NNZ-2566 in Rett Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders Role and Update

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "NNZ-2566 in Rett Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders Role and Update"

Transcription

1 NNZ-2566 in Rett Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders Role and Update 1

2 Overview The natural growth factor IGF-1 is broken down in the body to IGF-1[1-3] NNZ-2566 is an analogue of IGF-1[1-3] developed by Neuren Pharmaceuticals Ltd. NNZ-2566 has enhanced oral availability and a pharmaceutical profile suitable for investigation in autism spectrum disorders. Autism, Rett Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome: disorders of synaptic connectivity involving neuroinflammation IGF-1[1-3] and NNZ-2566 have benefit in models of Rett Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome Clinical study in Rett Syndrome is underway Clinical study in Fragile X Syndrome is being planned 2

3 IGF-1, IGF-1[1-3] and NNZ

4 IGF-1 and IGF-1[1-3] IGF-1 is essential for brain development, widely expressed in the CNS, upregulated following brain injury Naturally occurring neurotrophic factor one of the brain s self-repair mechanisms IGF-1[1-3] is believed to be the active neuroprotective moiety in response to injury IGF-1 [1-3]appears to upregulate IGF-1 in the brain, enhance IGF1R phosphorylation and expression of synaptic markers 4

5 IGF-1[1-3] Mechanism of Action IGF-1[1-3]: Reduces cytokines 2 and neuroinflammatory markers in brain Activates Akt-mToR pathway in microglia Increases markers of presynaptic and postsynaptic synapses Activates Akt-mToR pathway in mecp2 knockout mouse model of Rett Syndrome IGF[1-3] reduces number of microglia in hippocampus following hypoxia ischemia in rat brain Casandra et al (2011) Guan et al (2004) Neuropharmacology 47:892 Corvin et (2012) Neurosci Lett. 520:51 Tropea et al. (2009) PNAS 106:2029 5

6 NNZ-2566 (oral formulation) NNZ-2566 is a (1-3)IGF-1 analog Longer half-life Crosses blood brain barrier Orally available (45-50%) Conventional solution phase synthesis Validated manufacturing process Excellent stability Targets: inflammation, synaptic function, and microglial activation Dose-dependent effects in animal models with delayed administration No clinical toxicity in rats at highest dose tested for 28 days No SAEs, no clinically significant AEs in Phase I trial up to 100 mg/kg b.i.d. x 5 days Formulated with water Peak plasma level at 2 hours with or without food Creates opportunities for chronic dosing 6

7 Autism, Rett Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome 7

8 Synapsopathy in ASDs Altered synapses in idiopathic (non-syndromal) and syndromal autism Functional consequences: impairments in synaptic plasticity, excitatory/inhibitory imbalance, and disrupted neuronal synchrony Hutsler and Zhang (2010) Brain Res 1309:83 Irwin et al (2000) Cerebral Cortex 10:1038 Chapleau et al (2009) Neurobiol Dis 35:219 8

9 Synapsopathy in ASDs Dolan and Bear, J Neurodev Disord 2009 June; 1(2):

10 ASDs: impaired neuronal network performance Kelleher and Bear, Cell 135, October 31, 2008

11 Neuroinflammation in ASDs Microglia and astroglia are activated in brain in autism Fragile X Syndrome astrocytes can institute neuronal phenotype, and wild type astrocytes can rescue Fragile X Syndrome phenotype Wild type microglia rescue Rett Syndrome phenotype Vargas et al (2005) Ann Neurol. 57:67 Jacobs et al (2010) BMC Neurosci. 11:132 Maezawa and Jin (2010) J Neurosci. 30:

12 Cytokines in ASDs Cytokines are cell signalling molecules produced by immune system cells including microglia Interleukin-6 is an example: Interleukin-6 may be involved in autism, Fragile X Syndrome and Rett Syndrome Interleukin-6 can activate microglia IL-6 induces changes in dendritic spine density, alters neuronal adhesion and migration, causes excess in excitatory synapses, and reduces social interaction in an animal model of autism Ashwood et al (2011) Brain Behav Immun. 25:40 Ashwood et al (2010) Brain Behav Immun. 24:898 De Filippis et al (2012) Neuropsychopharmacology 37:1152 Krady et al (2008) J Neurosci Res. 86:1538 Wei et al (2012) Biochim Biophys Acta. 1822:831 Wei et al (2011) J Neuroinflammation 8:52 12

13 Glia-neuron interactions 13 Blank and Prinz, Glia 61:62-70 (2013)

14 Neuronal Transcriptional Control, Growth and Survival: Cytokines and Growth Factors in Fragile X Syndrome Effect of NNZ-2566 NNZ-2566 Believed to attenuate aberrant cytokine levels IL-6 GP130 Activated Microglia NNZ-2566 Believed to restore normal microglia function; perhaps through normalizing autocrine homeostasis Caspase-8 Bid Bax Caspase-3 STAT3 JAK3 mtor PI3K Akt NF- κb Protein Synthesis Regulation Normalised Dendritic Growth NNZ-2566 Reverses Akt in fmr1 KO _ mice Bad Ras MEK ERK NNZ-2566 Reverses ERK in fmr1 KO mice Normal Dendritic Pruning Cell Death / Apoptosis

15 Neuronal Transcriptional Control, Growth and Survival : Cytokines and Growth Factors in Rett Syndrome Effect of NNZ-2566 NNZ-2566 Believed to attenuate aberrant cytokine levels IGF-1(1-3) reported to increase IGF-1 receptor activation; may help reverse impaired Akt/mTOR activation in absence of MeCP2 IL-6 GP130 Restoration of Microglia NNZ-2566 Hypothesized to restore normal function of microglia. Increased microglial Atf3 is reported, this would reduce local IL-6 and TNF-α, attenuating autocrine activation. IGF-1(1-3) reported to activate Akt in microglia Caspase-8 Bid Bax Caspase-3 STAT3 JAK3 mtor PI3K Akt NF- κb _ Bad Ras MEK ERK Increase in total brain pakt reported mice following IGF-1(1-3) Protein Synthesis Regulation Improved Dendritic Growth Improved Dendritic Pruning Cell Death / Apoptosis

