division is somwhat arbitrary. Th prsnt book includs mattr lik local similarity thory which transcnds th scop suggstd by th titl. It dos not dal with topics such as th mchanics of organizd convction which ar of som importanc in th ocan surfac layrs, and it givs lss wight to "Ekman layr" phnomna than might hav bn don by othr authors. To b radabl, any tratis rquirs a prsonal slction of subjct mattr, howvr, and this dos not dtract from th mrit of this vry wll composd monograph. What striks th radr first is th styl of th book and th logical organization. Th writing is lucid and trs. Although th tratmnt is analytical throughout, th author manags, oftn with a vry fw words, to provid a physical insight. His xplanation why th thory of infinitsimal wavs has succdd in dscribing so many obsrvd ral phnomna, which prcds th chaptr on wav intractions, is on xampl. (Th ratio of th non-linar trms to th linar trms in th wav quation is of th sam ordr as th root-man squar slop of th watr surfac, which must b small for rasons concrnd with gravitational and dynamic stability.) Th rlation btwn microsisms and th rflction of gravity wavs from a shor lin, th attnuation of swll, or th discussion of intrnal wav mods ar othr cass in point. Most of ths xplanations may, of cours, b

6 Bulltin Amrican Mtorological Socity found in various scintific paprs, many of thm publishd by Phillips himslf, by Longut-Higgins who is th most frquntly quotd author in this book, by R. W. Stwart and by othrs, but thy ar brought togthr in this monograph in a form which will b vry convnint to th non-spcialist. Th conomic tratmnt of many topics and th organization of this monograph should mak it a usful txt for a graduat cours. Studnts with adquat mathmatical prparation, who wish to larn somthing about dynamic mtorology or ocanography, will find th introductory chaptrs on th quations of motion, th Boussinsq approximation, and th Rynolds strsss valuabl; th sam applis to th gnral tratmnt of spctra, turbulnc and local similarity latr on. To th mtorologist in particular, th monograph offrs an authoritativ discussion of th mchanics of th sa surfac which maks up 70 pr cnt of th atmosphr's lowr boundary. Th tratmnt of intrnal wavs in th ocan is applicabl also with littl chang to atmosphric motion. Th volum is part of th sris of Cambridg Monographs on Mchanics and Applid Mathmatics ditd by Batchlor and Mils. It was awardd th Adams priz in th Univrsity of Cambridg, is wll producd and if thr ar rrors, I hav not discovrd thm. Th bibliography covrs 1 pags and thr is a good indx. I rcommnd this monograph as a txtbook or as a rfrnc volum for prsonal and library us Eric B. Kraus Solar Radiation. Editd by Nathan Robinson. Nw York, Amrican Elsvir Publishing Co., Inc., pags. $4.50. Solar radiation is th primary nrgy sourc for various atmosphric procsss, such as th dvlopmnt and maintnanc of diffrnt scals of atmosphric motions, initiation of th hydrological cycl, tc. It is, in addition, rsponsibl for many of th complx intractions within th biosphr. A dscription and undrstanding of th rol of solar radiation in th atmosphr and at th ground is, thrfor, of fundamntal importanc to a wid rang of scintific intrsts (.g., aronomy, mtorology, hydrology, ocanography, agronomy, and bioclimatology among othrs). Studnts and rsarch workrs in ths filds hav long flt th nd of a rfrnc txtbook that summarizd our prsnt knowldg of solar radiation and its gophysical intraction. In many ways, Solar Radiation ditd by th lat Profssor N. Robinson fulfills this rol. Th book covrs th important aspcts of solar radiation such as: its origin, natur, and gographical distribution; its rol in th atmosphric hat balanc; instrumntal mthods of obsrvation and masurmnt; and suggstd applications of solar nrgy with mphasis on convrsion procsss. Most of th book was writtn and ditd by Prof. Robinson. H was aidd by contributions to various chaptrs from six additional scintists. Two of th ight chaptrs of th book stand out in thir tratmnt of th rlvant subjct mattr. Ths ar: Chaptr 3 on Absorption and Scattring PUBLICATIONS OF THE ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY LONDON ENGLAND QUARTERLY JOURNAL ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY THE QUARTERLY JOURNAL is world-rnownd for th publication in English of th rsults of original rsarch on all aspcts of atmosphric scinc. Paprs must b submittd by or through Mmbrs of th Royal Mtorological Socity, and ar critically rfrd bfor accptanc. WEATHER is a monthly magazin of articls and information writtn in a popular styl. Gnrous illustration includs plats in colour. Annual subscriptions ar $0.00 to th Quartrly Journal and $4.00 to Wathr, post fr. 65

