4 Not Just The 5 Senses Vestibular: information that we receive through our inner ear that tells us where our body is in relation to the ground Proprioceptive: information we receive from our muscles and joints that tells us how hard to contract our muscles or move our joints in relation to the Earth s gravity
5 Definition & Diagnosis
6 Definition of Sensory Processing Disorder A disorder that refers to the way the nervous system receives messages from the environment through the senses, and turns them into appropriate motor and behavioral responses.
7 The Diagnosis Typically an Occupational Therapist will diagnosis a child with SPD by using: Standardized tests Observations of the child during play and other daily activities Caregiver and teacher questionnaires and interviews
10 Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD) A child experiencing SMD may: Show difficulty turning sensory information into behaviors that accurately match the nature and intensity of the message they are receiving, (Miller, 2006, p. 21).
11 Sensory Over-Responsivity (SOR) A child experiencing SOR may: Avoid sensory input Show negative responses to sensory input (covering ears, eyes) Appear very cautious and unwilling to take risks or try new things that may pose a risk Experience a melt down in loud or busy environments Miller, 2006, p. 22
12 Sensory Under-Responsivity (SUR) A child experiencing SUR may: Tend to be passive, have low arousal levels, and appear lethargic Do not have much response to activity around them (loud noises) May show need for more sensory input then their peers Miller, 2006, p. 25
13 Sensory Seeking (SS) A child experiencing SS may: Appear hyperactive, high arousal level Unaware of touch or pain on themselves, or unaware they are touching others too ofter or too hard Participate in unsafe activities (climbing too high and jumping off) Enjoy loud playing music or a busy environment around them Miller, 2006, p. 28
14 Sensory-Based Motor Disorder (SBMD) A child experiencing SBMD may: Have difficulty with balance, imitating and/or sequencing movements Show preference for familiar activity Have trouble using both sides of the body or crossing over midline with hands Show poor gross and fine motor skills (from kicking a ball to handwriting) Miller, 2006, p. 30
15 Sensory Discrimination Disorder (SDD) A child experiencing SDD may: show difficulty interpreting and organizing sensory input Experience trouble telling sensory experiences apart Have most difficulty with lots of different types of sensory input Miller, 2006, p. 37
18 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Children with ADHD: Are constantly in motion. Have difficulty staying focused on a specific task. Have trouble staying organized. These relate to SPD because: Can closely relate to a Sensory Seeker (SS).
19 Autism Generally show difficulty with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors, (Autism Speaks, 2013). These children tend to be more withdrawn from their environment because they are unsure of how to respond. Symptoms of autism and SPD often over lap; children with autism who have low arousal shows similar symptoms to sensory under-responsivity. Children with autism who have high arousal show similar symptoms to sensory overresponsivity.
20 Fragile X Relationship to SPD: A genetic condition involving the X chromosome. It is an inherited intellectual disability. Most common autism and autism spectrum disorders. Most closely related to sensory overresponsivity. Could be due to too much sympathetic activity (speeds up reaction). Or too little parasympathetic activity (slows down reactions).
21 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) FAS is a permanent birth defect syndrome caused by maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. A study done in 2008 reports that children with FAS show similar symptoms as a child diagnosed with SPD. However, this conclusion is considered preliminary because of limitations such as size of group studied, instruments used, and the severity of their sensory issues.
22 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) OCD is diagnosed when obsessions or intrusive thoughts or images impact a person s ability to function on a daily basis, (NIMH, 2013). This relates to SPD because if a child is hypersensitive to receive information, such as feeling threatened by a touch or sight, they may form compulsions to make themselves feel safe from it.
23 Tourette s Syndrome Tourette s Syndrome is characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics that a child displays, (Jewers, 2009). Many times, the motor or vocal tics occur when they experience some type of sensory stimulation. Not many studies have been done, however, researchers are interested in the connection between SPD and Tourette s Syndrome.
25 Causes Three possible causes of SPD that are being considered are: Heredity Prenatal Conditions and Birth Trauma Environmental Factors
26 Heredity Parents begin to notice similarities between their child s behavior and their own at a young age. Many studies have been done to prove this; one in particular found that 92% of children had at least one parent with symptoms of SPD (Miller, 2006, p. 285). However, study was not large or complete enough to establish a definitive link between the two, but researchers are still trying.