16 Mechanism of Action Summary NNZ-2566 is not a direct agonist of the IGF-1 receptor Traumatic brain injury Microglial activation and cytokine release stimulates pro-apoptotic pathways NNZ-2566 reduces neuroinflammation and apoptosis Fragile X Syndrome Activation of astroctyes induces Fragile X Syndrome neuronal phenotype, potentially via induction of RAS-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt-mToR pathways NNZ-2566 reverses neuroinflammation and Akt / ERK activation Rett Syndrome Impaired passive sentinel function of microglia related to PI3k-Akt-mToR function NNZ-2566 reverses Akt dysfunction normalizing microglial support of synaptic function 16

17 Effects on cytokines in brain injury 17

18 Normalized mrna level Time - Course of Gene Expression (qrt-pcr) IL-1b Sham 1hr 4hr 12hr 24hr 72hr 7ds IL-6 # # Sham PBBI PBBI+NNZ-2566 Sham 1hr 4hr 12hr 24hr 72hr 7ds J Neuroinflammation (2009) # # Time Post-PBBI TNF-a 1 1 E-selectin # # # Sham 1hr 4hr 12hr 24hr 72hr 7ds # Sham 1hr 4hr 12hr 24hr 72hr 7ds 18 #

19 Effects in Fragile X Syndrome model 19

20 Rescue of dendritic spines fmr1 KO mouse neurons show increased numbers of dendritic spines NNZ-2566 in the concentration range 0.5 to 50 nm dose dependently reduces excess spine number 20

21 Open Field The open field is an exposed space in which movement can be tracked. During exposure to the open field mice will habituate to the environment and thus explore less, decreasing the amount movement they show over time. The present experiment records movement and rearing during an initial exposure, during a second exposure after 10 minutes and during a third exposure after 24hours. Failures to reduce locomotion or rearing at 10 minutes and 24 hours indicate deficits in short and long term memory, respectively. A variety of measures can be collected in the open field locomotor activity and rearing are commonly reported

22 Rears / 3 min Open Field Rearing 35 Wild Type Vehicle 30 Wild Type NNZ p < 0.01 p < 0.01 fmr1 KO Vehicle fmr1 KO NNZ NS p < 0.01 N = 10 per group 10 NS 5 NS 0 0 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 fmr1 KO mice show increased activity NNZ-2566 has no effect in Wild Type mice, but significantly reduces rears in fmr1 KO mice fmr1 KO mice do not show habituation at 10 min (short term memory deficit) Thus during the short term and long term memory tests, NNZ-2566 treated fmr1 KO mice do not differ from controls

23 Elevated Plus Maze Time Spent The elevated plus maze has two open and two closed arm, raised above floor height. The open arms are more exposed and therefore create more anxiety in the mice. Mice therefore spend more time in the closed arms and visit them more. Measures taken include time spent in the arms and center of the maze, and number of arm entries

24 TimeSepnt Open Arm (sec) TimeSepnt Center (sec) TimeSepnt Closed Arm (sec) Elevated Plus Maze Time Spent NS NS NS p < p p < < p < p < 0.05 NS p < Vehicle NNZ-2566 Vehicle NNZ-2566 Wild Type frm1 KO N = 10 per group NS p < Vehicle NNZ-2566 Vehicle NNZ-2566 Wild Type frm1 KO p < 0.05 p < p < 0.01 Vehicle NNZ-2566 Vehicle NNZ-2566 Wild Type frm1 KO For time spent in both Open and Closed arm, fmr1 KO mice show a significant difference to Wild Type controls, as well as time spent in the center This reflects hyperactivity in the fmr1 KO mice, which spend much more time transiting the maze, compared to Wild Type mice, who remain in the closed arms This effect is significantly reversed following treatment with NNZ-2566

25 Social Behavior Bouts of Sniffing p < p < p < 0.01 NS Trial 1 Trial 1 Trial 1 Trial 1 Vehicle NNZ-2566 Vehicle NNZ-2566 Wild Type frm1 KO N = 10 per group fmr1 KO mice engage in significantly more bouts of sniffing compared to Wild Type mice NNZ-2566 has no significant effect in Wild Type mice After NNZ-2566 administration to fmr1 KO mice, this group is not significantly different to NNZ-2566 Wild Type mice i.e. NNZ-2566 normalizes the abnormalities in social behavior seen in fmr1 KO mice

26 Tests Weight (mg) Macro-orchidism p < p < NS NS Vehicle NNZ-2566 Vehicle NNZ-2566 Wild Type fmr1 KO fmr1 KO mice show an increase in testis weight, as do human Fragile X Syndrome patients NNZ-2566 has no significant effect in Wild Type mice After NNZ-2566 administration to fmr1 KO mice, testis weight is not significantly different from controls

27 Ras-Mek-Erk Pathway Vehicle NNZ-2566 Vehicle NNZ-2566 N = 4 per Group Vehicle NNZ-2566 Vehicle NNZ-2566 Overall levels of ERK are unchanged in the brain in fmr1 KO mice However, activation of ERK, as indexed by levels of phosphorylated ERK, is increased This activation is normalized by treatment with NNZ-2566 NNZ-2566 may also increase total ERK levels in fmr1 KO mice

28 Akt-Pathway pakt Vehicle vehicle NNZ-2566 NNZ WT KO WT KO AKT N = 4 per Group Vehicle NNZ-2566 Activation of Akt, as indexed by levels of phosphorylation, is increased This activation is normalized by treatment with NNZ-2566

