1 Advanced Nutrient Therapies for Mental Disorders London, England November 7, 2015 William J. Walsh, Ph.D. Walsh Research Ins?tute USA
4 Massive Chemistry Database Laboratory tes>ng of 30,000 mental health pa>ents and controls. More than 3 million lab chemistries for pa>ents diagnosed with a behavior disorder, ADHD, au>sm, depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. More than 2 million medical history factors for these popula>ons.
8 Frequently Asked Questions 1. How can vitamins, minerals, or amino acids significantly help a person with a serious mental illness? 2. Don t you really need a powerful drug to get the job done?
9 The Power of Nutrients 1. NeurotransmiLer synthesis 2. Epigene>c regula>on of gene expression 3. Influence NT reuptake processes 4. Protec>on against oxida>ve stress
12 Dopamine Synthesis
13 GABA Synthesis
14 Metal Metabolism Disorders Zinc Deple>on Copper Overload Deficiencies of magnesium, calcium, manganese, selenium, iron, etc. Overload of lead, mercury, cadmium, and other toxic metals.
15 Pyrrole Disorder Double deficiency of B- 6 and Zinc Reduced Serotonin, Dopamine, GABA Deple>on of GSH, MT, Cys, SOD, Catalase Supplements of B- 6 and zinc can normalize pyrrole levels, o]en resul>ng in elimina>on of symptoms and the need for psychiatric medica>on.
16 Oxidative Stress What Can Go Wrong? Some persons are born with low levels of natural an>oxidants glutathione, MT, etc. Illnesses, injuries, and emo>onal trauma can increase oxida>ve stress. Exposure to toxic metals, pes>cides, and industrial pollutants increases oxida>ve stress.
17 The Three Musketeers of Antioxidant Protection in the Brain Glutathione: First line of defense. Metallothionein: Nature s back- up system. Selenium: Speeds up the process.
19 Methyla>on and Brain Disorders Methyla>on status has been determined for 30,000 pa>ents over a 30- year period. Most persons diagnosed with mental disorders exhibit a serious methyla>on imbalance. Accurate diagnosis of methyla>on status is essen>al to effec>ve treatment.
23 Methyla>on and Mental Health Methyla>on is a dominant factor in epigene>c processes that regulate NT ac>vity at serotonin and dopamine receptors. The methyl/folate ra>o has a powerful impact on gene expression of reuptake transport proteins. More than 60% of anxiety, depression and psychosis pa>ents exhibit a serious methyla>on imbalance.
38 Under Methyla>on: Symptoms & Traits Par)al List Very strong- willed, opposi>onal to authority Seasonal inhalant allergies Compe>>ve in sports or games Calm demeanor but high inner tension High fluidity (tears, saliva, etc.) OCD tendencies, controlling behavior Good response to SSRIs High libido
39 Over Methyla>on: Symptoms & Traits Par)al List High anxiety, panic tendency Hyperac>vity, nervous legs, pacing Sleep disorder Low libido Absence of seasonal allergies Food, chemical sensi>vi>es Dry eyes and mouth Excellent socializa>on, empathy Non- compe>>veness in sports, academics Adverse reac>on to SSRIs, an>- histamines
40 Methyla>on and Epigene>cs Methyla>on is a dominant factor in epigene>c processes. SAMe, methionine and folates have a powerful epigene>c impact on neurotransmiler ac>vity at synapses. More than 60% of ADHD, anxiety, depression and psychosis pa>ents exhibit a serious methyla>on imbalance.
41 Epigene>cs >20,000 genes in every cell s DNA, each capable of producing a specific protein. Liver, skin, brain, and other >ssues require a unique combina>on of proteins. During pregnancy, chemical bookmarks alach to DNA to enhance or inhibit gene expression in each >ssue. Environmental insults at any age alter gene bookmarks and produce mental disorders and other disease condi>ons.
44 DNA Methyla>on Established in the womb. Methyla>on of cytosine at promoter CpG clusters can reduce expression (protein produc>on) for the corresponding gene. These methyl bookmarks usually remain in place throughout a life>me. In- utero environmental insults can produce deviant bookmarks and serious disorders or birth defects. Throughout life, a severe environmental insult may alter one or more gene- regula>on marks and produce an epigene>c disorder, such as cancer or a mental illness.
