PSYC& 200: Study Guide Worksheet 3 Genes, Heredity and Environment

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1 You should use information from classroom activities and lecture, from the second chapter of your text, from psychological dictionaries and from your own knowledge from having taken General Psychology to answer questions in this study guide. If you are so inclined, you might also look on some legitimate websites for helpful information. Keep in mind that you may need to revise or completely rewrite your answers to these questions after your first attempt. It is likely that your answers to these questions will be longer than the space provided. 1. Describe the steps of natural selection. Be sure to include the adjustments from class. 2. Describe the relationship between the following: Nucleotide Gene DNA Chromosome Allele You may want to include a sketch to make the text of your answer clear. 1

2 3. How do mitosis and meiosis differ? Include function, process and resulting cells in your answer. 4. What is cross-over? What does it contribute to reproduction? 5. Distinguish between identical and fraternal twins. 6 Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes. 7 Distinguish between genotype and phenotype. 2

3 Use the characteristic of shyness to indicate how genotype and phenotype differ. 8 What is the difference between being homozygous and heterozygous for a particular trait? 9 What do the terms dominant, recessive and codomimant mean? Include as part of your answer the relationship between recessive genes and the maintenance of less than desirable traits, e.g., PKU. 10 What does it mean to be a sex-linked gene? How do these traits appear in individuals? List as part of your answer at least one example of a trait which is sex-linked. 11 In reality the interaction among genes is complex. Explain the role of modifier genes in the expression of traits. 3

4 12 People often don t understand how bad genes can remain in the population. Shouldn t they just die out? Explain how harmful genes continue to exist. 13 For each of the following chromosomal disorders, indicate what the particular genetic issue is and some symptoms associated with the disorder: Down Syndrome: Sickle-cell anemia: Turner Syndrome: Klinefelter Syndrome: Fragile-X syndrome 4

5 14 Describe some of the contemporary tests for detecting abnormalities. 15 What is the major goal of researchers who investigate behavioral genetics? 5

6 16 Explain heritability as if to a smart person who is unfamiliar with psychology. 17 Explain how experimental breeding research has contributed to the study of heritability in humans. 18 You are attending a teaching conference. It turns out that you are the only psychologist represented in your discussion group. Someone asks what the difference between adoption studies and twin studies are. How would you explain to this intelligent individual the difference between the designs and the information gained from each design? Keep in mind that the individual knows nothing about psychology or research methods. Be sure to include information about the type of information you gain from each study. Include a diagram/s to help in your explanation. (Be thorough and use information from class as well as your text.) 6

7 19 What does concordant mean? What is a concordance rate? 20 What is the difference between Nonshared and Shared Environmental Experiences? 7

8 21 What does the research suggest regarding heritability of the following traits: Intellectual characteristics: Temperament and Personality: 22 Provide examples of your own to illustrate: Passive genotype/ environment correlations Evocative genotype/ environment correlations Active genotype/ environment correlations 8

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