Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling"

Transcription

1 Chapter 48 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp

2 Divisions of nervous system The main function of nervous system is to control homeostasis Many animals have a complex nervous system which consists of: A central nervous system (CNS) where integration takes place; this includes the brain and a nerve cord A peripheral nervous system (PNS), which brings information into and out of the CNS

3 Peripheral nervous system Sensors detect external stimuli and internal conditions and transmit information along sensory neurons to CNS Sensory information is sent to the brain or ganglia, where interneurons integrate the information Motor output leaves the brain or ganglia via motor neurons, which carry nerve impulses away from CNS and trigger muscle or gland activity

4 Fig Summary of information processing Sensory input Sensor Integration Motor output Effector Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Central nervous system (CNS)

5 Overview: Lines of Communication 5/17 Neurons are nerve cells that transfer information within the body Processing of information takes place in simple clusters of neurons called ganglia or a more complex organization of neurons called a brain

6 Neuron Structure and Function Most of a neuron s organelles are in the cell body Most neurons have dendrites, highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons or stimuli The axon is typically a much longer extension that transmits signals to other cells at synapses

7 Fig Neuron structure and organization Dendrites Stimulus Nucleus Cell body Axon hillock Presynaptic cell Axon A synapse is a junction between an axon and another cell Synapse Synaptic terminals Neurotransmitter Postsynaptic cell

8 Neuron Structure and Function Synapse: where neuron interacts with another cell to transmit a nerve impulse Most neurons are nourished or insulated by cells called glia Schwann cells of glia produce mielin sheath, which increases speed of transmission. Nodes of Ranvier: are gaps in myelin sheath

9 Fig Schwann cell Depolarized region (node of Ranvier) Cell body Myelin sheath Axon

10 Concept 48.2: Ion pumps and ion channels maintain the resting potential of a neuron 10/17 Every neuron has a voltage (difference in electrical charge) across its plasma membrane called a membrane potential (action potential) Flow of ions produces electric currents in body: move across membrane through channels down electrochemical gradient

11 Inside of membrane is more negative compared to the outside of the membrane Sodium-potassium pumps maintain K + and Na + gradients across the plasma membrane

12 Conduction Speed The speed of an action potential increases with the axon s diameter In vertebrates, axons are insulated by a myelin sheath, which causes an action potential s speed to increase Myelin sheaths are made by glia oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS

13 Fig a Myelinated axon (cross section) Node of Ranvier Layers of myelin Axon Axon Myelin sheath Schwann cell Nodes of Ranvier Schwann cell Nucleus of Schwann cell Action potentials are formed only at nodes of Ranvier, gaps in the myelin sheath where voltage-gated Na+ channels are found

14 Synapses Junctions between 2 neurons and or neuron and affector Presynaptic neuron: conducts impulse toward synapse The synaptic (axonal) terminal of presynaptic neuron passes information across the synapse in the form of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are located in synaptic vesicles The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and is received by the postsynaptic cell

15 Synaptic terminals on the cell body of a postsynaptic neuron (colorized SEM) 15/17 Fig µm Postsynaptic neuron Synaptic (axonal) terminals of presynaptic neurons

16 Fig A chemical synapse Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter Presynaptic membrane Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel 1 Ca Postsynaptic membrane synaptic cleft: separates membranes of 2 neurons Synaptic cleft 3 Ligand-gated ion channels Postsynaptic neuron: conducts impulse away from synapse Receptor region: where neurotransmitters bind to receptors

17 Impulse transmission at synapse Nerve impulse reaches axonal terminal, causes synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter diffuses across cleft and binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane May produce action potential if threshold reached

18

19 Thank you for your attention and participation!

20 You should now be able to: 1. Distinguish among the following sets of terms: sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons; and action potential 2. Explain the importance of the sodiumpotassium pump 3. Describe the events that lead to the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Overview: Lines of Communication Chapter 8 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Fig. 8- The cone snail kills prey with venom that disables neurons Neurons are nerve s that transfer information within the body

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling The Neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. Neurons are composed of a cell body, which contains the nucleus and organelles; Dendrites which are extensions

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 8 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Eighth Edition Overview: Lines of Communication The cone snail kills prey with venom that disables neurons Neurons are nerve