29 Effects in Rett Syndrome model 29

30 Pharmacological Reversal of Phenotype IGF-1[1-3] reverses phenotype MECP2 mouse Tropea et al

31 NNZ-2566 Rett Syndrome / Fragile X Syndrome Recruitment into Phase II clinical trial in Rett Syndrome is underway 48 subjects; 2 doses plus placebo; 14 day follow-up Adolescents and adults Subjects will have baseline assessments of EEG, cardiac and respiratory rhythms, and functional status Focus on safety and signals of efficacy Large market opportunity Significant unmet need; no marketed therapeutic Symptoms amenable to treatment Potential for disease modification? Potential gateway to autism Fragile X Syndrome study planning underway 31

32 Summary NNZ-2566 shows efficacy in pre-clinical models of: Traumatic brain injury Fragile X Syndrome Rett Syndrome Efficacy accompanied by: Decrease in microglial activation Decrease in production of inflammatory cytokines Normalization of Akt and ERK activation profiles Clinical studies now underway 32

Neuren s trofinetide successful in proof of concept Phase 2 clinical trial in Fragile X syndrome

Neuren s trofinetide successful in proof of concept Phase 2 clinical trial in Fragile X syndrome Neuren (NEU) - ASX Announcement 7 December 2015 Neuren s trofinetide successful in proof of concept Phase 2 clinical trial in Fragile X syndrome Highlights: Positive top-line results provide a strong rationale

More information

The Treatment of Rett Syndrome with Trofinetide (NNZ-2566): Past, Present, Future. Daniel Glaze, MD Baylor College of Medicine

The Treatment of Rett Syndrome with Trofinetide (NNZ-2566): Past, Present, Future. Daniel Glaze, MD Baylor College of Medicine The Treatment of Rett Syndrome with Trofinetide (NNZ-2566): Past, Present, Future Daniel Glaze, MD Baylor College of Medicine Multicenter Trials of Trofinetide Past: Neu-2566-RETT-001 Phase 2 in Adolescents

More information

Mary ET Boyle, Ph. D. Department of Cognitive Science UCSD

Mary ET Boyle, Ph. D. Department of Cognitive Science UCSD ? Mary ET Boyle, Ph. D. Department of Cognitive Science UCSD Christian S Lobsiger & Don W Cleveland (2007) Nature Neuroscience 10, 1355-1360 Astrocytes: interlinked gatekeepers of glutamate astrocytes

More information

The Amazing Brain Webinar Series: Select Topics in Neuroscience and Child Development for the Clinician

The Amazing Brain Webinar Series: Select Topics in Neuroscience and Child Development for the Clinician The Amazing Brain Webinar Series: Select Topics in Neuroscience and Child Development for the Clinician Part VII Recent Advances in the Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders Abha R. Gupta, MD, PhD Jointly

More information

Scientific Discoveries Allow Development of Targeted Therapeutics for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Scientific Discoveries Allow Development of Targeted Therapeutics for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Scientific Discoveries Allow Development of Targeted Therapeutics for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Randall L. Carpenter, M.D. Co-Founder, President and CEO August 9, 2012 Research Supported

More information

Chairman s Address Dr. Richard Treagus

Chairman s Address Dr. Richard Treagus Chairman s Address Dr. Richard Treagus Annual Shareholders Meeting Of Neuren Pharmaceuticals Limited, 30 April 2014 Good morning Ladies and Gentlemen. Welcome to our Annual Shareholders Meeting in Melbourne.

More information

Supplemental Table 1. Primers used for RT-PCR analysis of inflammatory cytokines Gene Primer Sequence

Supplemental Table 1. Primers used for RT-PCR analysis of inflammatory cytokines Gene Primer Sequence Supplemental Table 1. Primers used for RT-PCR analysis of inflammatory cytokines Gene Primer Sequence IL-1α Forward primer 5 -CAAGATGGCCAAAGTTCGTGAC-3' Reverse primer 5 -GTCTCATGAAGTGAGCCATAGC-3 IL-1β

More information

TBI: Translational Issues and Opportunities. Alan I Faden MD John Povlishock PhD

TBI: Translational Issues and Opportunities. Alan I Faden MD John Povlishock PhD TBI: Translational Issues and Opportunities Alan I Faden MD John Povlishock PhD State of the Science: Translational Issues and Opportunities Translational Issues: Failed Clinical Trials - Animal Modeling

More information

Top Peer Reviewed Journals Neuroscience & Behavior

Top Peer Reviewed Journals Neuroscience & Behavior Top Peer Reviewed Journals Neuroscience & Behavior Presented to Iowa State University Presented by Thomson Reuters Neuroscience & Behavior The subject discipline for Neuroscience & Behavior is made of

More information

IL-6 - a hypertrophic factor

IL-6 - a hypertrophic factor IL-6 - a hypertrophic factor 3 rd CIM PhD Course Copenhagen, April 30 th, 2009 Pompeu Fabra University Department of Experimental and Health Sciences Barcelona, Spain Myogenesis MRF: muscle regulatory

More information

Fragile X Syndrome & Recent Advances in Behavioural Phenotype Research Jeremy Turk

Fragile X Syndrome & Recent Advances in Behavioural Phenotype Research Jeremy Turk Fragile X Syndrome & Recent Advances in Behavioural Phenotype Research Jeremy Turk Institute of Psychiatry Psychology & Neurosciences, King s College, University of London Child & Adolescent Mental Health

More information

PART I. INTRODUCTION TO BRAIN DEVELOPMENT

PART I. INTRODUCTION TO BRAIN DEVELOPMENT NEURAL DEVELOPMENT AND BRAIN PLASTICITY A PRÉCIS TO UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF EARLY ADVERSITY Charles A. Nelson III, Ph.D. Children s Hospital Boston/Harvard Medical School Harvard Center on the Developing

