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1 Tips Use the Study Guide (SG) to follow the lectures Lectures will be posted after class Reading the SG before class will be helpful Use the textbook to supplement lectures/sg

2 The Nervous System N E U R O N S A N D T H E N E R V O U S I M P U L S E

3 The Nervous System Cooperates with endocrine system Senses environment Responds to changes in environment Maintains homeostasis The nervous system is responsible for all our behaviors, memories, and movements

4 Functions of the Nervous System 1. Sensory input Information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes 2. Integration Interpretation of sensory input 3. Motor output Activation of effector organs (muscles and glands) produces a response

5 Sensory input Integration Motor output Figure 11.1

6 Organization Central Nervous System 1. Brain 2. Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System 1. Afferent (sensory) 2. Efferent (motor) a. Somatic b. Autonomic i. Sympathetic ii. Parasympathetic

7 Major Structures of the Nervous System Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 7

8 Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Integrative and control centers Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Cranial nerves and spinal nerves Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body Sensory (afferent) division Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS Motor (efferent) division Motor nerve fibers Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands) Somatic sensory fiber Skin Visceral sensory fiber Stomach Skeletal muscle Motor fiber of somatic nervous system Somatic nervous system Somatic motor (voluntary) Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Visceral motor (involuntary) Conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands Sympathetic division Mobilizes body systems during activity Parasympathetic division Conserves energy Promotes housekeeping functions during rest Structure Function Sensory (afferent) division of PNS Motor (efferent) division of PNS Sympathetic motor fiber of ANS Parasympathetic motor fiber of ANS Heart Bladder Figure 11.2

9 Histology of Nervous Tissue Two principal cell types 1. Neurons = excitable cells that transmit electrical signals 2. Accessory cells (Neuroglia) = non-excitable supporting cells

10 Neurons Individual nerve cells Nerves are parallel bundles of neurons carrying impulses Types: Sensory (afferent) Motor (efferent) Association (interneurons)

11 Neuron Structure Body Dendrites Axons

12 Figure 11.4 Structure of a motor neuron. Dendrites (receptive regions) Cell body (biosynthetic center and receptive region) Neuron cell body Nucleolus Nucleus Nissl bodies Axon hillock (b) Axon (impulse generating and conducting region) Neurilemma (a) Impulse direction Schwann cell (one internode) Terminal branches Node of Ranvier Dendritic spine Axon terminals (secretory region) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 Special Characteristics of Neurons Long lived Amitotic High metabolic rate Excitable

14 Neuroglia Neuroglia About %50 of cellular mass of nervous system Do not conduct impulses Most retain capacity to divide Different types found in PNS and CNS

15 Neuroglia of Central Nervous System Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Microglial cells Ependymal cells

16 Astrocytes Most abundant of CNS neuroglia Contact blood vessels Blood Brain Barrier regulates passage of molecules

17 Capillary Neuron Astrocyte Astrocytes are the most abundant of CNS neuroglia. Provide most structural support Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.3a

18 Astrocytes

19 Oligodendrocytes Branched cells Processes wrap CNS nerve fibers, forming insulating myelin sheaths

20 Myelin sheath Process of oligodendrocyte Nerve fibers Oligodendrocytes have processes that form myelin sheaths around CNS nerve fibers. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.3d

21 Oligodendrocytes

22 Ependymal Cells Line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column Form cerebrospinal fluid Separate the CNS interstitial fluid from the cerebrospinal fluid in the cavities

23 Fluid-filled cavity Ependymal cells line cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavities. Ependymal cells Brain or spinal cord tissue Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.3c

24

25 Microglia Small, ovoid cells with thorny processes Migrate toward injured neurons Phagocytize microorganisms and neuronal debris Add these to your list!

26 Neuron Microglial cell (b) Microglial cells are defensive cells in the CNS. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.3b

27 Neuroglia of PNS Satellite cells Surround neuron cell bodies in the PNS Schwann cells Surround peripheral nerve fibers and form myelin sheaths Vital to regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve fibers

28 Satellite cells Cell body of neuron Schwann cells (forming myelin sheath) Nerve fiber Satellite cells and Schwann cells (which form myelin) surround neurons in the PNS. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.3e

29 More on Schwann cells Myelin Sheath Neurilemma Nodes of Ranvier

30 Structure of a Multipolar Neuron Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 30

31 Schwann cell plasma membrane Schwann cell cytoplasm Axon 1 A Schwann cell envelopes an axon. Schwann cell nucleus 2 The Schwann cell then rotates around the axon, wrapping its plasma membrane loosely around it in successive layers. Neurilemma Myelin sheath (a) Myelination of a nerve fiber (axon) 3 The Schwann cell cytoplasm is forced from between the membranes. The tight membrane wrappings surrounding the axon form the myelin sheath. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.5a

32 The Nervous Impulse Dependent upon a resting potential across the cell membrane Active transport carriers (Sodium/Potassium pump) Polarization of neuron Impulse results from depolarization

