2 - The majority of CNS tumors (brain and spinal cord are primary) - Only one fourth to one half are metastatic - Tumors of the CNS account nearly 20% of all cancers of childhood.
3 - 70% of all childhood tumors arise infratentorially - About 70% of all CNS tumors in adults arise supratentorially
4 - The clinical course of brain tumors is strongly influenced by : 1. Patterns of growth - Some glial tumors with low grade histologic features may infiltrate large portions of brain and lead to serious clinical deficits and may not be amenable to surgical resection
5 2. Location of the tumor: - Any CNS neoplasm regardless of its histologic grade may have lethal consequences if situated in a critical brain region - For example a benign meningioma may cause cardiorespiratory arrest if originate in the medulla oblongata because it may compress vital centers
6 - The highly malignant gliomas rarely metastasize outside the CNS - Tumors such as ependymomas and medulloblastomas are able to spread through CSF if they encroach upon the subarachnoid space ; therefore may be associated with implantation along the brain and spinal cord away from the original tumor site
7 - Treatment protocols of CNS tumors are usually based on WHO classification, which segregates tumors into four grades according to their biologic behavior from grade I to IV
8 Tumors of he CNS are classified into: I. Gliomas II.Neuronal tumors III.Poorly differentiated tumors IV.Germ cell tumors V.Primary CNS lymphoma VI.Meningiomas
9 I. Gliomas - Is the most common group of primary brain tumors - This group include : 1. Astrocytomas, 2. Oligodendrogliomas, 3. Ependymomas
10 1. Astrocytoma : - The two major categories of astrocytic tumors area; A. Infiltrating astrocytomas B. Localized Astrocytomas
11 A. Infiltrating Astrocytomas - Account for about 80% of adult primary brain tumors - Are usually found in the cerebral hemispheres - Most often arise in the fourth through sixth decades
12 - Infiltrating astrocytomas show a spectrum of histologic differentiation that correlate well with the clinical course and outcome - Are classified into a. Well-differentiated astrocytomas(who grade II) b.anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO GRADE III) c. Glioblastoma (WHO grade IV)
13 Morphology a. Well-differentiated astrocytomas(who grade II) - Have a cellular density that is greater than the normal white matter - The tumor cells are separated by astrocytic processes (called fibrillary background) - These astrocytic processes are positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostain
14 - Show minimal degree of pleomorphism - The transition between neoplastic and normal tissue is indistinct, therefore the tumor cells can be seen infiltrating normal tissue at some distance from the main lesion
15 Glioma: uneven cell distribution
17 b. Anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO GRADE III) show: 1. Are more densely cellular 2. The cells have greater nuclear pleomorphism 3. Increased mitoses are often observed (The most important feature) that distinguishes this grade from grade II
20 c. Glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) - It has a histologic appearance similar to anaplastic astrocytoma with the additional features of: a. Pseudopalisading necrosis - The neoplastic cells collect along the edges of the necrotic regions a. and /or b. Microvasular proliferation
25 Clinical features of astrocytomas: - The most common presenting signs and symptoms of infiltrating astrocytomas are: i. Seizures, ii. ii. Headaches Focal neurologic deficits related to the anatomic site of involvement
26 Well differentiated grade II astrocytoma - May remain stable or progress only slowly over a number of years - The mean survival rate is more than 5 years - Eventually, clinical deterioration occurs
27 Glioblastoma Glioblatomas are either: 1.Primary - The patients develop it from the start - Is the most common type of glioblastoma 2. Secondary - Progress from lower grades
28 - The prognosis for glioblastoma is poor, although the use of newer therapeutic drugs has provided some benefits - With current treatment consisting of resection followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the mean length of survival has increased to 15 months - 25% of such patients are alive after 2 years
29 Genetic Changes in astrocytomas 1. In low grade astrocytomas(grade II) - Mutations that alter the enzymatic activity of two isoforms of the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenases(idh1 and IDH2)
30 2. In glioblastomas - Loss of function mutation in p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathway
31 2. Pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I - Are distinguished from other types by their gross and microscopic appearance and relatively benign behavior - Typically occur in children and young adults - Are usually located in the cerebellum
32 Other locations: a. Floor and walls of the third ventricle b. The optic pathways (called optic glioma) c. Spinal cord and occasionally the cerebral hemispheres.