More information

9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience Fall 2007

9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience Fall 2007 MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 9.01 Introduction to Neuroscience Fall 2007 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Declarative memory conscious,

More information

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iglurs)

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iglurs) Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iglurs) GluA1 GluA2 GluA3 GluA4 GluN1 GluN2A GluN2B GluN2C GluN2D GluN3A GluN3B GluK1 GluK2 GluK3 GluK4 GluK5 The general architecture of receptor subunits Unique properties

More information

Fragile X targeted pharmacotherapy: lessons learned and future directions

Fragile X targeted pharmacotherapy: lessons learned and future directions Erickson et al. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (2017) 9:7 DOI 10.1186/s11689-017-9186-9 REVIEW Fragile X targeted pharmacotherapy: lessons learned and future directions Craig A. Erickson 1,2*,

More information

ACTELION S NEW DUAL OREXIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST

ACTELION S NEW DUAL OREXIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST ACTELION S NEW DUAL OREXIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST Investor Webcast July 2016 Copyright The following information contains certain forward-looking statements, relating to the company s business, which can

More information

Modeling Excitatory and Inhibitory Chemical Synapses

Modeling Excitatory and Inhibitory Chemical Synapses In review, a synapse is the place where signals are transmitted from a neuron, the presynaptic neuron, to another cell. This second cell may be another neuron, muscle cell or glandular cell. If the second

More information

Central dogma in modern neuroscience: Learning is mediated by changes in the strength of synaptic connections

Central dogma in modern neuroscience: Learning is mediated by changes in the strength of synaptic connections Central dogma in modern neuroscience: Learning is mediated by changes in the strength of synaptic connections Basic Problem: The human brain is composed of ~ 100 billion nerve cells (neurons), and each

More information

Outline. Outline. Background Literature and Slides 10/23/2013. The Schizophrenia Research Forum online: Molecules, Neural Networks and Behavior

Outline. Outline. Background Literature and Slides 10/23/2013. The Schizophrenia Research Forum online: Molecules, Neural Networks and Behavior Background Literature and Slides Molecules, Neural Networks and Behavior Roberto Fernández Galán, PhD Assistant Professor of Neurosciences Mt. Sinai Health Care Foundation Scholar Alfred P. Sloan Research

More information

Supplementary Material

Supplementary Material Supplementary Material Summary: The supplementary information includes 1 table (Table S1) and 4 figures (Figure S1 to S4). Supplementary Figure Legends Figure S1 RTL-bearing nude mouse model. (A) Tumor

More information

Cognitive Enhancement Strategies. Florian Plattner, James A. Bibb

Cognitive Enhancement Strategies. Florian Plattner, James A. Bibb Cognitive Enhancement Strategies Florian Plattner, James A. Bibb A decline in memory and cognitive function is a natural aspect of aging. In addition, cognitive deficits are comorbid with many mental disorders

More information

Emotional Memory, PTSD, and Clinical Intervention Updates

Emotional Memory, PTSD, and Clinical Intervention Updates Emotional Memory, PTSD, and Clinical Intervention Updates Wen Cai, MD, Ph.D. Chief Medical Officer--La Frontera Arizona Clinical Associate Professor--Psychiatry and Psychology University of Arizona College

More information

EU-AIMS. Translating biomarkers to help identify endpoint selection in clinical trials. Can it be done?

EU-AIMS. Translating biomarkers to help identify endpoint selection in clinical trials. Can it be done? EU-AIMS Translating biomarkers to help identify endpoint selection in clinical trials Can it be done? EU-AIMS the work leading to these results has received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative

More information

Inflammation in epileptogenesis after traumatic brain injury

Inflammation in epileptogenesis after traumatic brain injury Webster et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation (2017) 14:10 DOI 10.1186/s12974-016-0786-1 REVIEW Open Access Inflammation in epileptogenesis after traumatic brain injury Kyria M. Webster 1, Mujun Sun 1, Peter

More information

The Nervous System. Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine.

The Nervous System. Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine. The Nervous System Dr. ZHANG Xiong Dept. of Physiology ZJU School of Medicine Http://10.10.10.151 Part 1. Summary of the nervous system The Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain + Spinal Cord Peripheral

More information

Molecular Mechanisms of Addiction Eric J. Nestler

Molecular Mechanisms of Addiction Eric J. Nestler Molecular Mechanisms of Addiction Eric J. Nestler Nash Family Professor The Friedman Brain Institute Medical Model of Addiction Pathophysiology - To identify changes that drugs produce in a vulnerable

More information

Follicular Lymphoma. ced3 APOPTOSIS. *In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 131 of the organism's 1031 cells die during development.

Follicular Lymphoma. ced3 APOPTOSIS. *In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans 131 of the organism's 1031 cells die during development. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.176: Cellular and Molecular Immunology Course Director: Dr. Shiv Pillai Follicular Lymphoma 1. Characterized by t(14:18) translocation 2. Ig heavy

More information

! BIOL 2401! Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System

! BIOL 2401! Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System Collin County Community College! BIOL 2401! Week 5 Nervous System 1 Nervous System The process of homeostasis makes sure that the activities that occur in the body are maintained within normal physiological

More information

Rhodiola rosea L- Standardized Extract on Passive

Rhodiola rosea L- Standardized Extract on Passive Research Article ISSN: 0976-5700 Rhodiola rosea L- Standardized Extract on Passive Avoidance in Rats Liliya Vl Vasileva 1,2,3*, Damyanka P Getova 3 1Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology,

More information

Phase II and III drugs for the treatment of fragile X syndrome

Phase II and III drugs for the treatment of fragile X syndrome Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs ISSN: (Print) 2167-8707 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ieod20 Phase II and III drugs for the treatment of fragile X syndrome Laura C Politte &

More information

T-cell activation T cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues where they interact with antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and other lymphocytes:

T-cell activation T cells migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues where they interact with antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and other lymphocytes: Interactions between innate immunity & adaptive immunity What happens to T cells after they leave the thymus? Naïve T cells exit the thymus and enter the bloodstream. If they remain in the bloodstream,

More information

BL-8040: BEST-IN-CLASS CXCR4 ANTAGONIST FOR TREATMENT OF ONCOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES. Overview and Mechanism of Action Dr.