27 Prenatal Conditions and Birth Trauma Prenatal conditions and birth trauma include: prolonged labor, breech birth, premature birth, or fetal distress. A study found that children who had sensory symptoms, had has some complication during birth, (Miller, 2006, p. 287). Although there is no definitive evidence of the connection to SPD, it is believed that prenatal and birth risk factors occur in children with SPD far more than typical developing children.
28 Environmental Factors Studies have shown that children who were in orphanages for longer periods of time, showed symptoms of sensory over-responsivity. Children who experienced physical or sexual trauma in the home, also showed symptoms of sensory over-responsivity. Other possible factors are: poverty-related risks, lead poisoning, and newborn hospitalization.
30 Sensory Integration (SI) Theory This theory is used by Occupational Therapists to treat those individual who have difficulty with sensory processing. It was developed by Jeans Ayres in 1950s and 60s and continues to evolve today. It s focus is to use purposeful activity and promoting an adaptive response to a sensory experience. Occurs in a sensory rich environment and much of the treatment comes in the context of play.
31 Conflict with SI Lack of definitive research to support occupational therapists practice of SI. No funding for families who request SI. Little evidence of the effectiveness of the intervention. Fidelity.
32 Fidelity Fidelity is the loyalty to the intended underlying theoretical and clinical guidelines that it hopes to prove in intervention. To establish fidelity, researchers should: throughly describe the intervention, identify specific features that make it different from other interventions, and create a procedure that can be evaluated for effectiveness. Parham, et al., 2007, p. 217
33 Goals of Treatment
34 Goals Occupational therapist sets goals for child to work on that are unique to that them specifically. Make the goals a just right challenge for the child. Be defined by the priorities of the family. Bundy, Lane, & Miller, 2002, p. 440
35 Goals Cont. Occupational performance: activities of daily living Self-regulation: ability to adapt to changes in environment; ability to focus and complete tasks Social participation: appropriate interaction with others; making and keeping friends Self-esteem: positive self-talk and perception of ones self Bundy, Lane, & Murray, 2002, p. 439
37 Conclusion Accurate diagnosis Individual needs Fidelity Treatment plan
39 References Ahn, R. R., Miller, L. J., Milberger, S., & McIntosh, D. N. (2004). Prevalence of parents perceptions of sensory processing disorders among kindergarten children. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58(3), Retrieved from Autism Speaks. (2013). What is autism? what is autism spectrum disorder?. Retrieved from Bogdashina, O. (2003). Sensory perceptual issues in autism and asperger syndrome : different sensory experiences different perceptual worlds. United Kingdom : Jessica Kingsley Publishing. Retrieved from profile checklist&source=bl&ots=uxw4po8trh&sig=iqr0nxx7h_vlas6aqp3boxnbxqo&hl=en&sa=x&ei=77ngurm1h4ne2wwv 9IBo&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ Bundy, A. C., Lane, S. J., & Murray, E. A. (2002). Sensory integration theory and practice. (Second ed., pp ). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company. Franklin, L., Deitz, J., Jirikowic, T., & Astley, S. (2008). Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Problem Behaviors and Sensory Processing. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62, Retrieved from Jewers, R. (2009). The sensory side of tourette's disorder. Occupational Therapy Now, 11.5, Retrieved from
40 References Mauro, T. (2006). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Retrieved from Miller, L. (2006). Sensational kids: Hope and help for children with sensory processing disorder. New York: the Penguin Group. National Autism Standards. (2003). Sensory assessment checklist. Retrieved from National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2013). Obsessive compulsive disorder (ocd). Retrieved from Scherer, P. (2004, June/July). Is it sensory processing disorder (spd) or add/adhd?: Understand the difference between sensory processing problems and attention deficit disorder (add/adhd) in children. Retrieved from Sensory processing disorder foundation. (2014, January 24). Retrieved from Top questions about sensory processing disorder in children. (2014). Retrieved from Wright, A. (2010). Sensory integration therapy. Retrieved from Integration Therapy.pdf