7 in th Atmosphr writtn by S. Fritz, G. Yamamoto and F. Mollr, and Chaptr 7 on Instrumnts for Masuring Solar Radiation writtn by N. Robinson. Th book starts with a discussion of radiation mittd by th sun. Thr is a brif dscription of th sourc and natur of solar radiation, particularly for th visibl spctrum. This is followd (Chaptr ) by discussions of th astronomical and gographic factors affcting th amount of solar radiation raching diffrnt parts of th arth. (Part of Chaptr was writtn by V. Bckr.) Nxt, is a vry complt and intgratd tratmnt of th ffct of th atmosphr on solar radiation. This chaptr, writtn by S. Fritz, G. Yamamoto, and F. Mollr, includs discussions of atmosphric scattring (Rayligh and Mi); absorptiv procsss in th ultraviolt, visibl and infrard portions of th solar spctrum; and atmosphric turbidity. Chaptr 4, writtn by W. Schupp, concrns dirct and scattrd radiation raching th arth. Most of th matrial containd in Chaptr 4 is covrd in Chaptrs and 3, and a bttr intgration of th matrial in Chaptrs, 3, and 4 would hav bn dsirabl. Th spctral nrgy distribution of dirct and scattrd radiation is discussd in Chaptr 5. In this chaptr, th dpltion of solar radiation for diffrnt spctral intrvals is discussd. Th matrial containd in Chaptr 5 is particularly prtinnt to thos intrstd in biological ffcts of ultraviolt radiation, such as: chmists, mdical climatologists, and plant cologists concrnd with problms of photosynthsis. Th discussion in Chaptr 6 on th radiation balanc of th Earth-atmosphric systm is a summary of th rsults of th mor rcnt studis of th various componnts of th Earth's radiation balanc. This should b of particular valu to mtorologists intrstd in th man nrgtics and circulation of th Earth's atmosphr. Chaptr 7 contains an xcllnt rviw of instrumnts and xprimntal mthods for th masurmnt of solar radiation. This is crtainly th most complt and satisfactory tratmnt of th subjct availabl in any book in th English languag. In light of prsnt dvlopmnts toward thrdimnsional soundings of th atmosphr, th chaptr could hav bn improvd with inclusion of a discussion on airborn solar radiation instrumnts. Th last chaptr of th book, writtn in part by M. Y. Bn-Sira, contains a limitd discussion of th us of solar radiation in nrgy convrsion procsss. Th xampls chosn stm from rsarch fforts of Prof. Robinson and his collaborators. Ths dal with solar watr hatrs and dirct convrsion into lctrical nrgy by solar battris. Thr is no discussion of applications to bioclimatological, hydrological, architctural or othr problms. It is obvious that Prof. Robinson's long yars of involvmnt in solar radiation rsarch contributd to organization and scop of this book. It is, thrfor, particularly unfortunat that h was prvntd from complting a projct which was so important to him and into which h crtainly put a grat dal of his final nrgy. Much of th intrnal waknss of th book can probably b attributd to his untimly dath. Th notation is not always clarly dfind and thr ar occasional inconsistncis whr diffrnt valus takn from diffrnt sourcs ar prsntd for th sam physical paramtrs with no discussion of th rason for th diffrncs or, indd, which st is th mor corrct. Also, it would hav bn dsirabl to hav som judicious choic in thinning out th larg numbr of quasi-rptitiv diagrams. Ths rach a pak in Chaptr 5 of about on diagram pr pag which is a factor of thr largr than th avrag for this sris of books. In many cass, illustrations ar prsntd with inadquat or no txtual discussion. It may b that th profus us of illustrations rsultd in th somwhat high pric for th book. Many of th important post-igy Studis of th obsrvations of solar radiation ovr th Earth's surfac hav bn nglctd. In addition, thr ar a numbr of important omissions of rfrncs to primary sourc matrial. For xampl, rsults from Budyko's classical Atlas of th Hat Balanc of th Earth ar prsntd and discussd in Chaptr 6 but thr is no rfrnc to this important study. In August 1964, Prof. Robinson activly participatd in th Radiation Symposium (IUGG) hld in Lningrad and th IAU mting hld in Hamburg. On his way hom to Isral, h did rathr suddnly aboard ship. Th task of final compilation and diting of th book was accomplishd by Prof. Robinson's frinds and collagus. Publication of th book is a lasting tribut to his contributions in xprimntal physics mad during 40 yars of his lif's work. Dspit som of its shortcomings, this book will b of us to all scintists whos studis involv dirct or indirct knowldg of solar radiation. Julius London 66