More information

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF NEURONS. AP Biology Chapter 48

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF NEURONS. AP Biology Chapter 48 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF NEURONS AP Biology Chapter 48 Objectives Describe the different types of neurons Describe the structure and function of dendrites, axons, a synapse, types of ion channels, and

More information

35-2 The Nervous System Slide 1 of 38

35-2 The Nervous System Slide 1 of 38 1 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System The nervous system controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli. 2 of 38 Neurons Neurons The messages carried by

More information

AP Biology Unit 6. The Nervous System

AP Biology Unit 6. The Nervous System AP Biology Unit 6 The Nervous System Branches of the Nervous System There are 2 main branches of the nervous system Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System All nerves leading

More information

Branches of the Nervous System

Branches of the Nervous System The Nervous System Branches of the Nervous System There are 2 main branches of the nervous system Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System All nerves leading to rest of body Anatomy

More information

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts:

Outline. Animals: Nervous system. Neuron and connection of neurons. Key Concepts: Animals: Nervous system Neuron and connection of neurons Outline 1. Key concepts 2. An Overview and Evolution 3. Human Nervous System 4. The Neurons 5. The Electrical Signals 6. Communication between Neurons

More information

Blood & Nervous Tissue. Blood. Nervous Tissue 10/13/2008. BY: Jeremiah Peters, Brett Maggard, Miranda Asher, and Benjamin Oakes

Blood & Nervous Tissue. Blood. Nervous Tissue 10/13/2008. BY: Jeremiah Peters, Brett Maggard, Miranda Asher, and Benjamin Oakes Blood & Nervous Tissue BY: Jeremiah Peters, Brett Maggard, Miranda Asher, and Benjamin Oakes Blood Fluid within blood vessels Doesn t connect or give mechanical support Transports Nutrients, wastes, respiratory

More information

Chapter 17 Nervous System

Chapter 17 Nervous System Chapter 17 Nervous System 1 The Nervous System Two Anatomical Divisions Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Two Types of Cells Neurons Transmit nerve impulses

More information

Neurons Chapter 7 2/19/2016. Learning Objectives. Cells of the Nervous System. Cells of the Nervous System. Cells of the Nervous System

Neurons Chapter 7 2/19/2016. Learning Objectives. Cells of the Nervous System. Cells of the Nervous System. Cells of the Nervous System Learning Objectives Neurons Chapter 7 Identify and describe the functions of the two main divisions of the nervous system. Differentiate between a neuron and neuroglial cells in terms of structure and

More information

Neurons, Synapses and Signaling. Chapter 48

Neurons, Synapses and Signaling. Chapter 48 Neurons, Synapses and Signaling Chapter 48 Warm Up Exercise What types of cells can receive a nerve signal? Nervous Organization Neurons- nerve cells. Brain- organized into clusters of neurons, called

More information

Outline. Neuron Structure. Week 4 - Nervous System. The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses

Outline. Neuron Structure. Week 4 - Nervous System. The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses Outline Week 4 - The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses Neurons Neuron structures Types of neurons Electrical activity of neurons Depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization Synapses Release of

More information

Function of the Nervous System

Function of the Nervous System Nervous System Function of the Nervous System Receive sensory information, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands to form a response Composed of neurons (functional unit of the nervous system)

More information

Chapter Nervous Systems

Chapter Nervous Systems The Nervous System Chapter Nervous Systems Which animals have nervous systems? (Which do not) What are the basic components of a NS? What kind of fish performs brain operations? What differentiates one

More information

The Nervous System 12/11/2015

The Nervous System 12/11/2015 The Nervous System Biology 12 Unit 3: Homeostasis December 11, 2015 The nervous system is an elaborate communication system that contains more than 100 billion nerve cells in the brain alone There are

More information

The Nervous System 7PART A. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College

The Nervous System 7PART A. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Nervous System 7PART A Functions of the Nervous System Sensory input gathering information To monitor

More information

The Nervous System PART A. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College

The Nervous System PART A. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Nervous System 7 PART A Functions of the Nervous System Sensory input gathering information To

More information

What is Anatomy and Physiology?