Western Michigan University ScholarWorks at WMU Honors Theses Lee Honors College 4-24-2014 An Overview of Sensory Processing Disorder Heather Lonkar Western Michigan University, firstname.lastname@example.org
THE SENSORY, ATTACHMENT & TRAUMA TANGLE: MAKING SENSE OF THE INTERPLAY Stephanie Zimmerman, LMFT Zimmerman Marriage & Family Therapy Inc. The Resilience Counseling Group A Sensory Experience SENSORY PROCESSING
General sensory processing facts: 1 Sensory processing refers to the way the body receives, analyzes, and responds to the signals it receives from the environment. 2 Everyone has unique sensory needs and
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER SERIES Eligibility Criteria for Children with ASD Review the Characteristics of Children with ASD* The following are the most common signs and symptoms of a child with ASD: The
Sensory Awareness Presentation Haden Boliek & Rachel Beaver Event Review / Education The Working Therapist Podcast I. Intro a. Welcome i. Haden introduces herself 1. Welcome to The Working Therapist podcast,
Observations Based on Sensory Integration Theory in School Based Practice Erna Imperatore Blanche, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA Objectives Identify evidence supporting the use of Sensory Integration Theory to support
Self-Regulation: Strategies for Home and School ASD Nest Parent Workshop Series January 12, 2010 Kristie P. Koenig, PhD, OTR/L New York University Steinhardt School Dept of Occupational Therapy These kids
Sensory processing Atypical sensory processing is now considered to be a core feature of autism. For many people on the autism spectrum, living with atypical sensory processing can make it difficult to
Child Early Intervention Medical Centre Occupational Therapy Department Presents No more tears at tea time: An occupational therapy approach to feeding difficulties Presented by: Jennifer Logan Occupational
Supporting Children and Adults with Autism to Access Sports and Leisure Activities a development resource for those supporting individuals with autism to access leisure activities Autism is a hidden disability,
Pervasive Developmental Disorders also known as Autism Spectrum Disorders Dr. Deborah Marks Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autistic Disorder ( Autism) - Kanner Asperger Syndrome Pervasive Developmental
Sensory Processing and FASD Tracy Jirikowic, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA Assistant Professor, University of Washington FASD: Best Practices in the Last Frontier May 23, 2013 1 Objectives Describe how sensory processing
Sensory Friendly Libraries: Creating an Environment for All Families By Colleen Spano, M.S.Ed Sunshine Behavior Services, LLC Agenda Introductions Overview of Autism and Sensory Processing Disorder Creating
Sensory Processing Toolkit Liz Koss, MOT, OTR/L Grace Reifenberg, [BA??], S/OT Laura Simon, BA Kelly Tanner, PhD, OTR/L PURPOSE To provide teachers and parents with information on evidence-based strategies
NAME DATE CLASS TACTILE Avoids casual touch by peers or adults Craves physical contact Hugs very tightly Distressed by messy hands Dislikes certain textures Craves certain textures Sucks/chews clothing
An Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Autism is a hidden disability, meaning it is not easy to recognise when someone has the condition. When you see the following pattern (on a wristband,
Profectum s Introductory Course Lecture Series: A Comprehensive Overview of the DIR Approach Understanding the Child s Individual Profile: Sensory Processing Presented by: Rosemary White, OTR/L Tal Baz,
STAFF DEVELOPMENT in SPECIAL EDUCATION Developmental and Psychological Disorders in Special Education: A General Overview AASEP s Staff Development Course Developmental and Psychological Disorders in Special
Sensory Processing in Children with Autism Presented by: Bea LaFleur Compiled by: Lyda Baker, OTR/L & Bea LaFleur, MEd Alaska Autism Resource Center Special Education Service Agency The Sensational Story
REI SI Series Rating Scale The SI Series 8-CD set focuses on Sensory Integration (SI) to aid in supporting optimal sensory function. This set is designed with the Sensory Integration professional in mind.
