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1 Haploid sperm Fertilization Paternal Maternal Diploid zygote Haploid egg 1 Sperm (haploid) n MEIOSIS MEIOSIS Egg (haploid) n n 2n FERTILIZAOTIN Zygote Germ-line Somatic Germ-line Adult male Adult female 2

2 Homologues Kinetochore Centromere Synaptonemal complex duplication Diploid cell a. Synaptonemal complex Meiosis I Meiosis II Haploid b. 138 nm c. b: Reprinted, with permission, from the Annual Review of Genetics, Volume by Annual Reviews, 3 Site of crossover 4

3 Mitosis Meiosis I Chiasmata hold s together. The kinetochores of sister chromatids fuse and function as one. Microtubules can attach to only one side of each centromere. Metaphase Homologues do not pair; kinetochores of sister chromatids remain separate; microtubules attach to both kinetochores on opposite sides of the centromere. Anaphase Microtubules pull the homologous apart, but sister chromatids are held together. Microtubules pull sister chromatids apart. 5 6

4 MEIOSIS I Prophase I (replicated) Telophase I Kinetochore microtubule Sister chromatids Spindle Paired homologous Chiasmata Nonidentical sister chromatids Homologue pair on metaphase plate In prophase I of meiosis I, the begin to condense, and the spindle of microtubules begins to form. The DN A has been replicated, and each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids attached at the centromere. In the cell illustrated here, there are four, or two pairs of s. pair up and become closely associated during synapsis. Crossing over occurs, forming chiasmata, which hold homologous together. In metaphase I, the pairs of homologous align along the metaphase plate. Chiasmata help keep the pairs together and produce tension when microtubules from opposite poles attach to sister kinetochores of each. A kinetochore microtubule from one pole of the cell attaches to one of a chromosome, while a kinetochore microtubule from the other cell pole attaches to the other of a pair. In anaphase I, kinetochore microtubules shorten, and homologous pairs are pulled apart. One duplicated goes to one pole of the cell, while the other duplicated goes to the other pole. Sister chromatids do not separate.this is in contrast to mitosis, where duplicated s line up individually on the metaphase plate, kinetochore microtubules from opposite poles of the cell attach to opposite sides of one 's centromere, and sister chromatids are pulled apart in anaphase. In telophase I, the separated s form a cluster at each pole of the cell, and the nuclear envelope re-forms around each daughter cell nucleus. Cytokinesis may occur. The resulting two have half the number of as the original cell: In this example, each nucleus contains two (versus four in the original cell). Each chromosome is still in the duplicated state and consists of two sister chromatids, but sister chromatids are not identical because crossing over has occurred. 7 Clare A. Hasenkampf/Biological Photo Service MEIOSIS II Prophase II I Spindle Nuclear membrane breaking down Following a typically brief interphase, with no S phase, meiosis II begins. During prophase II, a new spindle apparatus forms in each cell, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. In some species the nuclear envelope does not re-form in telophase I removing the need for nuclear envelope breakdown. Telophase II I In metaphase II, a completed spindle apparatus is in place in each cell. s consisting of sister chromatids joined at the centromere align along the metaphase plate in each cell. No w, kinetochore microtubules from opposite poles attach to kinetochores of sister chromatids. Nuclear membrane re-forming Kinetochore microtubule When microtubules shorten in anaphase II, the centromeres split, and sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the. Clare A. Hasenkampf/Biological Photo Service In telophase II, the nuclear membranes re-form around four di f ferent clusters of. After cytokinesis, four haploid result. No two are alike due to the random alignment of homologous pairs at metaphase I and crossing over during prophase I. 8

5 MEIOSIS I Prophase I Telophase I Parent cell (2n) Paternal replication pair; synapsis and crossing over occur. Paired homologous align on metaphase plate. separate; sister chromatids remain together. Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase replication Maternal Two daughter (each 2n) do not pair. Individual s align on metaphase plate. separate, cytokinesis occurs, and two result, each containing theoriginal number of s. 9 MEIOSIS II Prophase II I I Telophase II Four daughter (each n) s align, sister chromatids separate, and four haploid result, each containing half the original number of s. 10

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