What is Anatomy and Physiology? Introduction BI 212 BI 213 BI 211 Ecosystems Organs / organ systems Cells Organelles Communities Tissues Molecules Populations Organisms Campbell et al. Figure 1.4 Introduction What is Anatomy and Physiology?

More information

6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis

6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis 6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis IB Biology SL Part 1 - Nerves Outcomes Part 1 6.5.1State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves, and is composed

More information

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites.

10.1: Introduction. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial cells) Dendrites. 10.1: Introduction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial

More information

Neurophysiology. Corresponding textbook pages: ,

Neurophysiology. Corresponding textbook pages: , Neurophysiology Corresponding textbook pages: 436-440, 442-455 Organization Helps maintain homeostasis in the body Nervous system and endocrine system Nervous system is faster due to nerve impulses 1 Fig.

More information

Chapter 11 Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Chapter Outline

Chapter 11 Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Chapter Outline Chapter 11 Introduction to the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Chapter Outline Module 11.1 Overview of the Nervous System (Figures 11.1-11.3) A. The nervous system controls our perception and experience

More information

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue I. Functions of the Nervous System A. List and describe the five major nervous system functions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. II. Divisions of the Nervous System

More information

D) around, bypassing B) toward

D) around, bypassing B) toward Nervous System Practice Questions 1. Which of the following are the parts of neurons? A) brain, spinal cord, and vertebral column B) dendrite, axon, and cell body C) sensory and motor D) cortex, medulla

More information

Chapter 11: Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Chapter 11: Nervous System and Nervous Tissue I. Functions and divisions of the nervous system A. Sensory input: monitor changes in internal and external environment B. Integrations: make decisions about

More information

Nervous System. Chapter 9 Pages

Nervous System. Chapter 9 Pages Nervous System Chapter 9 Pages 211-257 Chapter 9 Wordbytes 1. af- = toward 11. -ferrent = carried 2. arachn- = spider 12. gangli- = swelling 3. astro- = star 13. -glia = glue 4. auto- = self 14. mening-

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Neurons & Impulses

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Neurons & Impulses THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Neurons & Impulses Organization of the Nervous System: Two Major Portions: The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). CNS = Brain/Spinal Cord PNS = Nerves-provide

More information

Introduction to Neurobiology

Introduction to Neurobiology Biology 240 General Zoology Introduction to Neurobiology Nervous System functions: communication of information via nerve signals integration and processing of information control of physiological and

More information

Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer

Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer Name Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Period Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer 1. What is

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1

Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1 Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1 Terms to Know CNS PNS Afferent division Efferent division Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic

More information

Nervous System. 2. Receives information from the environment from CNS to organs and glands. 1. Relays messages, processes info, analyzes data

Nervous System. 2. Receives information from the environment from CNS to organs and glands. 1. Relays messages, processes info, analyzes data Nervous System 1. Relays messages, processes info, analyzes data 2. Receives information from the environment from CNS to organs and glands 3. Transmits impulses from CNS to muscles and glands 4. Transmits

More information

FLASH CARDS. Kalat s Book Chapter 2 Alphabetical

FLASH CARDS.   Kalat s Book Chapter 2 Alphabetical FLASH CARDS www.biologicalpsych.com Kalat s Book Chapter 2 Alphabetical absolute refractory period absolute refractory period Time when neuron will not re-fire no matter how much stimulus it gets. action

More information

3) Most of the organelles in a neuron are located in the A) dendritic region. B) axon hillock. C) axon. D) cell body. E) axon terminals.

3) Most of the organelles in a neuron are located in the A) dendritic region. B) axon hillock. C) axon. D) cell body. E) axon terminals. Chapter 48 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Multiple-Choice Questions 1) A simple nervous system A) must include chemical senses, mechanoreception, and vision. B) includes a minimum of 12 ganglia. C) has

More information

Nervous System Review

Nervous System Review Nervous System Review Name: Block: 1. Which processes are involved in the movement of molecule Y from point X to point Z? A. exocytosis and diffusion B. endocytosis and diffusion C. exocytosis and facilitated

More information

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure

Functions of Nervous System Neuron Structure Chapter 10 Nervous System I Divisions of the Nervous System Cell Types of Neural Tissue neurons neuroglial cells Central Nervous System brain spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System nerves cranial nerves