33 Factors that contribute to resting membrane potential Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 33

34 The concentrations of Na + and K + on each side of the membrane are different. The Na + concentration is higher outside the cell. Outside cell K + (5 mm ) Na + (140 mm ) The K + concentration is higher inside the cell. The permeabilities of Na + and K + across the membrane are different. K + K + K + (140 mm ) Inside cell K + leakage channels Na + (15 mm ) Na + -K + ATPases (pumps) maintain the concentration gradients of Na + and K + across the membrane. Suppose a cell has only K + channels... K + loss through abundant leakage channels establishes a negative membrane potential. K + K + Cell interior 90 mv K + K + Na + Now, let s add some Na + channels to our cell... Na + entry through leakage channels reduces the negative membrane potential slightly. K K + Na + Na+-K+ pump K + K + Na + Cell interior 70 mv Finally, let s add a pump to compensate for leaking ions. Na + -K + ATPases (pumps) maintain the concentration gradients, resulting in the resting membrane potential. K + K + Na + Cell interior 70 mv Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.8

35 Voltmeter Plasma membrane Ground electrode outside cell Microelectrode inside cell Axon Neuron Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.7

36 The Nervous Impulse Polarization Depolarization Hyperpolarization Polarity is dependent upon channels within the membrane (K + and Na + )

37 Depolarizing stimulus Inside positive Inside negative Depolarization Resting potential Time (ms) (a) Depolarization: The membrane potential moves toward 0 mv, the inside becoming less negative (more positive). This increases the probability of nerve impulse production. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.9a

38 Hyperpolarizing stimulus Resting potential Hyperpolarization Time (ms) (b) Hyperpolarization: The membrane potential increases, the inside becoming more negative. This decreases the probability of nerve impulse production. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.9b

39 Membrane Channels Chemically gated (ligand gated) Voltage gated

40 Receptor Na + Neurotransmitter chemical attached to receptor Na + Na + Na + Chemical binds Membrane voltage changes K + K + Closed Open (a) Chemically (ligand) gated ion channels open when the appropriate neurotransmitter binds to the receptor, allowing (in this case) simultaneous movement of Na + and K +. Closed Open (b) Voltage-gated ion channels open and close in response to changes in membrane voltage. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.6

41 The Graded Potential Short lived, localized changes in membrane potential due to stimulation Channels open Ions flow Short distance signals May be depolarization or hyperpolarization events

42 Depolarized region Stimulus Plasma membrane (a) Depolarization: A small patch of the membrane (red area) has become depolarized. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.10a

43 (b) Spread of depolarization: The local currents (black arrows) that are created depolarize adjacent membrane areas and allow the wave of depolarization to spread. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.10b

44 Membrane potential (mv) Active area (site of initial depolarization) 70 Resting potential Distance (a few mm) (c) Decay of membrane potential with distance: Because current is lost through the leaky plasma membrane, the voltage declines with distance from the stimulus (the voltage is decremental ). Consequently, graded potentials are short-distance signals. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.10c

45 Long distance signal Action Potential Initiated by sufficient depolarization at site of graded potential Involves opening of voltage gated channels Does not decrease in strength with distance All or none phenomenon Also called a nerve impulse

46 Figure 11.4 Structure of a motor neuron. Dendrites (receptive regions) Cell body (biosynthetic center and receptive region) Neuron cell body Nucleolus Nucleus Nissl bodies Axon hillock (b) Axon (impulse generating and conducting region) Neurilemma (a) Impulse direction Schwann cell (one internode) Terminal branches Node of Ranvier Dendritic spine Axon terminals (secretory region) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Figure Action Potential (5 of 5) The events Sodium channel Na + Potassium channel Na + Activation gates Inactivation gate 1 Resting state K + Na + K + K + 4 Hyperpolarization Na + 2 Depolarization K + 3 Repolarization Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 Membrane potential (mv) The big picture 1 Resting state 2 Depolarization 3 Repolarization 3 4 Hyperpolarization 2 Action potential Threshold Time (ms) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure (1 of 5)

49 Conduction Velocity Axon diameter Degree of myelination

50 Myelinated Neurons Nodes of Ranvier Saltatory conduction

51 Stimulus Size of voltage (a) In a bare plasma membrane (without voltage-gated channels), as on a dendrite, voltage decays because current leaks across the membrane. Stimulus Voltage-gated ion channel (b) In an unmyelinated axon, voltage-gated Na + and K + channels regenerate the action potential at each point along the axon, so voltage does not decay. Conduction is slow because movements of ions and of the gates of channel proteins take time and must occur before voltage regeneration occurs. Stimulus Myelin sheath Node of Ranvier 1 mm (c) In a myelinated axon, myelin keeps current in axons (voltage doesn t decay much). APs are generated only in the nodes of Ranvier and appear to jump rapidly from node to node. Myelin sheath Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.15

52 Study Guide: Nerves 8-5 2b. should read. and also use considerably LESS energy.

53 Refractory Period Neuron cannot respond to a second stimulus During repolarization Limits number of impulses per second

54 Absolute refractory period Relative refractory period Depolarization (Na + enters) Repolarization (K + leaves) After-hyperpolarization Stimulus Time (ms) Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 11.14

55 Stimuli that Initiate Action Potentials Sensory Neurons Light Heat Chemicals Mechanical energy Motor and Association Neurons Chemical stimuli from other neurons Threshold stimulus always required

56 Coding for Stimulus Intensity All Action Potentials are independent of stimulus strength CNS must discern strong from weak signals to initiate appropriate response Stimulus intensity is coded for by frequency of action potentials

57 Questions? Homework due in lab Lab Exercise 17 pg. s #1-10 Please bring your Physio-Ex CD to lab

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