48 Methyl- Acetyl Compe>>on Compe>>on between acetyl and methyl groups o]en determines whether genes are expressed or silenced. Acetyl bookmarks promote gene expression. Methyl bookmarks inhibit expression. Nutrient therapy can impact the methyl- acetyl compe>>on and alter expression of enzymes that control serotonin and dopamine NT rates.
49 Gene Expression Requires Uncoiling of DNA Gene expression involves direct interac>on of RNA polymerase and transcrip>on factors with DNA. These large molecules cannot gain access to DNA/histone regions that are densely compacted. The gentle alachment of DNA to histones involves electrosta>c alrac>on. DNA is a weak acid and histones are mild bases (ph above 7.0). Acetyla>on decreases histone ph, causing uncoiling of DNA; methyla>on increases histone ph, increasing DNA/histone compac>on.
53 Reuptake Transport Proteins (SERT, DAT, NET) Primary determinant of neurotransmiler ac>vity at serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine receptors brain concentra>ons of serotonin and dopamine are less important Transmembrane proteins that remove neurotransmilers from the synapse (reuptake) like a vacuum cleaner inhaling dust par>cles Formed by gene expression: amount present depends on methyl/acetyl compe>>on at specific DNA regions.
57 Characteristics of an Epigenetic Disorder Cases of sudden onset a]er normalcy Persistence of condi>on a]er onset A mul>tude of characteris>c symptoms Heritable illness that violates laws of gene>cs Abnormal methyla>on Severe oxida>ve overload.
58 Apparent Epigenetic Gene-Regulation Disorders Cancer Heart Disease Schizophrenia Au>sm PTSD Wilson s Disease Bipolar Disorder Alzheimer s Disease
59 Epigene>c Disorders - High Degree of Difficulty - Au>sm, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, PTSD Numerous dysregulated genes Many systems need correc>on: immune func>on, biochemistry, G.I. tract, oxida>ve stress, brain neurotransmission, etc. Mul>ple interven>ons o]en needed. Progress usually par>al in nature; complete recovery rela>vely rare.
60 Non- Epigene>c Disorders - Moderate Clinical Difficulty - ADHD, behavior disorders, anxiety, depression Normaliza>on of one to three chemical factors is usually sufficient. Outcome studies indicate 70-90% efficacy. Medica>on support usually unnecessary.
61 Massive Chemistry Database for Behavior Disorders and ADHD More than 1.5 million blood/urine/>ssue test results for persons diagnosed with behavior disorders and/or ADHD. Striking chemistry differences between these popula>ons and the rest of society.
62 Outcome Study Walsh, et al. Physiology & Behavior, 82: (2004) 207 behavior- disordered subjects Iden>fica>on of biochemical imbalances Individualized nutrient therapy to correct imbalances Measurement of frequency of physical assaults and property destruc>on before & a]er treatment
65 Behavior Outcomes vs. Age 1. Disappointing results for adult criminals who continued abusing drugs & alcohol. 2. Excellent results for violent children and teens. Since 1990, treatment focus has been on youths.
66 CLINICAL DEPRESSION
67 Mainstream Psychiatry Misconception Depression - - regarded as a single en>ty with varia>ons along a central theme. Central Belief - - Low ac>vity at serotonin receptors. Treatment of choice - - SSRI an>depressants to elevate serotonin ac>vity at synapses.
68 Chemical Classification of Depression 1. Our database studies have iden>fied five high- incidence depression biotypes. 2. The biotypes represent completely different disorders, each with unique neurotransmiler imbalances and symptoms. 3. Separate treatment approach needed for each biotype.
