92.7%. Subject to the age, the risk group of the high chance of malignancy development is the people over age 70. 3N

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1 ISSN: X CODEN: IJPTFI Available Online through Research Article CYTOGENETIC ASPECTS OF OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENIC HAZARD S.A.Fadeeva* 1, A.V.Mehkov 2, G.Sh.Alieva 3 I.D.Sitdikova 1, L.I.Gerasimova 4, F.V.Huzihanov 3 Kazan Federal University 1. 1 Branch of the FGBU "3 CMCH of A. A. Vishnevsky" 2 Kazan Medical University 3 Institute of improvement of doctors of Ministry of Health CH R 4 Received on Accepted on Abstract The effect of chemical factors of the production environment is studied with a wide range of test systems, among which the short-term tests with high sensitivity are in the foreground. We conducted a study to assess the cytogenetic status of servicemen. Micronucleus test was a convenient method of substance screening that can quickly determine the presence or absence of various compounds of cytogenetic nature. We have identified a relationship between exposure of occupational hazards and the level of micronuclei in human peripheral blood. Excess in number of micronuclei occurs at almost three times the rate in the retired servicemen. Indicator in this contingent group was 92.7%. Subject to the age, the risk group of the high chance of malignancy development is the people over age 70. 3N micronuclei level in this age group was found in 96.3%. 3N micronuclei level is found in 71.4% of representatives of the employment group of 3-9 years, while in the employment group of years - only in 68.7%. Subject to the military force, the risk group of the high chance of malignancy development are missile, ground, and motorized rifle troops. Keywords: Cytogenetic status, Micronucleus test, Carcinogenic hazard. Introduction The role of the profession in the development of malignant tumors is an old problem, because the scientific and technological progress involves an adverse effect on the human body, in particular, increases the carcinogenic risk [1,12]. The relevance of the problem is that carcinogenic agents (or their combinations) are known, i.e. there is a real practical basis both for in-depth scientific study of the processes of carcinogenesis, and for its rational and successful prevention [1,6].At the present stage of social development, a preventive direction becomes a priority in medicine. Spending funds on the prevention of the adverse effects of harmful factors provides positive social and economic IJPT Sep-2016 Vol. 8 Issue No Page 15041

2 effects [2]. The effect of chemical factors of the production environment is studied with a wide range of test systems, among which the short-term tests with high sensitivity are in the foreground [2, 8]. The development of test systems for the study of genotoxicity was the impetus for the study of the mechanisms and consequences of interactions of chemicals with a genetic material [3, 7]. The main achievements in this area are associated with the study of thin molecular mechanisms of genetic programs, errors" at the different operational stages of the genome: DNA replication, transcription, splicing, translation, various repair processes, gene expression, etc. It is important to identify possible "consequences" of such errors [3, 9, 10]. The method of micronucleus test has gained widespread use in the evaluation of genotoxic effects on human somatic cells. Micronucleus test is a method that allows assessing the level of somatic mutations in peripheral blood and concluding on the extent of influence of harmful mutagenic environmental factors and working environment on the human body. Analysis of these phenomena is important in the development of criteria of professional selection and health care protective measures provided for the population living in areas with high man-induced impact, as well as for the workers exposed to prolonged and intensive occupational load, including chemical [4, 5]. We conducted a study to assess the cytogenetic status of servicemen of various military troops. The study was conducted with the aim of using micronucleus test in the long term for the rapid diagnosis of carcinogenic effects of harmful factors of production. Objective of research. To study the carcinogenic risks emerging in the course of professional activity, according to the indicators of the cytogenetic status. Research methods. The study involved both active and retired servicemen of various military troops. These people were included in the experimental group. This group involved 424 persons. We also formed a control group people not related to military activity. Control group involved 380 persons. Micronucleus test was a convenient method of substance screening that can quickly determine the presence or absence of various compounds of cytogenetic nature. Preparations for detection of erythrocytes and micronuclei was prepared as follows: - peripheral blood smears were prepared by standard technique; - then fixed for 3 minutes in ethanol; IJPT Sep-2016 Vol. 8 Issue No Page 15042