More information

Study Guide Answer Key Nervous System

Study Guide Answer Key Nervous System Biology 12 Human Biology Textbook: BC Biology 12 Study Guide Answer Key Nervous System 1. Draw a neuron, label 3 parts and give the function of those parts. Dendrite: carry signals to the cell body Cell

More information

Chapter 7. The Nervous System

Chapter 7. The Nervous System Chapter 7 The Nervous System General overview of the nervous system functions Sensory input (info travels in along afferent pathways) Integration (information is processed) Sensory neurons Spinal cord

More information

Major Structures of the Nervous System. Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors

Major Structures of the Nervous System. Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors Nervous System Divisions Central Nervous System (CNS) consists

More information

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5

BIOLOGY 2050 LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I (A. IMHOLTZ) FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVOUS TISSUE P1 OF 5 P1 OF 5 The nervous system controls/coordinates the activities of cells, tissues, & organs. The endocrine system also plays a role in control/coordination. The nervous system is more dominant. Its mechanisms

More information

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

The Nervous System & Nervous tissue. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi The Nervous System & Nervous tissue Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions of the Nervous System 1. Nervous system and endocrine system are the chief control centers in maintaining body homeostasis. 2. Nervous

More information

Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology

Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 Chapter 10 Nervous System I Cell Types of Neural Tissue neurons neuroglial cells 2 Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System brain spinal cord Peripheral

More information

NEURONS Chapter Neurons: specialized cells of the nervous system 2. Nerves: bundles of neuron axons 3. Nervous systems

NEURONS Chapter Neurons: specialized cells of the nervous system 2. Nerves: bundles of neuron axons 3. Nervous systems NEURONS Chapter 12 Figure 12.1 Neuronal and hormonal signaling both convey information over long distances 1. Nervous system A. nervous tissue B. conducts electrical impulses C. rapid communication 2.

More information

Endocrine System Nervous System

Endocrine System Nervous System Cells Endocrine System Nervous System Tissues Controls Organs Nervous System vs Endocrine System Electrical signals (graded potentials and action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters) Fast

More information

DO NOW: ANSWER ON PG 73

DO NOW: ANSWER ON PG 73 DO NOW: ANSWER ON PG 73 1. Name 1 neurotransmitter that we have learned about. 2. Draw a basic graph of a neuron action potential. Label resting potential, threshold, depolarization, and repolarization

More information

Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling

Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling Chapter 7 Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling 7.1. Overview of the Nervous System (Figure 7.1) 7.2. Cells of the Nervous System o Neurons are excitable cells which can generate action potentials o 90%

More information

CHAPTER 44: Neurons and Nervous Systems

CHAPTER 44: Neurons and Nervous Systems CHAPTER 44: Neurons and Nervous Systems 1. What are the three different types of neurons and what are their functions? a. b. c. 2. Label and list the function of each part of the neuron. 3. How does the

More information

CHAPTER 44: Neurons and Nervous Systems

CHAPTER 44: Neurons and Nervous Systems CHAPTER 44: Neurons and Nervous Systems 1. What are the three different types of neurons and what are their functions? a. b. c. 2. Label and list the function of each part of the neuron. 3. How does the

More information

Chapter 34 The Nervous System:

Chapter 34 The Nervous System: Chapter 34 The Nervous System: 3.5 Learning Objectives 3.5.3 Responses in the human 1. The nervous system: two-part division into the CNS and the PNS. 2. Neurons, name 3 types, give structure and function

More information

Neurophysiology scripts. Slide 2

Neurophysiology scripts. Slide 2 Neurophysiology scripts Slide 2 Nervous system and Endocrine system both maintain homeostasis in the body. Nervous system by nerve impulse and Endocrine system by hormones. Since the nerve impulse is an

More information

Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition. Chapter 10

Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition. Chapter 10 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier Butler Lewis Chapter 10 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction

More information

Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2

Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2 NAME PER DATE Chapter Six Review Sections 1 and 2 Matching: 1. afferent nerves 2. autonomic nervous system 3. cell body 4. central nervous system (CNS) 5. dendrites 6. efferent nerves 7. myelin sheath