33 Morphology of pilocytic astrocytoma Gross: - Well circumscribed - Is often cystic, with a mural nodule in the wall of the cyst
34 Pilocytic astrocytoma
35 Pilocytic astrocytoma
36 Microscopically, - The tumor is composed of a. Hypercellular areas composed of bipolar astrocytes with with long, thin "hairlike " processes that are GFAP positive b. Hypocellular areas formed of microcysts. c. Rosenthal fibers d. No necrosis or mitoses
37 Clinical features of pilocytic astrocytoma - These tumors grow very slowly, and in the cerebellum particularly are treated by resection - Tumors that extend to the hypothalamus region from the optic tract can have a more omnious clinical course because of their location
38 B. Oligodendroglioma - These are infiltrating gliomas comprised of cells that resemble oligodendrocytes - These tumors constitute about 5% to 15% of gliomas - Are most common in the fourth and fifth decades.
39 Morphology Gross - Are infiltrative tumors - may show cysts, hemorrhage, and calcification. Note: Is the most common CNS tumor showing calcification
40 B.Oligodendroglioma On microscopic examination, 1. Grade II oligodendroglioma: - Is composed of sheets of regular cells with spherical nuclei - The nuclei are surrounded by a clear halo of cytoplasm - The cells are separated by a delicate network anastomosing capillaries
41 Grade II oligodendroglioma
42 2. Grade III anaplastic oligodendroglioma - Characterized a. And/or microvascular proliferation b. And/ or necrosis
43 Clinical features - Patients may have had several years of neurologic complaints, often including seizures. - The lesions are found mostly in the cerebral hemispheres, mainly in the frontal or temporal lobes - Patients have better prognosis than astrocytomas of similar grade
44 - Individuals with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas have an overall worse prognosis - Progression from low to higher grade lesion occurs, typically over about 6 years
45 Genetic Changes - The most common genetic findings in oligodendrogliomas is 1p19q codeletion - Tumors with just those specific changes have a consistent and long-lasting response to chemotherapy and radiation
46 C. Ependymoma - Ependymomas are tumors that most often arise next to the ependyma-lined ventricular system, including the oftobliterated central canal of the spinal cord
47 In the first 2 decades of life - Typically arise from the floor of the fourth ventricle and constitutes 5%-10% of all primary brain tumors in this age group In adults, - The spinal cord is the most common location
48 Microscopically: 1. Grade II epenymomas - Are well circumscribed gliomas - Composed of cells with regular, round to oval nuclei - Between the nuclei there is a variably dense fibrillary background
49 - Tumor cells may a. Form gland like round or elongated structiure (canals, rosettes) that resemble the embryologic ependymal canal (true rosettes) - Are specific to ependymomas
50 a. Form pseudovascular rosettes - In which tumor cells are arranged around blood vessels with an intervening zone consisting of ependyma rosettes directed toward the wall of the blood vessels - More frequently seen - Not specific to ependymoma
52 True Rosettes of ependymoma
53 Perivascular pseudo rosettes
54 2. Anaplastic ependymomas (grade III) show : 3. Myxopapilllary ependymoma ( grade I ) - that arise in the filum terminale - and has good prognosis but tends to recur if not completely excised
55 - Although fourth ventricular tumors are relatively well circumscribed, their proximity to vital pontine and medullary nuclei make complete resection is impossible - Spinal cord ependymomas have better prognosis than ventricular ependymoma because can be resected
56 Molecular genetics In the spinal cord ependymomas - NF2 gene on chromosome 22 is commonly mutated
57 II. Neuronal Tumors 1. Central neurocytoma (grade II) - Is a low-grade neuronal neoplasm - Found within and adjacent to the ventricular system (most commonly at the level of foramen of Munro)
58 2. Gangliogliomas - Are tumors with a mixture of glial elements (looking like a low-grade astrocytoma) and mature-appearing neurons. - Most of these tumors are slow growing, - These lesions often present with seizures
59 III. Embryonal primitive neoplasms A. Medulloblastoma B. Cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor common is the medulloblastoma,
60 A. Medulloblastoma (WHO grade IV) - Accounts for 20% of pediatric brain tumors. - Occurs predominantly in children - and exclusively in the cerebellum. - The tumor is highly malignant,
61 Morphology - In children, medulloblastomas are located in the midline of the cerebellum (vermis) but may extend to the surface of the cerebellar folia and involving the leptomeninges - Lateral tumors (in cerebellar hemispheres) occur more often in adults.