What is Autism? What is autism? Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with, and relates to, other people. It also affects how they make sense of the world
Strategies for Understanding & Addressing Challenging Behaviors in Young Children with ASD What Are We Talking About? Challenging behaviors are typically defined as behaviors that are not socially acceptable,
DEAF CHILDREN WITH ADHD AND LEARNING DIFFICULTIES Scott R. Smith, MD, MPH Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician University of Rochester Medical Center Common Complaints about Children with Problems Your
MAKING SENSE OF SENSORY PROCESSING DISORDER OBJECTIVES Define sensory processing Review sensory systems Discuss characteristics of Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) Understand the sensory and motor challenges
Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) Behavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities Administration Wraparound Annual Conference: June 2017 2 Overview Autism Program Overview Insurance
Dementia Skills for In-Home Care Providers Seniors Helping Seniors September 7 & 12, 2016 Amy Abrams, MSW/MPH Education & Outreach Manager Alzheimer s San Diego Objectives Familiarity with the most common
POLICY AND INFORMATION BOOKLET Mudgeeraba Special School Updated Term 1 2009 WHAT IS A SNOEZELEN ROOM? The name Snoezelen originated from 2 Dutch words Snifflen to smell, and Doozelen to sleep or doze.
Britt Collins, MS OTR SPD 6 Subtypes Building Relationship/Engagement Creating a Sensory Lifestyle Red Flags/strategies How to Coach Parents Taste oral motor Touch- tactile processing Sight visual motor/perceptual
The Basic Course on the Greenspan Floortime Approach Mastery Test Instructions & Questions Participants will have an opportunity to demonstrate mastery of the basic concepts presented during this training
TRI-STATE WEBINAR SERIES Sensory 101: Understanding Sensory Differences Presented by: Cara Woundy, M.Ed, CAGS, OTR/L Jamie Lewis, M.S. OTR/L Tri-State Autism Spectrum Disorder Webinar Series This material
1. Negative Behaviors 0. Does not demonstrate any significant negative behaviors 1. Engages in some minor negative behaviors weekly, but recovery is quick 2. Emits a variety of minor negative behaviors
Inner Ear Disorders Information for patients and families Read this booklet to learn about: What are inner ear disorders Symptoms Tests you may need Treatment options Please visit the UHN Patient Education
Abnormal Psychology Chapter 16: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) After her parents divorce,
ADD / ADHD in Children SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER It s normal for children to occasionally forget their homework, daydream during class, act without thinking, or get fidgety at the
Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorders Update Kimberly Macferran, MD Pediatric Subspecialty for the Primary Care Provider December 2, 2011 Overview Diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders Screening/referral
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD or ADHD) General Overview (updated 2018) Attention deficit is a disorder that affects children from the first months of their lives through their school years, through adolescence,
Neuropsychological Assessment: Optimizing Protective Factors through Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Educational Recommendations Objectives Preliminary findings compared to current literature Risk & Resilience
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER Targeting Autism National Forum March 4, 2015 Springfield, IL Russell J. Bonanno, M.Ed. 1 AGENDA What is ASD (definition, causes) Diagnostic Criteria (DSM-5) Getting a Diagnosis
Feeding Issues: A Guide to Understand and Improve Feeding Skills for Children with Fragile X Syndrome Kristin Burgess, MS, OTR/L Durham, NC Pediatric Possibilities Raleigh & Matthews, NC Objectives Attendees
The information contained in this booklet was most generously provided to Autism South Africa by the UK National Autistic Society The production and printing of this and 12 other brochures was made possible
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD- NOS) What is Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)? (*Please note that the criteria according to the DSM-V changed
A is for Asperger s (Autism Spectrum Disorder) Understanding and Helping the Student (previously diagnosed) Asperger s Disorder AGENDA Basic Information-Characteristics Thought Processes Sensory Issues
2009 Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evaluation, Eligibility, and Goal Development (Birth-21) Technical Assistance Paper Fall 2009 revised March 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section PURPOSE Page v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
3. Sensory and Perception Now we will discuss the topics of sensation and perception. This section will cover the different perceptual processes as well as its development. It will also cover the components
Balance & Coordination What is balance and coordination? Balance is the ability to maintain a controlled body position during task performance, whether it is sitting at a table, walking the balance beam
Neuroprotective Care in the NICU Small Baby Unit July 2016 Mary Wardell PT, DPT, PCS Objectives Review NICU neuroprotective core measures Discuss sensory processing, what it is, and how it typically develops
AUTISM PARENT HANDBOOK Answers to common questions Artwork: Hey Diddle Diddle, by Eytan Nisinzweig, an artist with autism. 2nd Edition Dear Parents: We are very pleased to publish the 2nd edition of the
Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (6-18 Years) Teacher Ratings By Sam Goldstein, Ph.D. & Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. Interpretive Report This Interpretive Report is intended for use by qualified assessors only.