BL-8040: BEST-IN-CLASS CXCR4 ANTAGONIST FOR TREATMENT OF ONCOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES. Overview and Mechanism of Action Dr. BL-8040: BEST-IN-CLASS CXCR4 ANTAGONIST FOR TREATMENT OF ONCOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES Overview and Mechanism of Action Dr. Leah Klapper, CSO 88 BL-8040: Novel CXCR4 Antagonist For Hematological Cancers Indications:

More information

Effects of the angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist telmisartan on endothelial activation induced by advanced glycation endproducts

Effects of the angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist telmisartan on endothelial activation induced by advanced glycation endproducts Effects of the angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist telmisartan on endothelial activation induced by advanced glycation endproducts Serena Del Turco, Teresa Navarra, Giuseppina Basta, Raffaele De

More information

A Central Role of MG53 in Metabolic Syndrome. and Type-2 Diabetes

A Central Role of MG53 in Metabolic Syndrome. and Type-2 Diabetes A Central Role of MG53 in Metabolic Syndrome and Type-2 Diabetes Yan Zhang, Chunmei Cao, Rui-Ping Xiao Institute of Molecular Medicine (IMM) Peking University, Beijing, China Accelerated Aging in China

More information

Cannabinoids and Dementia: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data

Cannabinoids and Dementia: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data Cannabinoids and Dementia: A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Data Abstract: The endocannabinoid system has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. We review the preclinical

More information

Chronic Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Memory Impairment After Inhibition of BDNF by Interleukin-1 Signaling Pathway

Chronic Cerebral Ischemia-Induced Memory Impairment After Inhibition of BDNF by Interleukin-1 Signaling Pathway American Journal of Internal Medicine 2017; 5(4): 52-56 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajim doi: 10.11648/j.ajim.20170504.11 ISSN: 2330-4316 (Print); ISSN: 2330-4324 (Online) Chronic Cerebral

More information

Insulin/IGF1-IRS-PI-3 kinase-mtor signaling pathway

Insulin/IGF1-IRS-PI-3 kinase-mtor signaling pathway Insulin/IGF1-IRS-PI-3 kinase-mtor signaling pathway Nutrients RAPAMYCIN (FKBP12) mtor/rictor complex phosphorylates Akt at the S473 activating site in a Rheb-independent fashion TSC1 or TSC2-null MEFs

More information

Leptin Intro/Signaling. ATeamP: Angelo, Anthony, Charlie, Gabby, Joseph

Leptin Intro/Signaling. ATeamP: Angelo, Anthony, Charlie, Gabby, Joseph Leptin Intro/Signaling ATeamP: Angelo, Anthony, Charlie, Gabby, Joseph Overview Intro to Leptin Definition & Sources Physiology Bound vs. Free Receptors Signaling JAK/STAT MAPK PI3K ACC Experimental findings

More information

Locomotor Activity & Exploration Guide

Locomotor Activity & Exploration Guide Locomotor Activity & Exploration Guide Locomotor activity refers to the movement from one location to another. In rodents, one of the most important components of exploration, a prominent activity of the

More information

Diabetes Mellitus and Dementia. Andrea Shelton & Adena Zadourian

Diabetes Mellitus and Dementia. Andrea Shelton & Adena Zadourian Diabetes Mellitus and Dementia Andrea Shelton & Adena Zadourian Abstract Diabetes mellitus increases the risk for developing dementia...but there is inconsistency with the subtypes of dementia Diabetes

More information

Synapse Formation. Steven McLoon Department of Neuroscience University of Minnesota

Synapse Formation. Steven McLoon Department of Neuroscience University of Minnesota Synapse Formation Steven McLoon Department of Neuroscience University of Minnesota 1 Course News Midterm Exam Monday, Nov 13 9:30-11:30am Bring a #2 pencil!! 2 Course News Lecture schedule: Mon (Oct 31)

More information

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES CHAPTER 3 1 LEARNING GOALS Discuss how the nervous system communicates internally. Describe the structure and function of neurons Describe how the neuron transmits information Describe

More information

Neurons have cell membranes that separate them from the environment outside the neuron.

Neurons have cell membranes that separate them from the environment outside the neuron. Neural Communication Lecture 11 A. Resting Potential In this section, we will consider the basic unit of the nervous system the neuron and how neurons communicate with each other. The story of neural communication

More information

Uncovering the mechanisms of wound healing and fibrosis

Uncovering the mechanisms of wound healing and fibrosis Any Questions??? Ask now or contact support support@sabiosciences.com 1-888-503-3187 International customers: SABio@Qiagen.com Uncovering the mechanisms of wound healing and fibrosis Webinar related questions:

More information

Neuroimmunology. Innervation of lymphoid organs. Neurotransmitters. Neuroendocrine hormones. Cytokines. Autoimmunity

Neuroimmunology. Innervation of lymphoid organs. Neurotransmitters. Neuroendocrine hormones. Cytokines. Autoimmunity Neuroimmunology Innervation of lymphoid organs Neurotransmitters Neuroendocrine hormones Cytokines Autoimmunity CNS has two ways of contacting and regulating structures in the periphery Autonomic