More information

Ameen Alsaras. Ameen Alsaras. Mohd.Khatatbeh

Ameen Alsaras. Ameen Alsaras. Mohd.Khatatbeh 9 Ameen Alsaras Ameen Alsaras Mohd.Khatatbeh Nerve Cells (Neurons) *Remember: The neural cell consists of: 1-Cell body 2-Dendrites 3-Axon which ends as axon terminals. The conduction of impulse through

More information

Endocrine System Nervous System

Endocrine System Nervous System Cells Endocrine System Nervous System Tissues Controls Organs Nervous System vs Endocrine System Electrical signals (graded potentials and action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters) Fast

More information

Unit Three. I. General Functions of the Nervous System. I. General Functions of the Nervous System

Unit Three. I. General Functions of the Nervous System. I. General Functions of the Nervous System 10 Refer to the following URLs. It is a good idea to print them and bring them to class. Be sure to study these along with your book. http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/nervous.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ap.html

More information

Chapter 4 Neuronal Physiology

Chapter 4 Neuronal Physiology Chapter 4 Neuronal Physiology V edit. Pg. 99-131 VI edit. Pg. 85-113 VII edit. Pg. 87-113 Input Zone Dendrites and Cell body Nucleus Trigger Zone Axon hillock Conducting Zone Axon (may be from 1mm to more

More information

The Nervous System. Overall Function

The Nervous System. Overall Function The Nervous System The Nervous System Overall Function COMMUNICATION Works with the endocrine system in regulating body functioning, but the nervous system is specialized for SPEED Neurons A neuron is

More information

The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body

The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body The Nervous System -The master controlling and communicating system of the body Functions: -Sensory input -Integration -Motor output Organization of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) -Brain

More information

MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE

MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR NEUROSCIENCE BMP-218 November 4, 2014 DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM The nervous system is composed of two primary divisions: 1. CNS - Central Nervous System (Brain + Spinal Cord)

More information

The Nervous System II Neurons

The Nervous System II Neurons The Nervous System II Neurons Review Nervous System What is it? The system that receives, processes, stores and transmits information that comes from various parts of the body and the external world. Composed

More information

Period: Date: Module 28: Nervous System, Student Learning Guide

Period: Date: Module 28: Nervous System, Student Learning Guide Name: Period: Date: Module 28: Nervous System, Student Learning Guide Instructions: Work in pairs (share a computer). Make sure that you log in for the first quiz so that you get credit. Go to www.sciencemusicvideos.com.

More information

You can follow the path of the neural signal. The sensory neurons detect a stimulus in your finger and send that information to the CNS.

You can follow the path of the neural signal. The sensory neurons detect a stimulus in your finger and send that information to the CNS. 1 Nervous system maintains coordination through the use of electrical and chemical processes. There are three aspects: sensory, motor, and integrative, which we will discuss throughout the system. The

More information

The Nervous System. Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output

The Nervous System. Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output The Nervous System Nervous System Functions 1. gather sensory input 2. integration- process and interpret sensory input 3. cause motor output The Nervous System 2 Parts of the Nervous System 1. central

More information

Animal Physiology Study Guide

Animal Physiology Study Guide Animal Physiology Study Guide 1. Which of the following are an example of passive transport? 2. Which active transport? 3. How can you tell? 1. Which of the following are an example of passive transport?

More information

Tips. Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures. Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg

Tips. Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures. Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg Tips Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures Lectures will be posted after class Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg The Nervous System N E U

More information

Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters

Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body. Secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters Nervous System Master controlling and communicating system of the body Interacts with the endocrine system to control and coordinate the body s responses to changes in its environment, as well as growth,

More information

Nervous System. Lesson 11

Nervous System. Lesson 11 Nervous System Lesson 11 Reflex Arcs 1. Patellar reflex Causes leg to kick up 2. Achilles reflex Causes foot to jerk forward 3. Triceps reflex Causes arm to straighten 4. Babinski reflex 4. Pupil Dilation

More information

BIOL241 - Lecture 12a

BIOL241 - Lecture 12a Cranial Nerves, source: training.seer.cancer.gov Nervous System Overview BIOL241 - Lecture 12a 1 Topics Divisions of the NS: CNS and PNS Structure and types of neurons Synapses Structure and function of

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM CELLS. a. afferent division CHAPTER 12 ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Student Name

NERVOUS SYSTEM CELLS. a. afferent division CHAPTER 12 ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Student Name Student Name CHAPTER 12 NERVOUS SYSTEM CELLS T he nervous system organizes and coordinates the millions of impulses received each day to make communication with and enjoyment of our environment possible.