Self Advocacy Workshop Valerie Paradiz, Ph.D. Integrated Self-Advocacy ISA Seminar Series 1 Early Years Elijah s Diagnosis Sharron Loree Grassroots Self-Advocacy All in the Family Elijah s Cup 5th Grade
Community Connections Volunteer Manual Facebook Group : I support Community Connections Follow on Twitter: 4specialkids Community Connections History of our Organization: Community Connections is a 501c3
A Sign of Our Failure Characteristics of Asperger Syndrome: A Brief Overview Brenda Smith Myles www.asperger.net www.texasautism.com 1 A study of 114 adults Measure outcome Good: (a) employed or engaged
Beacon Assessment Center Developmental Questionnaire Please complete prior to your first appointment Contact Information: Client Name: DOB: Dates of Evaluation: Age: Grade: Gender: Language(s) spoken in
UPDATE: AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN CHILDREN HISTORY OF AUTISM ABLE TO TRACE THE CHANGING APPROACHES TO AUTISM BY LOOKING AT DSM CRITERIA OVER TIME IN THE BEGINNING, IT WAS PERCEIVED AS A SINGULAR DISORDER
Living with the Spectrum: Autism and Family Life One Approach to Teaching Family Studies Students about Interdisciplinary Care Jennifer S. Reinke, PhD, LAMFT, CFLE University of Wisconsin Stout a cluster
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN EMERGING ADULTS Douglas J. Scambler, Ph.D. Clinical Psychologist Presented at the University of Wyoming November 6, 2012 OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION What are the autism spectrum
FASD Service Dogs (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder) 4 Paws for Ability January 2009. 4 Paws for Ability has pioneered the use of service dogs for another unique developmental disability. In 2008, we placed
INTRODUCTION TO RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION (RDI ) Presented by: Brenda Hardin B.A. email@example.com And Tori Carraway M.A., CCC-SLP firstname.lastname@example.org Characteristics of a
Autism Spectrum Disorder and Visual Impairment Revisited. How can standardised assessment tests be adapted to assist in providing a robust diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children who are blind
Sensory Equipment at The Collett School Small Beanbags - Put in containers across the midline e.g. use right hand to put beanbag in left container. - Put on head and walk across room develop core strength.
Sensory Processing Skills and Self-Regulation Abigail McKenzie, MOT, OTR/L email@example.com Objectives Brief overview of terminology Review and information on sensory systems Under Responsiveness
Approach to the Child with Developmental Delay Arwa Nasir Department of Pediatrics University of Nebraska Medical Center DISCLOSURE DECLARATION Approach to the Child with Developmental Delay Arwa Nasir
Module 1 Introduction VCUAutism Center for Excellence There are two types of activities: Think about it! And apply it! Each activity will be marked by an icon and a specified color as you can see below:
Fact Sheet 8 DSM-5 and Autism Spectrum Disorder A diagnosis of autism is made on the basis of observed behaviour. There are no blood tests, no single defining symptom and no physical characteristics that
Psychology Course Description: Students will study the development of scientific attitudes and skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, and scientific methodology. Students will also examine
Down Syndrome and Autism Lina Patel, Psy.D. Sie Center for Down Syndrome Children s Hospital Colorado University of Colorado School of Medicine Lina.Patel@childrenscolorado.org Financial Disclosure Objectives
ACT-NOW Fact Sheet 2 p. 1 GLOSSARY OF TERMS Asperger's Disorder (also referred to as Asperger s Syndrome) A developmental disorder defined by impairments in social interaction and the presence of restricted
Wake up to Autism Spectrum Disorder - an issue for Mental Health Services 1 This Booklet aims to Raise your awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) when there is a mental health issue Inform mental
1 Managing ADD/ADHD Behaviors By: Dr. Al Winebarger, Ph.D. Founder of the Grand Haven and Wyoming Attention Camps Author of Parenting Kids with ADD/ADHD: Real Tools for Real Life, 2 nd Edition Dr. Al Winebarger
Strength and Endurance What is strength and endurance? In practical terms, muscle strength is how strong the child is and muscular endurance is how long the child s muscles can work. In more specific terms:
Sensory processing Every minute of every day we receive sensory information from the environment and within our own bodies. How effectively we process this information affects how we concentrate, behave