More information

Anti-addictive Drug Vaccine Platform

Anti-addictive Drug Vaccine Platform Anti-addictive Drug Vaccine Platform Brian J. Kelly, Ph.D. Cornell Center for Technology Enterprise and Commercialization June 21, 2012 Winning the War Strategy Use Gene Transfer Vectors to Develop Effective

More information

ADSCs as cell therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

ADSCs as cell therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) ADSCs as cell therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) The potential of ADSCs in modulation of the immune answer following TBI Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) primary insult secondary damage repair regeneration

More information

Abstracts and affiliations

Abstracts and affiliations Dopamine Discovery Day August 30, 2012 Rikshospitalet Store auditorium, Oslo, Norway Organized by Linda H. Bergersen & Vidar Gundersen Institute of Basic Medical Sciences & Centre for Molecular Biology

More information

Special Issue on Pain and Itch

Special Issue on Pain and Itch Special Issue on Pain and Itch Title: Recent Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Pain and Itch Guest Editor of the Special Issue: Ru-Rong Ji, PhD Chronic pain is a major health problem world-wide.

More information

E3 ligase TRIM72 negatively regulates myogenesis by IRS-1 ubiquitination

E3 ligase TRIM72 negatively regulates myogenesis by IRS-1 ubiquitination E3 ligase negatively regulates myogenesis by IRS-1 ubiquitination Young-Gyu Ko College of Life Science and Biotechnology Korea University MyHC immunofluorescence Lipid rafts are plasma membrane compartments

More information

Paeoniflorin ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviors in mice

Paeoniflorin ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviors in mice /, 2017, Vol. 8, (No. 5), pp: 8264-8282 Paeoniflorin ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviors in mice Jianwei Li 1,*, Shaohui Huang 1,*, Weiliang Huang 1,*,

More information

Advanced Receptor Psychopharmacology

Advanced Receptor Psychopharmacology Advanced Receptor Psychopharmacology Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc. 2017 Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc., Rockville, MD February 2017 Lundbeck,

More information

Synaptic Communication. Steven McLoon Department of Neuroscience University of Minnesota

Synaptic Communication. Steven McLoon Department of Neuroscience University of Minnesota Synaptic Communication Steven McLoon Department of Neuroscience University of Minnesota 1 Course News The first exam is next week on Friday! Be sure to checkout the sample exam on the course website. 2

More information

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites.

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites. 10.1: Introduction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial

More information

Mk-801 Administration in Adolescent Male Rats and Cocaine Conditioned Place

Mk-801 Administration in Adolescent Male Rats and Cocaine Conditioned Place Mk-801 Administration in Adolescent Male Rats and Cocaine Conditioned Place Preference Stephanie Willis, Jonnique Adjmul, Shabaaz Sandhu, Antoniette M. Maldonado-Devincci, Cheryl Kirsten ABSTRACT The present

More information

Loss of mtor-dependent Macroautophagy Causes Autistic-like Synaptic Pruning Deficits

Loss of mtor-dependent Macroautophagy Causes Autistic-like Synaptic Pruning Deficits Article Loss of mtor-dependent Macroautophagy Causes Autistic-like Synaptic Pruning Deficits Guomei Tang, 1 Kathryn Gudsnuk, 2 Sheng-Han Kuo, 1 Marisa L. Cotrina, 3,7 Gorazd Rosoklija, 4,8 Alexander Sosunov,

More information

Metformin treatment after the hypoxia-ischemia attenuates brain injury in newborn rats

Metformin treatment after the hypoxia-ischemia attenuates brain injury in newborn rats /, 2017, Vol. 8, (No. 43), pp: 75308-75325 Metformin treatment after the hypoxia-ischemia attenuates brain injury in newborn rats Mingchu Fang 1, Huai Jiang 1, Lixia Ye 1, Chenchen Cai 1, Yingying Hu 1,

More information

Lecture 3 (Oct 5 th ): NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES Lecture Outline

Lecture 3 (Oct 5 th ): NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES Lecture Outline Lecture 3 (Oct 5 th ): NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES Lecture Outline 1) CNS vs. PNS 2) Structure of Neurons parts of a neuron: soma, dendrites, axons 3) Glial Cells 4) Mitosis and Regeneration in Neurons

More information

Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters

Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters Nervous System Master controlling and communicating system of the body Interacts with the endocrine system to control and coordinate the body s responses to changes in its environment, as well as growth,

More information

Activity Dependent Changes At the Developing Neuromuscular Junction

Activity Dependent Changes At the Developing Neuromuscular Junction Activity Dependent Changes At the Developing Neuromuscular Junction (slides 16, 17 and 18 have been slightly modified for clarity) MCP Lecture 2-3 9.013/7.68 04 Neuromuscular Junction Development 1. Muscle

More information

Supplementary Figure S I: Effects of D4F on body weight and serum lipids in apoe -/- mice.

Supplementary Figure S I: Effects of D4F on body weight and serum lipids in apoe -/- mice. Supplementary Figures: Supplementary Figure S I: Effects of D4F on body weight and serum lipids in apoe -/- mice. Male apoe -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks, and given PBS (model group) or

More information

- Neurotransmitters Of The Brain -

- Neurotransmitters Of The Brain - - Neurotransmitters Of The Brain - INTRODUCTION Synapsis: a specialized connection between two neurons that permits the transmission of signals in a one-way fashion (presynaptic postsynaptic). Types of

More information

T cell maturation. T-cell Maturation. What allows T cell maturation?