70 Phenotype #1 Undermethylated Depression Strong- willed OCD tendencies Calm exterior, but inner tension Compe>>ve & perfec>onis>c Seasonal allergies (75%) High libido Seasonal affec>ve disorder SSRI medica>ons usually effec>ve
71 Phenotype #2 High-Copper Depression Elevated norepinephrine, reduced dopamine More than 95% are female Inability to eliminate excess copper High anxiety, tendency for panic Onset during hormonal event High incidence of post- partum depression Estrogen intolerance Tinni>s (ringing in the ears) Sensi>ve skin, intolerance to cheap metals SSRI an>depressants ineffec>ve
72 Phenotype #3 Pyrrole Depression Severe mood swings Explosive anger Extreme anxiety, fears Poor short- term memory Reading disorder LiLle or no dream recall Sensi>vity to light, noise Very poor morning appe>te Abnormal fat distribu>on Fair response to SSRI an>depressants
73 Phenotype #4 Toxic Metal Depression Absence of trauma or emo>onal triggers Abdominal distress Unrelen>ng depression Cogni>ve deficits (children only) Metallic taste in mouth, bad breath Irritability, anger Food sensi>vi>es High oxida>ve stress SSRI an>depressants ineffec>ve
74 Phenotype #5 Low-Folate Depression Tendency for high anxiety, panic Non- compe>>ve in sports or games Absence of inhalant allergies Food/chemical sensi>vi>es High musical or ar>s>c ability Underachievement Sleep disorder Low libido Adverse reac>on to SSRI medica>ons
75 Treatment Example (160 lb Adult) Undermethylated Depression SAMe and/or methionine (reduce SERT expression and inhibit serotonin reuptake) B- 6 (enhance synthesis of serotonin and glutathione) An>oxidant support (Zn, Se, Vitamins C, E, etc.) Augmen>ng nutrients as indicated (Bio>n, Ca, Mg, Cr, TMG, Inositol, Serine, Vitamins A, D)
76 Biochemical Treatment of Clinical Depression Therapy using vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other chemicals that are natural to the body (drug- free) Separate treatment approach for each biotype 80% of families report major improvements and ability to eliminate psychiatric drugs.
78 Chemical Classification of Schizophrenia 1. Our database studies have verified Carl Pfeiffer s three major high- incidence schizophrenia biotypes. 2. The biotypes represent very different disorders, each with unique neurotransmiler imbalances and symptoms. 3. Separate treatment approach needed for each biotype.
80 Other Forms of Schizophrenia Porphyria Homocysteinuria Thyroid Deficiency Cerebral Allergy Drug Induced Schizophrenia
81 Undermethylated Schizophrenia Severe Delusions Obsessive/Compulsive Behaviors Social Isola?on High Internal Anxiety; Calm Exterior Catatonic Tendencies Phobias
82 Pyroluric Schizophrenia Severe Deficiency of B- 6 and Zinc Onset During Severe Stress Mixed Psycho?c Symptoms Extreme Anxiety & Fear Explosive anger Severe Mood Swings Morning nausea Abnormal Fat Distribu?on Preference for spicy foods
83 Gluten Intolerance 4% of Psychosis Cases Incomplete Breakdown of Gluten Proteins in the G.I. Tract Short Pep?des with Opioid Proper?es Treatment: Dietary Avoidance of Wheat, Oats, Barley, and Rye
84 Biochemical Treatment of Schizophrenia Therapy using vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other chemicals that are natural to the body (drug- free) Separate treatment approach for each biotype 85% of families report major improvements, reduced dependence on medica>on, and lessened side effects.
85 Schizophrenia: Evidence of an Epigenetic Disorder Abnormal methyla>on or severe oxida>ve overload in more than 95% of SZ individuals Rela>ve normalcy prior to the mental breakdown event Persistence of illness a]er the breakdown Schizophrenia violates classical laws of Mendelian gene>cs.
86 Epigenetic Insights Into Schizophrenia Therapy Niacin & niacinamide act as dopamine reuptake promoters. Methionine and SAMe are serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Folates reduce synap>c ac>vity at serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine receptors. Zinc, glutathione, d- serine, d- cycloserine, glycine increase NMDA ac>vity. Numerous other nutrients influence neurotransmiler ac>vity and brain func>on.
89 A Look at the Future Iden>fica>on of misbehaving genes in cancer, au>sm, schizophrenia, and other epigene>c disorders will be achieved in the near future. Therapies to normalize deviant gene expression will eventually be developed. Epigene>c therapies of the future may enable a cure for persons who develop these disorders. Future newborn babies may be screened for epigene>c errors and receive treatment to prevent these disorders.
90 2015 Nobel Prize Chemistry Modrich, Lindahl, Sancar Groundbreaking research on DNA repair mechanisms Poten>ally the most important scien>fic advance since Watson and Crick s discovery of the DNA double helix New therapies to maintain DNA integrity may slow the aging process and enable preven>on of cancer, au>sm, schizophrenia, heart disease, and many other illnesses.
91 Summary Nutrient imbalances play a cri>cal role in most mental disorders. Recent research in methyla>on and epigene>cs is providing a roadmap for advanced nutrient therapies. Nutrient therapy represents an effec>ve weapon in the arsenal of a mental health prac>>oner.
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