3 Limits to Cell Growth The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA. In addition, the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane. The rate at which food, oxygen, water, and wastes are moved in and out of the cell is dependent on the surface area of the cell. The rate at which food, oxygen, and water are used and waste is produced depends on the cell s volume. 3
4 Ratio of Surface Area to Volume As the length of a cell increases, its volume increases faster than the surface area. The decrease in the cell s ratio of surface area to volume makes it more difficult for the cell to move needed materials in and waste products out quickly enough for the cell to survive. 4
5 If a cell got too large, it would be more difficult to get oxygen in and waste products out. Volume increases faster than surface area.
6 Limits to Cell Growth p
7 Division of the Cell Before it becomes too large, a growing cell divides forming two daughter cells. The process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells is called cell division. 7
8 10-2 Cell Division 8
9 Cell Division In eukaryotes, cell division occurs in two major stages. The first stage, division of the cell nucleus, is called mitosis. The second stage, division of the cell cytoplasm, is called cytokinesis. Most eukaryotic cells go through a regular cycle of interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis has four phases: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. The events shown are typical of animal cells. 9
10 Chromosomes Genetic information is passed from one generation to the next on chromosomes. Each organism has a specific number of chromosomes. During cell division chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Before cell division, each chromosome is duplicated, or copied. 10
11 Chromosomes Each chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids. Each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the centromere. When the cell divides, the chromatids separate. Each new cell gets one chromatid. Sister chromatids Centromere 11
12 The Cell Cycle The cell cycle is the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide. Interphase is the period of growth that occurs between cell divisions. 12
13 The Cell Cycle During the cell cycle: a cell grows prepares for division divides to form two daughter cells, each of which begins the cycle again The cell cycle consists of four phases: G 1 (First Gap Phase) S Phase G 2 (Second Gap Phase) M Phase 13
14 Events of the Cell Cycle During G 1, the cell increases in size synthesizes new proteins and organelles During the S phase, chromosomes are replicated DNA synthesis takes place Once a cell enters the S phase, it usually completes the rest of the cell cycle. 14
15 Events of the Cell Cycle The G 2 Phase (Second Gap Phase) organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced Short phase Once G 2 is complete, the cell is ready to start the M phase Mitosis 15
16 Cell division Cell division is made up of 2 parts. 1. Mitosis division of the nucleus. Divided into 4 phases. 2. Cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm.
17 Cell Cycle As the length of a cell increases, its volume increases faster than its surface area. The resulting decrease in the cell s ratio of surface area to volume makes it more difficult for the cell to move needed materials in and waste products out. M Phase 17
18 Mitosis Biologists divide the events of mitosis into four phases: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase 18
21 Prophase Chromosomes are visible. Centrioles separate Spindle fibers form Nuclear membrane breaks down.
22 Mitosis Prophase Prophase is the first and longest phase of mitosis. The centrioles separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus. Spindle forming Centromere Chromosomes (paired chromatids) 22
23 Mitosis The centrioles lie in a region called the centrosome. The centrosome helps to organize the spindle, a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes. Spindle forming Centromere Chromosomes (paired chromatids) 23
24 Mitosis Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. The centrioles separate and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear envelope breaks down. Spindle forming Centromere Chromosomes (paired chromatids) 24
26 Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
27 Metaphase The second phase of mitosis is metaphase. The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Microtubules connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle. Mitosis Centriole Spindle 27
29 Anaphase Chromosomes are pulled apart/away from each other.
30 Mitosis Individual chromosomes Anaphase Anaphase is the third phase of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes. The chromosomes continue to move until they have separated into two groups. 30
32 Telophase The opposite of prophase occurs. Chromosomes disappear back to chromatin Nuclear membrane reforms Spindle fibers break apart and disappear
33 Mitosis Telophase Telophase is the fourth and final phase of mitosis. Chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shape. A new nuclear envelope forms around each cluster of chromosomes. 33
34 Cytokinesis Cytokinesis Cytokinesis 34
35 Cytokinesis Cytokinesis occurs right after Mitosis and is the division of the cytoplasm.
36 During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm pinches in half. Each daughter cell has an identical set of duplicate chromosomes. Cytokinesis 36
37 Cytokinesis In plants, a structure known as the cell plate forms midway between the divided nuclei. The cell plate gradually develops into a separating membrane. A cell wall then begins to appear in the cell plate. 37
38 Cytokinesis Cell plate Cell wall 38
39 Look Familiar?? What stage of mitosis do you see? 39
40 Can you tell the phase?
43 10-3 Regulating the cell cycle Controls on Cell Division Experiments show that normal cells will reproduce until they come into contact with other cells. When cells come into contact with other cells, they respond by not growing. This demonstrates that controls on cell growth and division can be turned on and off. Similar happenings in the body when an injury such as a cut broken bone occur cells at the edge of the injury are stimulated to divide rapidly. This produces new cells starting the process of healing when healing nears completion the cell of cell division slow, controls on growth are restored and everything returns to normal 43
44 Controls on Cell Division Contact Inhibition 44
45 Cell Cycle Regulators cycle is regulated by a specific protein called cyclin regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells 45
46 Cell Cycle Regulators Cyclins were discovered during a similar experiment to this one. A sample of cytoplasm is removed from a cell in mitosis. The sample is injected into a second cell in G 2 of interphase. As a result, the second cell enters mitosis. 46
47 Internal Regulators Proteins that respond to events inside the cell allow the cell cycle to proceed only when certain processes have happened inside the cell Examples- several regulatory proteins make sure that cells do not enter mitosis until all its chromosomes have been replicated - Another regulatory protein prevents a cell from entering anaphase until all its chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle. 47
48 External Regulators Proteins that respond to events outside the cell direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle Growth factors stimulate the growth and division of cells Growth regulators are important during embryonic development and wound healing Molecules found on neighboring cells have the opposite effect causing cells to slow down or stop their cell cycles. These signals prevent excessive cell growth and keep the tissues of the body from disrupting one another 48
49 Uncontrolled Cell Growth Cancer - a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate growth; they divide uncontrollably and form masses of cells called tumors that can damage the surrounding tissues Cancer cells may break loose from tumors and spread throughout the body, disrupting normal activities and causing serious medical problems or even death 49
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