Connective Tissue (CT)

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1 Connective Tissue (CT) YONG-MEI CHEN ( 陈咏梅 ) Dept. of Anatomy, Histology & Embryology Peking Union Medical College Tel: address:

2 Content Introduction of CT 1. Origin 2. Compositions 3. Characteristics 4. Functions Structure & functions of CT 1. Cells 2. Fibers 3. Ground substances Classification of CT

3 Introduction: 1. Origin: derived from mesenchyme

4 2. Compositions: cells + extracellular matrix ground substance tissue fluid fibers

5 3. Characteristics: relative few cells with more extracellular matrix cells arranged loosely cells without polarity rich in blood vessels

6 4. Functions of CT: connecting, supporting, defense, nutrition, and repair.

7 Structure & functions of CT compositions: cells + extracellular matrix ground substance tissue fluid fibers

8 1. Cells: Resident cell population (permanent residents) e.g. fibroblast, adipocyte, undifferentiated mesenchymal cell. Wandering or transient cell population e.g. macrophage, mast cell, plasma cell, leukocyte.

9 (1) Fibroblasts: 1) Morphology:

10 active quiescent Fibroblasts Fibrocytes

11

12 3) Function: synthesis of fibers and ground substance

13 (2) Macrophages (Histiocytes): 1) Origin: 2) Morphology:

14

15 3) Functions: a. Phagocytosis: specific ~: Amoeboid mobility: chemotactic factors Recognition and binding antigens Ingestion: forming phagosome Digestion: proteolytic enzymes non-specific ~:

16 b. Secretion: c. Participating and regulating immunological reaction: Antigen-presenting cell

17 4) Mononuclear phagocyte system: a. Monocytes in the blood b. Macrophages in the CT c. Kupffer's cells in the liver d. Osteoclasts in the bone e. Microglia in the CNS f. Langhans cells in the skin g. Dendritic cell in the LN h. Alveolar macrophages in the lung

18 i. Epithelioid cells & Multinuclear giant cells:

19 (3) Plasma cells: 1) Origin: B lymphocytes 2) Morphology: cartwheel or clock-face nucleus

20 3) Function: synthesis of antibody (Ab)

21 (4) Mast cells: usually located near small blood vessels 1) Morphology: metachromasia granules

22 2) Function: a. Storage of chemical substance, including: Heparin, histamine, serine proteases, cytokines, eosinophil & neutrophil chemotactic factor. leukotrienes b. Mediating the allergic reactions.

23 Anaphylactic shock --- IgE ---

24 Release reaction:

25 (5) Adipose cells (adipocytes, fat cells): 1) Origin:

26 2) Morphology: a. Unilocular adipocytes: one large lipid droplet signet ring cells b. Multilocular adipocytes: many small lipid droplets and mitochondria

27

28

29 3) Function: a. Unilocular adipocytes energy storage, thermal insulation of the body, secretory functions (leptin) etc. b. Multilocular adipocytes A source of heat

30 (6) Leukocytes: (7) Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells:

31 2. Extracellular matrix (1) Fibers: Formed by collagen or elastin 1) Types of collagen: type I II III IV V etc. 2) Formation of collagen fibril: Amino acid a polypeptide chain 3 procollagen molecule collagen molecule fibril

32 Fibril: 64-68nm periodicity transverse striation

33 3) Classification: a. Collagen fibers: white fibers Components: type I collagen collagen fibrils collagen fibers collagen bundles

34 Characteristics: having great tensile strength and resistance to stretching

35 b. Reticular fibers: argyrophilic fibers Components: type III collagen Characteristics: stained black by silver salts impregnation; PAS-positive R C

36 c. Elastic fibers: yellow fibers Components: elastin core + microfibrils sheath

37 Characteristics: high elasticity

38 elastin Marfan Syndrome microfibrils (fibrillin, 原纤维蛋白 )

39 (2) Ground substance: multiadhesive glycoproteins glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) proteoglycans

40 1) Multiadhesive glycoproteins fibronectin laminin chondronectin

41 2) Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) a. the types of GAGs: hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, heparan sulfate, etc. b. the characteristics of GAGs: linear polymers of repeating disaccharide units composed of a hexosamine and an uronic acid, intensely hydrophilic

42 3) Proteoglycans: GAG + core protein hyaluronic acid + link proteins + proteoglycan molecular proteoglycan aggregates

43 4) Functions of ground substance: Molecular sieve: Exchange medium Reservoir of hormones Resistance to compression Gel - like barrier

44 (3) Tissue fluid: Equilibrium between formation and absorption Edema

45 Classifications of CT CT Mature CT Embryonic CT CT Proper Specialized CT Mesenchyme Mucous CT Loose CT (LCT) Regular ~ Dense CT Irregular ~ (DCT) Elastic Tissue Adipose T White (Yellow) ~ Brown ~ Reticular T Cartilage Bone Blood & lymph

46 LCT (areolar tissue) predominant component equal (cells) example hypodermis DCT fibers tendon C E Mucous CT ground substances umbilical cord LCT DCT

47 CT Proper except Loose CT: learned by yourself: Predominant component Characteristics Distribution

48 Summary Composition and characteristics of CT

49 Morphology & function of cells: (1) Fibroblasts:

50 (2) Macrophages (Histiocytes): 1) Origin: 2) Morphology & function:

51 (3) Plasma cells: 1) Origin: 2) Morphology: cartwheel or clock-face nucleus

52 (4) Mast cells: usually located near small blood vessels Morphology & function: metachromasia granules

53 (5) Morphology & function : a. Unilocular adipocytes: one large lipid droplet signet ring cells b. Multilocular adipocytes: many small lipid droplets and mitochondria

54 Classification of fibers: a. Collagen fibers: white fibers Components: type I collagen collagen fibrils collagen fibers collagen bundles Characteristics: having great tensile strength and resistance to stretching

55 b. Reticular fibers: argyrophilic fibers Components: type III collagen Characteristics: stained black by silver salts impregnation; PAS-positive R C

56 c. Elastic fibers: yellow fibers Components: elastin core + microfibrils sheath Characteristics: high elasticity

57 Functions of ground substance: Molecular sieve: Exchange medium Reservoir of hormones Resistance to compression Gel - like barrier

58 CT Classification: Mature CT Embryonic CT CT Proper Specialized CT Mesenchyme Mucous CT Loose CT Regular ~ Dense CT Irregular ~ Elastic Tissue Adipose T White (Yellow) ~ Brown ~ Reticular T Cartilage Bone Blood & lymph

59

60 classification predominant type of fiber fiber orientation example regular ~ collagen F. regular tendon DCT irregular ~ collagen F. irregular dermis elastic T elastic F. both wall of aorta

61

62 Adipose Connective Tissue 1. White (Yellow) adipose CT 2. Brown adipose CT

63 Reticular Connective Tissue Reticular cells + reticular fibers + ground substance

64 Constituting the architectural framework of the lymphatic and hemopoietic organs

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