T cell maturation. T-cell Maturation. What allows T cell maturation? T-cell Maturation What allows T cell maturation? Direct contact with thymic epithelial cells Influence of thymic hormones Growth factors (cytokines, CSF) T cell maturation T cell progenitor DN DP SP 2ry

More information

Unisooth PN-47 A complete reduction of pro-inflammatory factors for an instant soothing

Unisooth PN-47 A complete reduction of pro-inflammatory factors for an instant soothing Unisooth PN-47 A complete reduction of pro-inflammatory factors for an instant soothing Skin irritation is amplified and controlled by various signaling pathways. By acting directly on the causes of skin

More information

Spinal Plasticity and Behavior: BDNF-Induced Neuromodulation in Uninjured and Injured Spinal Cord

Spinal Plasticity and Behavior: BDNF-Induced Neuromodulation in Uninjured and Injured Spinal Cord Spinal Plasticity and Behavior: -Induced Neuromodulation in Uninjured and Injured Spinal Cord Sandra Garraway, Emory University J. Russell Huie, University of California San Francisco Journal Title: Neural

More information

Excitatory/Inhibitory Synaptic Imbalance Leads to Hippocampal Hyperexcitability in Mouse Models of Tuberous Sclerosis

Excitatory/Inhibitory Synaptic Imbalance Leads to Hippocampal Hyperexcitability in Mouse Models of Tuberous Sclerosis Article Excitatory/Inhibitory Synaptic Imbalance Leads to Hippocampal Hyperexcitability in Mouse Models of Tuberous Sclerosis Helen S. Bateup, Caroline A. Johnson, Cassandra L. Denefrio, Jessica L. Saulnier,

More information

How to measure rodent behavior and perform a neurological screen.

How to measure rodent behavior and perform a neurological screen. An Organ Systems Approach to Experimental Targeting of the Metabolic Syndrome How to measure rodent behavior and perform a neurological screen. Fiona Harrison, PhD Department of Medicine Vanderbilt University

More information

Targeting the Microglial Signaling Pathways: New Insights in the Modulation of Neuropathic Pain

Targeting the Microglial Signaling Pathways: New Insights in the Modulation of Neuropathic Pain Impact Factor: 3.45 The International Journal for Timely In-depth Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry BENTHAM SCIENCE 2908 Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.ae REVIEW ARTICLE Current Medicinal

More information

Healthy Brain Development: Protective and Risk Factors

Healthy Brain Development: Protective and Risk Factors Healthy Brain Development: Protective and Risk Factors Bryce Geeraert PhD Candidate Developmental Neuroimaging Lab January 31, 2018 About me BSc Psychology, Biomedical Engineering PhD candidate Interest

More information

The Cause of Autism: Its Footprint Tells. Autism Symposium-Part II

The Cause of Autism: Its Footprint Tells. Autism Symposium-Part II The Cause of Autism: Its Footprint Tells Autism Symposium-Part II May 22, 2009 Nancy Minshew, MD Professor Psychiatry & Neurology University of Pittsburgh USA Convergence The Top of 10 Clinical of 2007

More information

Collin County Community College BIOL Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System

Collin County Community College BIOL Week 5. Nervous System. Nervous System Collin County Community College BIOL 2401 Week 5 Nervous System 1 Nervous System The process of homeostasis makes sure that the activities that occur in the body are maintained within normal physiological

More information

The Role of Adenosine in Sleep-Wake Regulation. Adam Painter. Copyright 2014 Adam Painter and Dr. Koni Stone

The Role of Adenosine in Sleep-Wake Regulation. Adam Painter. Copyright 2014 Adam Painter and Dr. Koni Stone The Role of Adenosine in Sleep-Wake Regulation Adam Painter Copyright 2014 Adam Painter and Dr. Koni Stone The Role of Adenosine in Sleep-Wake Regulation Sleep is one of the few experiences in life that

More information

Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION

Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 scott.abrams@roswellpark.org Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION CHAPTER 11 T-Cell Activation, Differentiation, and Memory Copyright 2013 by W. H. Freeman and

More information

Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION

Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION Scott Abrams, Ph.D. Professor of Oncology, x4375 scott.abrams@roswellpark.org Kuby Immunology SEVENTH EDITION CHAPTER 11 T-Cell Activation, Differentiation, and Memory Copyright 2013 by W. H. Freeman and

More information

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Dr. Chris Doumen Week 5 2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Introduction Neural Tissue TextBook Readings Pages 388 through 397. Make use of the figures in your textbook ; a picture is worth a thousand words! Work

More information

Neuronal and epithelial cell rescue resolves chronic systemic inflammation in the lipid storage disorder Niemann-Pick C

Neuronal and epithelial cell rescue resolves chronic systemic inflammation in the lipid storage disorder Niemann-Pick C Neuronal and epithelial cell rescue resolves chronic systemic inflammation in the lipid storage disorder Niemann-Pick C Manuel E. Lopez 1,2, Andrés D. Klein 1,2, Jennifer Hong 1,2, Ubah J. Dimbil 1,2 and

More information

Micro 204. Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) Lewis Lanier

Micro 204. Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) Lewis Lanier Micro 204 Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) Lewis Lanier Lewis.Lanier@ucsf.edu Lymphocyte-mediated Cytotoxicity CD8 + αβ-tcr + T cells CD4 + αβ-tcr + T cells γδ-tcr + T cells Natural Killer cells CD8 + αβ-tcr

More information

JBPOS0101: A New Generation mglur- and BBB- Targeted AED for the Treatment of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE)

JBPOS0101: A New Generation mglur- and BBB- Targeted AED for the Treatment of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE) JBPOS0101: A New Generation mglur- and BBB- Targeted AED for the Treatment of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE) Bio-Pharm Solutions Co., Ltd. Yongho Kwak, Ph.D. Director of Pharmacology 1 Who

More information

PSYCH 260 Exam 2. March 2, Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name:

PSYCH 260 Exam 2. March 2, Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name: PSYCH 260 Exam 2 March 2, 2017 Answer the questions using the Scantron form. Name: 1 1 Main Please put in their proper order the steps that lead to synaptic communication between neurons. Begin with the