62 Microscopically a. Are extremely cellular b. Sheets of anaplastic ("small blue") cells c. The tumor cells are small with little cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei c. Mitoses are abundant. d. May show Homer-wright rosettes as evidence of neuronal differentiation
63 - The prognosis for untreated patients is dismal - It is radiosensitive - With total excision and radiation, the 5- year survival rate may be as high as 75%.
66 . B. Tumors of similar histology can be found elsewhere in the nervous system (called CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or CNS PNET )
67 VI. Meningiomas : (extraxial tumor) - They occur in adults - Are predominantly benign tumors that arise from arachnoid cap cells and attached to the dura. - May be found along any of the external surfaces of the brain as well as within the ventricular system, where they arise from the arachnoid cells of the choroid plexus.
68 - Clinically they either present with vague non-localizing symptoms, or with focal findings referable to compression of adjacent brain.
69 - The overall prognosis is determined by the location, surgical accessibility, and histologic grade. - When a person has multiple meningiomas,with bilateral vestibular schwannomas or spinal ependymoma, the diagnosis of NF2 syndrome should be considered
70 - Menigiomas are classified into 3 grades - The majority of meningiomas are WHO grade 1 Gross-: WHO grade I grow as well-defined dura-based masses that may compress the brain but do not invade it and extension into the overlying bone may be present and does not upgrade the tumor to grade II.
71 Microscopic - Oval cells with indistinct borders and - Intranuclear pseudoinclusions - arranged in syncytia with whorling
74 Grade I - No more than 3 mitotic figures/10hpf 2. Grade II meningeoma are recognized by either: A. Mitotic figures of more than 3 but less than 20 per 10 HPF(high power fields)
75 B. Or presence of 3 of the following 5 atypical features 1. Small cells, 2. Prominent nucleoli, 3. Sheeting 4. Hypercellularity, 5. Spontaneous necrosis not induced by embolization
Understanding general brain tumor pathology, Part I: The basics Craig Horbinski, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Pathology University of Kentucky plan of attack what IS a pathologist, anyway? what s so special
Multiple Primary and Histology Site Specific Coding Rules MALIGNANT CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM TUMORS 1 Prerequisites 2 Completion of Multiple Primary and Histology General Coding Rules 3 There are many ways
Anaplastic Pilocytic Astrocytoma: The fusion of good and bad Alexandrina Nikova 1, Charalampos-Chrysovalantis Chytoudis-Peroudis 2, Penelope Korkolopoulou 3 and Dimitrios Kanakis 4 Abstract 5 Pilocytic
Pediatric Brain Tumors: Updates in Treatment and Care Writer Classroom Rishi R. Lulla, MD MS Objectives Introduce the common pediatric brain tumors Discuss current treatment strategies for pediatric brain
IF THIS IS NOT GLIOBLASTOMA, THEN WHAT IS IT? Murat Gokden, MD Department of Pathology/Neuropathology University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, AR firstname.lastname@example.org I have no conflicts of
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23:243 247, February 2002 Case Report Astroblastoma: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation and Distinction from Ependymoma John D. Port, Daniel J. Brat, Peter C. Burger, and Martin G.