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

Lecture 22: A little Neurobiology

Lecture 22: A little Neurobiology BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 22: A little Neurobiology http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu Nervous system development Part of the ectoderm

More information

Chapter 2: Cellular Mechanisms and Cognition

Chapter 2: Cellular Mechanisms and Cognition Chapter 2: Cellular Mechanisms and Cognition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Two principles about neurons were defined by Ramón y Cajal. The principle of connectional specificity states that, whereas the principle

More information

Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells

Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue The Nervous System Components Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Responsible for Sensory perceptions,

More information

Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue. Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells. The Nervous System. The Nervous System 21/12/2010

Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue. Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells. The Nervous System. The Nervous System 21/12/2010 Nervous tissue, charachteristics, neurons, glial cells Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue The Nervous System Components Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Responsible for Sensory perceptions,

More information

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND MAINTENANCE OF NEURONS (a) (b) Dendrites Cell body Initial segment collateral terminals (a) Diagrammatic representation of a neuron. The break in

More information

The Nervous System PART A

The Nervous System PART A 7 The Nervous System PART A PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY EIGHTH EDITION ELAINE N. MARIEB Structural Classification

More information

The Nervous System PART A

The Nervous System PART A 7 The Nervous System PART A PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY EIGHTH EDITION ELAINE N. MARIEB Structural Classification

More information

The nervous system regulates most body systems using direct connections called nerves. It enables you to sense and respond to stimuli

The nervous system regulates most body systems using direct connections called nerves. It enables you to sense and respond to stimuli The nervous system regulates most body systems using direct connections called nerves. It enables you to sense and respond to stimuli The basic function of nervous system are: Receive sensory input internal

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment

Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment Name: Class: Date: Chapter 12 Nervous System Review Assignment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which part of a neuron receives an impulse

More information

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Homeostasis Strand THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Homeostasis Strand Introduction In general, a nervous system has three overlapping functions : 1. Sensory input conduction of signals from sensory receptors to integration centres 2.

More information

EE 791 Lecture 2 Jan 19, 2015

EE 791 Lecture 2 Jan 19, 2015 EE 791 Lecture 2 Jan 19, 2015 Action Potential Conduction And Neural Organization EE 791-Lecture 2 1 Core-conductor model: In the core-conductor model we approximate an axon or a segment of a dendrite

More information

The Nervous System. B. The Components: 1) Nerve Cells Neurons are the cells of the body and are specialized to carry messages through an process.

The Nervous System. B. The Components: 1) Nerve Cells Neurons are the cells of the body and are specialized to carry messages through an process. The Nervous System A. The Divisions: 1) The Central Nervous System includes the and. The brain contains billions of nerve cells called, and trillions of support cells called. 2) The Peripheral Nervous

More information

Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System. Total 33 points

Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System. Total 33 points Biology 3201 Quiz on Nervous System Total 33 points Name: Circle the best response to the following: (33 points) 1. What do we call the long fibre that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body? A.

More information

Neurons. Pyramidal neurons in mouse cerebral cortex expressing green fluorescent protein. The red staining indicates GABAergic interneurons.

Neurons. Pyramidal neurons in mouse cerebral cortex expressing green fluorescent protein. The red staining indicates GABAergic interneurons. Neurons Pyramidal neurons in mouse cerebral cortex expressing green fluorescent protein. The red staining indicates GABAergic interneurons. MBL, Woods Hole R Cheung MSc Bioelectronics: PGEE11106 1 Neuron

More information

EE 791 Lecture 2 Jan 17, 2011

EE 791 Lecture 2 Jan 17, 2011 EE 791 Lecture 2 Jan 17, 2011 Action Potential Conduction And Neural Organization EE 791-Lecture 2 1 Core-conductor model: In the core-conductor model we approximate an axon or a segment of a dendrite