8 Bulltin Amrican Mtorological Socity (Continud from announcmnts, pag 15) Distributors of th Socity's ducational x films Th Socity is plasd to announc that arrangmnts hav bn compltd with th following organizations for th nonxclusiv distribution of th Socity's ducational films: Modrn Larning Aids Unitd World Films, Inc. 11 Avnu of th Amricas 1 Park Avnu South Nw York, N. Y. 100S6 Nw York, N. Y Th abov distributors may now b contactd for information prtaining to th purchas, las, rntal, or prviw of th following compltd films: 16 mm Abov th Horizon: 1 min, color, sound Formation of Raindrops: 6 min, color, sound Solar Radiation I: Sun and Earth: 18 min, color, sound Sa Surfac Mtorology: 4 min, black and whit, sound 8 mm/16 mm Nuclation of Suprcoold Clouds: 4 min, black and whit, silnt Homognous Nuclation and th Dilctric Natur of Ic Crystals: 4 min, black and whit, silnt Condnsation Nucli: 4 min, color, silnt Othr films will b announcd as thy ar compltd. Th abov arrangmnts prtain to U. S. distribution of th film Abov th Horizon, and to worldwid distribution for all othr films. Exclusiv forign distribution rights to Abov th Horizon ar hld by th National Film Board of Canada, Montral, Qubc. U. S. Committ on Extnsion to th Standard Atmosphr 1 Th U. S. Committ on Extnsion to th Standard Atmosphr (COESA) announcs that a nw book, th U. S. Standard Atmosphr Supplmnts, 1966, is rady for publication by th U. S. Govrnmnt Printing Offic. It will b availabl for initial distribution to associatd arospac and scintific organizations vry arly in Additional copis also will b mad availabl to th public through th GPO at a vry nominal cost. COESA authord th U. S. Standard Atmosphr, 196, a companion volum containing dtaild tabls of atmosphric paramtrs to 700 km. Th Intrnational Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adoptd in 1964 an xtnsion of th ICAO 0 km Standard Atmosphr to 3 km, following COESA's 196 atmosphr. This 3 km (105,000 ft) xtnsion is st for implmntation by all appropriat national authoritis on 1 Novmbr 1966, in tim for us by suprsonic transport aircraft. COESA is a group of organizations that bandd togthr in 1953 to tak actions rquird to provid th thn, nw-born spac industry with a ralistic dscription of th atmosphr 1 Addrss: U. S. Committ on Extnsion to th Standard Atmosphr, c/o AFCRL (CREW), L. G. Hanscom Fild, Bdford, Mass Co-chairmn: Mauric Dubin, Norman Sissnwin, Sidny Twls. CALL ON DEEPWATER CHEMICAL CO., LTD. FOR CLOUD NUCLEATION CHEMICALS SILVER SILVER LEAD SODIUM IODIDE IODATE IODATE IODIDE For Pric List and Sampls Writ or Call DEEPWATER CHEMICAL CO., LTD. P. O. Box 4636, Compton, California Phon (13) xtnding byond altituds of convntional aircraft oprations. Th sponsors of this ffort ar th Environmntal Scinc Srvics Administration of th Dpartmnt of Commrc, th National Aronautics and Spac Administration, and th Unitd Stats Air Forc (through th Air Forc Cambridg Rsarch Laboratoris). In addition, thirty organizations, rprsnting govrnmnt, industry, rsarch institutions, and univrsitis participatd in this ndavor. Th U. S. Standard Atmosphr Supplmnts, 1966 was prpard in rspons to a nd for atmosphric modls dpicting conditions othr than th idalizd mid-latitud man, rprsntd by th tabls of COESA's U. S. Standard Atmosphr, 196. Tabls of typical wintr and summr conditions for various latituds xtnd through th troposphr, stratosphr and msosphr, about 80 km. Eight of ths ar continud to th lowr thrmosphr whr thy mrg into thr diffrnt boundary conditions at 10 km, summr, wintr and spring/fall. Modls rlatd to th wid rang of conditions in th thrmosphr associatd with varying solar activity, gomagntic activity and znith angl of th sun, divrg upward from ths boundary conditions and xtnd to 1000 km 3 million ft). Th substanc of this publication is two major sts of tabls; thos for th rgion blow 10 km, kyd to sasonal and latitudinal variations; and thos for 10 to 1000 km, kyd to solar activity, gomagntic activity, and solar angl. Ths two sts of tabls, though sparatd, hav mutual boundary conditions so that usrs will b abl to slct for any location, sason, and solar activity, th appropriat continuous profils of atmosphric proprtis from th surfac up to 1000 km. Profils of atmosphric proprtis for any 67