More information

NEUROPLASTICITY. Implications for rehabilitation. Genevieve Kennedy

NEUROPLASTICITY. Implications for rehabilitation. Genevieve Kennedy NEUROPLASTICITY Implications for rehabilitation Genevieve Kennedy Outline What is neuroplasticity? Evidence Impact on stroke recovery and rehabilitation Human brain Human brain is the most complex and

More information

Page 39 of 44. 8h LTA & AT h PepG & AT h LTA

Page 39 of 44. 8h LTA & AT h PepG & AT h LTA Page 39 of 44 Fig. S1 A: B: C: D: 8h LTA 8h LTA & AT7519 E: F: 8h PepG G: 8h PepG & AT7519 Fig. S1. AT7519 overrides the survival effects of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PepG). (A) Human

More information

Authors: K. L. Arendt, M. Royo, M. Fernández-Monreal, S. Knafo, C. N. Petrok, J.

Authors: K. L. Arendt, M. Royo, M. Fernández-Monreal, S. Knafo, C. N. Petrok, J. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Title: PIP 3 controls synaptic function by maintaining AMPA receptor clustering at the postsynaptic membrane Authors: K. L. Arendt, M. Royo, M. Fernández-Monreal, S. Knafo, C.

More information

Sensory Processing SensiTivity AND drug Use recovery Pathways STANDUP. Judith Homberg (NL) Fabio Fumagalli (IT) Maria Melchior (FR) Boris Quednow (CH)

Sensory Processing SensiTivity AND drug Use recovery Pathways STANDUP. Judith Homberg (NL) Fabio Fumagalli (IT) Maria Melchior (FR) Boris Quednow (CH) Sensory Processing SensiTivity AND drug Use recovery Pathways STANDUP Judith Homberg (NL) Fabio Fumagalli (IT) Maria Melchior (FR) Boris Quednow (CH) What do these people have in common? Sensory Processing

More information

ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY Hypoxic-İschemic Encephalopathy Encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic injury [Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

More information

Dr. Hany M. Abo-Haded

Dr. Hany M. Abo-Haded BY Dr. Hany M. Abo-Haded Pediatric Cardiology Unit, Mansoura Universty Children Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt Co-authors: Dina S El-Agamy and Mohamed A Elkablawy Background Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline

More information

1) Drop off in the Bi 150 box outside Baxter 331 or to the head TA (jcolas).

1) Drop off in the Bi 150 box outside Baxter 331 or  to the head TA (jcolas). Bi/CNS/NB 150 Problem Set 3 Due: Tuesday, Oct. 27, at 4:30 pm Instructions: 1) Drop off in the Bi 150 box outside Baxter 331 or e-mail to the head TA (jcolas). 2) Submit with this cover page. 3) Use a

More information

Cerebral ischemic damage in diabetes: an inflammatory perspective

Cerebral ischemic damage in diabetes: an inflammatory perspective Shukla et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation (2017) 14:21 DOI 10.1186/s12974-016-0774-5 REVIEW Cerebral ischemic damage in diabetes: an inflammatory perspective Vibha Shukla 1,2, Akhalesh Kumar Shakya 4,

More information

Synaptic Transmission: Ionic and Metabotropic

Synaptic Transmission: Ionic and Metabotropic Synaptic Transmission: Ionic and Metabotropic D. Purves et al. Neuroscience (Sinauer Assoc.) Chapters 5, 6, 7. C. Koch. Biophysics of Computation (Oxford) Chapter 4. J.G. Nicholls et al. From Neuron to

More information

Autocrine production of IL-11 mediates tumorigenicity in hypoxic cancer cells

Autocrine production of IL-11 mediates tumorigenicity in hypoxic cancer cells Research article Autocrine production of IL-11 mediates tumorigenicity in hypoxic cancer cells Barbara Onnis, 1 Nicole Fer, 2 Annamaria Rapisarda, 2 Victor S. Perez, 1 and Giovanni Melillo 2 1 Developmental

More information

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now?

Bio11: The Nervous System. Body control systems. The human brain. The human brain. The Cerebrum. What parts of your brain are you using right now? Bio11: The Nervous System Body control systems Nervous system Quick Sends message directly to target organ Endocrine system Sends a hormone as a messenger to the target organ Can target several organs

More information

Hunk is required for HER2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis

Hunk is required for HER2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis Research article Hunk is required for HER2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis Elizabeth S. Yeh, 1 Thomas W. Yang, 1 Jason J. Jung, 1 Heather P. Gardner, 1 Robert D. Cardiff, 2 and Lewis A. Chodosh 1 1 Department

More information

PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1

PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1 PSYC& 100: Biological Psychology (Lilienfeld Chap 3) 1 1 What is a neuron? 2 Name and describe the functions of the three main parts of the neuron. 3 What do glial cells do? 4 Describe the three basic

More information

The 7 th lecture. Anatomy and Physiology For the. 1 st Class. By Dr. Ala a Hassan Mirza

The 7 th lecture. Anatomy and Physiology For the. 1 st Class. By Dr. Ala a Hassan Mirza The 7 th lecture In Anatomy and Physiology For the 1 st Class By Dr. Ala a Hassan Mirza Nervous System (part I) The Nerve Tissue and the Nervous System The Tissues of the Body There are 4 types of tissues

More information

Cardiovascular Biology of the Leptin/Melanocortin System

Cardiovascular Biology of the Leptin/Melanocortin System Cardiovascular Biology of the Leptin/Melanocortin System Alexandre A. da Silva, Ph.D., FAHA Department of Physiology and Biophysics University of Mississippi Medical Center Jackson, MS p

More information

Introduction to Neurobiology

Introduction to Neurobiology Biology 240 General Zoology Introduction to Neurobiology Nervous System functions: communication of information via nerve signals integration and processing of information control of physiological and

More information