BAH1 - Primary Glioblastoma R frontal tumour for frozen section. No known primary. Contrast enhancing lesion. Cholecystectomy. FROZEN SECTION REPORT Right frontal tumour: The specimen consists of multiple
1 NORMAL ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF THE CNS Anatomy 1 Histology 4 ANATOMY Knowledge of nervous system anatomy is essential for success in surgical neuropathology. Familiarity with native cellular elements
Morphological features and genetic alterations Tutor : Audrey Rousseau Caget Lise: Université d Angers Iorio Vittoria: Seconda Università degli studi di Napoli Manaila Roxana: Iuliu Hatieganu University
Intraventricular Lesions LTC Robert Shih Chief of Neuroradiology Walter Reed National Military Medical Center special thanks to LTC Alice Smith (retired) 12 year old male presents with ataxia and headaches
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine Volume 2013, Article ID 815923, 4 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/815923 Case Report Atypical Presentation of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in a Child Y. T.
Nonepithelial Tumors General Definitions Mesenchymal Tumors These tumors consist of tissues that originate in the middle germ layer or mesoderm, primarily from the pluripotential supporting tissue of the
Pediatric CNS Tumors Disclosures Whitney Finke, MD Neuroradiology Fellow PGY-6 University of Utah Health Sciences Center Salt Lake City, Utah None Acknowledgements Introduction Nicholas A. Koontz, MD Luke
PRINCESS MARGARET CANCER CENTRE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM MENINGIOMA CNS Site Group Meningioma Author: Dr. Norm Laperriere Date: February 20, 2018 1. INTRODUCTION 3 2. PREVENTION
Dr.Dafalla Ahmed Babiker Jazan University Brain tumors are the second commonest malignancy in children Infratentorial tumors are more common As a general rule they do not metastasize out of the CNS, but
Pediatric Brain Tumors Pre, Intra & Post Op Evaluation and Management Timothy M. George, MD, FACS, FAAP PEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMORS BACKGROUND: Incidence: Third most common pediatric tumor type (leukemia, neuroblastoma,
Gliomas in the 2016 WHO Classification of CNS Tumors Hindi N Al-Hindi, MD, FCAP Consultant Neuropathologist and Head Section of Anatomic Pathology Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine King Faisal
Neuro-oncology Update 2013 Andrew Kokkino, MD Medical Director, The Neurosciences Institute at Sacred Heart at Riverbend May 20, 2013 Case 1 58 year old man with recent facial droop and HA s Thin, cachectic
Slide 1 Data Collection of Primary Central Nervous System Tumors 1 In this presentation we are going to review many of the principles for abstracting CNS tumors. Many of the slides apply to non-malignant
USCAP Neuropathology night panel CASE 4 B.K. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters MD University of Colorado Denver Denver, Colorado Sheep Mountain, Telluride, Colorado Clinical History The patient is a 46 year old male
Anatomy and Physiology (Bio 220) The Brain Chapter 14 and select portions of Chapter 16 I. Introduction A. Appearance 1. physical 2. weight 3. relative weight B. Major parts of the brain 1. cerebrum 2.
The Radiologic Evaluation of Glioblastoma (GBM) and Differentiation from Pseudoprogression Alexis Roy, Harvard Medical School, Year III Our Patient AB: Clinical Presentation 53 year old female with a past
Detection of Leptomeningeal CNS Metastases in Children Noah D. Sabin, M.D. Julie H. Harreld M.D. Kathleen J. Helton M.D. Zoltan Patay M.D., Ph.D. St. Jude Children s Research Hospital Memphis, TN Leptomeningeal
Biological Bases of Behavior 3: Structure of the Nervous System Neuroanatomy Terms The neuraxis is an imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the front of the brain Anatomical directions are
Meningioma tumor Overview A meningioma is a type of tumor that grows from the protective membranes, called meninges, which surround the brain and spinal cord. Most meningiomas are benign (not cancer) and
X-Plain Brain Cancer Reference Summary Introduction Brain tumors are not rare. About 20,000 Americans are diagnosed with brain cancer or related cancer of the nervous system. This reference summary will