More information

Nervous System (Part A-1) Module 8 -Chapter 14

Nervous System (Part A-1) Module 8 -Chapter 14 Nervous System (Part A-1) Module 8 -Chapter 14 Overview Susie Turner, M.D. 1/9/13 Cellular structure of the nervous system Neurons Neuroglia Nervous System Divisions Central nervous system Peripheral nervous

More information

ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON

ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON AP BIOLOGY ACTIVITY2.15 Text:Campbell,v.8,chapter48 NAME DATE HOUR NERVOUS SYSTEMS NEURON SIMPLE REFLEX RESTING POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL GRAPH TRANSMISSION ACROSS A SYNAPSE QUESTIONS:

More information

Biology 218 Human Anatomy

Biology 218 Human Anatomy Chapter 17 Adapted form Tortora 10 th ed. LECTURE OUTLINE A. Overview of the Nervous System (p. 537) 1. The nervous system and the endocrine system are the body s major control and integrating centers.

More information

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14 th Edition CHAPTER 12 Nervous Tissue Introduction The purpose of the chapter is to: 1. Understand how the nervous system helps to keep controlled conditions within

More information

ANSWERS TO PRE- LAB ASSIGNMENTS

ANSWERS TO PRE- LAB ASSIGNMENTS Lab 14 Introduction to Nervous System Hamilton ANSWERS TO PRE- LAB ASSIGNMENTS Pre-Lab Activity 1: 1. a. orbicularis oculi b. sternocleidomastoid c. deltoid d. pectoralis major e. biceps brachii f. rectus

More information

BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology

BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology BI 232: Human Anatomy & Physiology Roster Business Course Introduction and Syllabus Notecard Name E-mail Why you are taking the course Something interesting you did over break Lecture Tips Use the Study

More information

Warm-Up. Label the parts of the neuron below.

Warm-Up. Label the parts of the neuron below. Warm-Up Label the parts of the neuron below. A B C D E F G Warm-Up 1. One neuron transmits a nerve impulse at 40 m/s. Another conducts at the rate of 1 m/s. Which neuron has a myelinated axon? 2. List

More information

Axon Nerve impulse. Axoplasm Receptor. Axomembrane Stimuli. Schwann cell Effector. Myelin Cell body

Axon Nerve impulse. Axoplasm Receptor. Axomembrane Stimuli. Schwann cell Effector. Myelin Cell body Nervous System Review 1. Explain a reflex arc. 2. Know the structure, function and location of a sensory neuron, interneuron, and motor neuron 3. What is (a) Neuron Axon Nerve impulse Axoplasm Receptor

More information

LECTURE STRUCTURE ASC171 NERVOUS SYSTEM PART 1: BACKGROUND 26/07/2015. Module 5

LECTURE STRUCTURE ASC171 NERVOUS SYSTEM PART 1: BACKGROUND 26/07/2015. Module 5 LECTURE STRUCTURE PART 1: Background / Introduction PART 2: Structure of the NS, how it operates PART 3: CNS PART 4: PNS Why did the action potential cross the synaptic junction? To get to the other side

More information

Station Neurons and synapses

Station Neurons and synapses Station 1 6.5 Neurons and synapses Label the neuron below: What is that neuron part? 1. Picks up message from neighboring neurons 2. Cells that cover axon and make myelin sheath 3. Releases neurotransmitter

More information

Chapter 12 Nervous System Written Assignment KEY

Chapter 12 Nervous System Written Assignment KEY Chapter 12 Nervous System Written Assignment KEY 1. Describe, in correct order, the events that occur during the transmission of a nerve impulse (action potential) as it travels from point X to point Y.

More information

Thursday, January 22, Nerve impulse

Thursday, January 22, Nerve impulse Nerve impulse Transmembrane Potential caused by ions moving through cell membrane at different rates Two main ions of concern Na + - Sodium K + - potassium Cell membrane not freely permeable therefore

More information

The Brain & Homeostasis. The Brain & Technology. CAT, PET, and MRI Scans

The Brain & Homeostasis. The Brain & Technology. CAT, PET, and MRI Scans The Brain & Homeostasis Today, scientists have a lot of information about what happens in the different parts of the brain; however they are still trying to understand how the brain functions. We know

More information