Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. Seventh Edition. The Nervous System. Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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1 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Seventh Edition The Nervous System Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

2 Functions of the Nervous System 1. Sensory input gathering information To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body (changes = stimuli), has millions of receptors to do this. 2. Integration to process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed. 3. Motor output A response to integrated stimuli, activating muscles or glands Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.1a

3 Figure 7.1 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.3a

4 Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System Motor output - two subdivisions 1. Somatic nervous system = voluntary 2. Autonomic nervous system = involuntary Figure 7.1 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.3c

5 The Brain Figure 7.12 Ms. Cox Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.27

6 Objectives 1. Record notes from powerpoint 2. Label the 4 main regions and 4 lobes of the brain on a diagram 3. Match brain structures (form) to function 4. Explain where sensory information is sent in the body Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.30

7 Structural Classification of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) -brain, spinal cord -Interprets stimulus and initiates a response. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) -Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord -Carry the message of the CNS

8 Nervous system The brain is a major component of the human nervous system

9 Nervous system 1. conducts stimuli from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord and that [2.]conducts impulses back to other parts of the body (Encyclopedia Britannica)

10 Organ Location The brain is located in the cranium (skull)

11 4 Main Regions of the Brain (Gross Anatomy) 1.Cerebrum 2.Limbic System 3. Brain stem 4. Cerebellum Altogether weighs about 3lbs.

12 4 Main Regions of the Brain (Gross Anatomy) 1.Cerebrum Largest part divided into two hemispheres, this hosts higher-order thinking skills, sensory processing, and control of movement

13 Main Regions of the Brain (Gross Anatomy) 2. 4Limbic System Deep to the cerebrum, this regulates involuntary functions essential to the endocrine system, to maintaining homeostasis

14 4 Main Regions of the Brain (Gross Anatomy) 3. Brain stem Connected to the spinal cord, this regulates basic survival functions, including breathing and heart rate

15 4 Main Regions of the Brain (Gross Anatomy) 4. Cerebellum This "little brain" helps To regulate movement of muscles, needed for balance, speech, and coordination

16

17 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex: outermost (superficial) layer of brain tissue in the cerebrum Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.30

18 Microscopic Anatomy of Cerebral Cortex

19 Neurons: the head honchos neurons = nerve cells Cells specialized to transmit messages from one cell to another. Has typical cell parts except No centrioles b\c no division why not? Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.8

20 Lobes of the Cerebrum Figure 7.15a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide

21

22 Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum) Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain Four lobes named for bone they lie under: -frontal -parietal -occipital -temporal. Figure 7.13a Slide

23 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Frontal lobe: cognition (thought), behavior, emotion Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.30

24 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Parietal lobe: integration of sensory info; perception of body with sensory info; senses of taste and speech Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.30

25 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum temporal lobe: memory and emotions, senses of smell and auditory association Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.30

26 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum occipital lobe: visual processing center Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.30

27 Cerebral Cortex -Top layer made up of wrinkles and fissures -Folds allow for a greater surface area -Large cerebral cortex is distinct quality of human brains -composed of densely packed neurons

28 Sulci -sulcus: (singular) groove in the cerebral cortex central sulci lateral sulci

29 Fissure -longitudinal fissure: long, narrow opening between two cerebral hemispheres

30 Left vs. Right Hemisphere Left hemisphere controls right side of body Right hemisphere controls left side of body

31 Left-brained vs. Right-brained?

32 Left-brained vs. Right-brained?

33 Hemispheres communicate across the longitudinal fissure

34 Lobes of the Cerebrum Figure 7.15a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide

35 Specialized Area of the Cerebrum Figure 7.13c Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide

36 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum The brain is both anatomically and functionally segregated. Different functions are located in particular regions of the of the cortex Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide

37 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum The brain is both anatomically and functionally segregated. Different functions are located in particular regions of the of the cortex Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide

38 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Primary Motor Area: controls final output from brain to spinal cord for voluntary control of muscular movement

39 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Premotor Cortex: planning of movement

40 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Sensory Speech: ability to understand language

41 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Motor Speech: ability to produce meaningful language

42 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Auditory Cortex: input from the ears, on both sides of brain, organized by tone

43 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Visual Cortex: perception of vision, analysis of vision

44 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Visual Association Area: above the primary visual area of the occipital lobe

45 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Common Integrative Area: receives and interprets nerve impulses from the somatosensory, visual, and auditory association areas

46 Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum Somatosensory Area: perception of touch from surface of body

47 Lab Activity: Gross Anatomy of the Brain

48

49

50

51 Sensory and Motor Homunculus of the Cerebral Cortex Larger amounts of gyri = more nerves going to! Figure 7.14 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.31

52 Lobes of the Cerebrum Figure 7.15a Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide

53 Organization of the Nervous System Figure 7.2 Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 7.4

54 Simple Reflex Arc Simple= no interneuron so fast Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Three neuron (spinal)= needs an interneuron so Slide 7.24 slower

55 Simple Reflex Arc Simple= no interneuron so fast Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Three neuron (spinal)= needs an interneuron so Slide 7.24 slower

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