This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution
The Open Medical Imaging Journal, 2012, 6, 103-107 103 Open Access Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma with Lateral Ventricle Involvement Yumi Oie 1,*, Kazuhiro Murayama 1, Shinya Nagahisa 2, Masato
0076 Source 1: WHO Class CNS Tumors pgs: 33 MP/H Rules/Histology--Brain and CNS: What is the histology code for a tumor originating in the cerebellum and extending into the fourth ventricle described as
Introduction Primary brain tumor 6 persons/100000/year Metastatic brain tumor 6 persons/100000/year 1 in 15 primary brain tumors occur in children under 15 years In adults, the commonest tumors are gliomas,
Department of Radiology University of California San Diego Imaging the Spinal Cord & Intradural Disease John R. Hesselink, M.D. Spinal Cord Diseases Tumors Syringohydromyelia Trauma Ischemia / Infarction
My Journey into the World of Salivary Gland Sebaceous Neoplasms Douglas R. Gnepp Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University Rhode Island Hospital Pathology Department Providence RI Asked to present
Optic Pathway Gliomas, Germinomas, Spinal Cord Tumours Colin Kennedy March 2015 Glioma of the optic chiasm. T1-weighted MRI with gadolinium enhancement, showing intense irregular uptake of contrast. The
Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma Christine E. Fuller Keywords Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma; Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features 2.1 Overview Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon
ecommons@aku Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Medical College, Pakistan April 2001 Histological pattern of central nervous system neoplasms Z. Ahmed Aga Khan University S. Muzaffar Aga Khan
SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF BRAIN TUMORS JASSIN M. JOURIA, MD DR. JASSIN M. JOURIA IS A MEDICAL DOCTOR, PROFESSOR OF ACADEMIC MEDICINE, AND MEDICAL AUTHOR. HE GRADUATED FROM ROSS UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
Diseases of the breast (1 of 2) Introduction A histology introduction Normal ducts and lobules of the breast are lined by two layers of cells a layer of luminal cells overlying a second layer of myoepithelial
action potential A large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber. afferent neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses
Salivary Glands 3/7/2017 Goals and objectives Focus on the entities unique to H&N Common board type facts Information for your future practice Salivary Glands Salivary Glands Major gland. Paratid. Submandibular.
REVIEW ARTICLE The Expanding Family of Glioneuronal Tumors Daniela S. Allende, MD and Richard A. Prayson, MD Abstract: Three new entities have been recently added to the group of glioneuronal tumors in
& 2012 USCAP, Inc. All rights reserved 0893-3952/12 $32.00 1 Diagnostic implications of IDH1-R132H and OLIG2 expression patterns in rare and challenging glioblastoma variants Nancy M Joseph 1, Joanna Phillips
PRINCESS MARGARET CANCER CENTRE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LOW GRADE GLIOMAS CNS Site Group Low Grade Gliomas Author: Dr. Norm Laperriere 1. INTRODUCTION 3 2. PREVENTION 3 3. SCREENING
Neoplasia part I By Dr. Mohsen Dashti Clinical Medicine & Pathology 316 2 nd Lecture Lecture outline Review of structure & function. Basic definitions. Classification of neoplasms. Morphologic features.
Respiratory Tract Cytology 40 th European Congress of Cytology Liverpool, UK Momin T. Siddiqui M.D. Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Director of Cytopathology Emory University Hospital, Atlanta,
Disclosures Parathyroid Pathology I have nothing to disclose Annemieke van Zante MD/PhD Assistant Professor of Clinical Pathology Associate Chief of Cytopathology Objectives 1. Review the pathologic features
ISPUB.COM The Internet Journal of Radiology Volume 14 Number 1 MRI Findings Of An Atypical Cystic Meningioma A Rare Case D Saxena, P Rout, K Pavan, B Philip Citation D Saxena, P Rout, K Pavan, B Philip.
Neuro-Oncology Neuro-Oncology 17:iv1 iv62, 2015. doi:10.1093/neuonc/nov189 CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2008-2012 Quinn T.