9 orbital or r-ntry trajctory can thus b stimatd. An xampl of th pr cnt dpartur of dnsity from th 196 Standard Atmosphr ovr a north-south trajctory for a typical situation is shown in th Figur. Altitud is limitd to 700 km sinc th 196 Standard trminats at this lvl. Typical pol to pol cross sction prcntag dpartur of dnsity from 196 Standard at 1400 hours local tim, sun at 3N, maximum xosphric tmpratur of 1500K. In addition, this publication contains information on diurnal variations in dnsity up to 90 km, rfind analytic xprssions which rprsnt prssur and dnsity profils of th 196 Standard and 1966 Supplmntary Atmosphrs to 80 km, and a mid-latitud ozon modl up to 50 km. Tabls providing th altitud variation of gopotntial surfacs as a function of latitud ar also includd to facilitat application of th atmosphric tabls to all locations. For thos intrstd in aircraft prssur altimtry a st of dtaild prssur altitud tabls from th surfac to 10 mb is providd. Th gnral background lading to dvlopmnt of this publication is containd in th Forword. Tchnical background is prsntd in Part 1 Basis of th Tabls. Parts and 3 provid dtaild insight on th dvlopmnt of th two major sts of tabls and includ prsntations of prtinnt supporting data. Part 4 contains th additional matrial on analytic approximations, ozon, and gopotntial-gomtric altitud rlations. Parts 5 and 6 ar th dtaild tabls of th atmosphrs. Throughout th documnt, figurs and tabls hav bn introducd to prmit visual comparisons of th varying conditions prsntd. Major tabls ar prsntd in both English and mtric systms blow 10 km. Abov 10 km, mtric tabls ar providd. 68 (Continud from nws and nots, pag 35) Environmntal Data Srvic dirctor rtirs Dr. Hlmut E. Landsbrg, notd gophysicist and dirctor of th ESSA Environmntal Data Srvic, rtird from that position on 30 Dcmbr to bcom rsarch profsor in th Institut for Fluid Dynamics and Applid Mathmatics, Univrsity of Maryland. Dr. Landsbrg has hadd th nation's climatological program sinc 1954, whn h bcam dirctor of th Wathr Burau's Offic of Climatology. Shortly aftr th Wathr Burau bcam a part of th nwly formd Environmntal Scinc Srvics Administration in 1965, h was appointd dirctor of th Environmntal Data Srvic. Until h officially joins th univrsity faculty on a full-tim basis on 1 July h is taching sminars on agricultural mtorology and is chairman of an institut committ which is planning a program of graduat study in mtorology. A highly rgardd and frquntly honord climatologist, Dr. Landsbrg cam to th Unitd Stats from Grmany in 1934 with a Ph.D. from th Univrsity of Frankfurt, his nativ city. H srvd as assistant profssor of gophysics at Pnnsylvania Stat Collg, thn during World War II was a spcial consultant and analyst for th Air Forc in Washington, D. C. From 1945 to 1949 h was dputy and acting xcutiv dirctor of th Joint Rsarch and Dvlopmnt Board's Committ on Gophysical Scincs, and srvd as xcutiv dirctor of th Board's Committ on Gophysics and Gography from 1949 to H spnt th nxt thr yars as had of th Gophysics Rsarch Dirctorat of th Air Forc Cambridg Rsarch Cntr, Cambridg, Mass., until joining th Wathr Burau in In 1960 h rcivd th Dpartmnt of Commrc's highst honor, th Excptional Srvic Award, for major tchnical contributions to mtorology and climatology, highly distinguishd authorship, outstanding dirction and stimulation of rsarch and dvlopmnt in climatology, and for xcptional srvic as dirctor of th Offic of Climatology. In 1964 th Amrican Mtorological Socity chos him for th Award for Outstanding Achivmnt in Bioclimatology for his contributions to bioclimatological scinc and for his vigorous and ffctiv fforts to bring attntion to this fild in proportion to its scintific and public importanc. A formr vic prsidnt of th AMS, Dr. Landsbrg has bn xtrmly activ in th work of th AMS and of th Amrican Gophysical Union, and has srvd with distinction in many govrnmntal and profssional organizations. H is ditor of Advancs in Gophysics. In 1966 h was lctd to th National Acadmy of Enginring.