Insight: Some cranial nerve disorders Brain and Cranial Nerves (Ch. 15) Human Anatomy lecture I. Overview (Directional terms: rostral = toward the forehead caudal = toward the spinal cord) A. 3 Major parts
We are IntechOpen, the first native scientific publisher of Open Access books 3,350 108,000 1.7 M Open access books available International authors and editors Downloads Our authors are among the 151 Countries
Case Reports in Radiology Volume 2016, Article ID 6434623, 4 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6434623 Case Report Intracranial Capillary Hemangioma in the Posterior Fossa of an Adult Male Jordan Nepute,
Selected Pseudomalignant Soft Tissue Tumors of the Skin and Subcutis Andrew L. Folpe, M.D. Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN email@example.com 2016 MFMER slide-1
Radioterapia no Tratamento dos Gliomas de Baixo Grau Dr. Luis Souhami University Montreal - Canada Low Grade Gliomas Relatively rare Heterogeneous, slow growing tumors WHO Classification Grade I Pilocytic
C14 / CNS / MC3 What two stuctures make up the central nervous system? The CNS starts embryonic development as a neural tube. What adult structures develop from the neural tube? What structures are part
NOTES CHAPTER 9 (Brief) The Nervous System LECTURE NOTES I. Divisions of the Nervous System two major divisions A. Central Nervous System (CNS) 1. brain 2. spinal cord B. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Chapter 3 Part 1 Orientation Directions in the nervous system are described relatively to the neuraxis An imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the central nervous system, from the bottom
Brain cancer survival rate mayo clinic Ed' s Guide to Alternative Therapies. Contents: Acai Berries Acupuncture Artemisinin for cancer Beta-mannan to reverse dysplasia of the cervix Anti-Malignin antibody.
CEREBRO SPINAL FLUID ANALYSIS IN BRAIN TUMOUR Sankar K 1, Shankar N 2, Anushya 3, ShymalaDevi 4, Purvaja 5 3,4,5 III Biomedical Student, Alpha college of Engineering, Chennai. firstname.lastname@example.org 1,
DelMarVa-DC Regional Cancer Registrar s Educational Meeting Doordan Conference Center Anne Arundel Medical Center Annapolis, MD TNM Transition Updates & News from SEER Peggy Adamo, RHIT, CTR NCI SEER email@example.com
AMERICAN BRAIN TUMOR ASSOCIATION Proton Therapy ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABOUT THE AMERICAN BRAIN TUMOR ASSOCIATION Founded in 1973, the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) was the first national nonprofit
Corporate Medical Policy Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for CNS Embryonal Tumors File Name: Origination: Last CAP Review: Next CAP Review: Last Review: hematopoietic_stem-cell_transplantation_for_cns_embryonal_tumors
Financial Disclosures I have no financial interests to disclose. Templar Eye Foundation Oppenheimer Family Foundation 2 Case 7 year old girl Initially parents noticed photophobia Then started to complain
Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Unit 7b Chetek High School Mrs. Michaelsen 9.12 Meninges A. Meninges 1. The organs of the CNS are covered by membranes a. The meninges are divided into 3 layers:
Childhood brain tumours Our bodies are made up of billions of cells. Normally, these cells reproduce and repair themselves in a controlled way and do not cause us any problems. However, if this process
RINGS N THINGS: Imaging Patterns in Differential Diagnosis Anne G. Osborn, M.D. ExpDDxs: Intra-axial (Parenchymal) Lesions Ring-enhancing lesions, solitary 1 Ring-enhancing lesion crossing corpus callosum
Kidney Case 1 Surgical Pathology Report February 9, 2007 Clinical History: This 45 year old woman was found to have a left renal mass. CT urography with reconstruction revealed a 2 cm medial mass which
30 5 Diagnostic Criteria Criteria of Malignancy Table 5.2 lists criteria in contrast-enhancing MR mammography that strongly indicate the presence of malignancy or are unspecific. Unifactorial evaluation
Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal- Glial and Embryonal Tumors Alexander R. Judkins, MD, FRCP (Edin) Pathologist-in-Chief Children s Hospital Los Angeles Associate Professor (Clinical Scholar) & Vice Chair Department
www.rcr.ac.uk Recommendations for cross-sectional imaging in cancer management, Second edition Tumours of the spinal cord Faculty of Clinical Radiology www.rcr.ac.uk Contents Primary spinal cord tumours