3 - then stained with the diluted solution of Giemsa for minutes. This type of staining provides clear visibility and differentiation of micronuclei. The micronuclei appear under microscope as small rounded, without sharp edges, but with a clear outline, densely stained corpuscles, rarely as closed or broken rings. "True" micronucleus should be visible in the erythrocyte, usually closer to the periphery and in focus when the erythrocyte contour is clearly visible. Shift in the focus of the microscope objective must not result in their displacement with respect to the erythrocyte circuit. We evaluated the number of visible red blood cells, and the number of red blood cells with micronuclei. The level of micronuclei was counted in parts per million. The latter indicator was subjected to further analysis with the help of statistical processing, taking into account a contingent, age, occupational experience and type of troops. Results. The content of micronuclei in erythrocytes of the peripheral blood of healthy people is on average , while an acceptable value, which characterizes the state of preexisting diseases, is the indicators of the cytogenetic analysis ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 (2N). Triple excess (3N) of the health indicator is a prognostic coefficient, reflecting the high probability of malignancy [4, 11]. Analysis of the obtained indicators of cytogenetic status of servicemen subject to the contingent revealed the following trends: excessive amount of micronuclei in all contingents. Excess in micronuclei occurs at almost two times the rate in rankers 45.8%. Excess in number of micronuclei occurs at almost three times the rate in the retired servicemen. Indicator in this contingent group was 92.7%. Currently, we revealed 3N level of micronuclei in 74.5% of active servicemen, and in 31.3% of the rankers. In the control group, the excessive level of micronuclei was found in 17.3% of cases, which is significantly lower. Distribution of the results of the micronucleus test among the age groups showed that the number of red blood cells with micronuclei, which characterizes the pre-disease state (2N), was observed in all age groups, except for the group of years and over 70 years. The greatest number of 2N micronuclei level was noted in the age group of years the rate was 42.9%. In the age groups of years, years, years,the indicator of the 2N micronuclei level was 31.8%, 16% and 4%, respectively. An indicator of the micronucleus test 3N, indicating a high probability of malignancy, was diagnosed in all age groups, with its greatest number in the age group over 70 years 98.4%. In the age group of years, this indicator was 68%. The groups of years and years had an equally high indicator (60.7% and 60%, respectively). The age groups of years and years had a triple IJPT Sep-2016 Vol. 8 Issue No Page 15043

4 excess in the indicator 45.5% and 33%, respectively. Distribution of indicators subject to the occupational experience showed the presence of 2N micronuclei levels in all employment groups. This indicator is most common to the occupational interval of 1-2 years, i.e. 45.2% of test subjects of this group. In the employment groups of 3-9 years, years, years, years the double excess in the micronuclei level was revealed in 14.3%, 35.3%, 13,8% and 3%, respectively. All employment groups had triple excess in the micronuclei level. 3N micronuclei level is found in 71.4% of representatives of the age group of 3-9 years. In the employment group of years - in 68.7%, years in 58.6%, years in 52.9%, 1-2 years in 29.8%. Analysis of micronucleus test subject to the type of troops revealed the following trends: double increase in the levels of micronuclei 2N was found in the following troops: land troops %, air forces %, airborne forces %. Triple increase in the levels of micronuclei 3N was found in land troops 42.5%, missile troops 62.4%, motorized riffle troops 89.2%. Summary 1. Assessment of cytogenetic status is an objective indication of a characteristic of occupational carcinogenic risk emerging in professional servicemen. 2. Significant excess in levels of micronuclei was observed in all studied groups, which indicates the severe carcinogenic impact of professional and non-professional origin. 3. We revealed a significant excess in the number of 3N micronuclei in the group of the retired servicemen. Indicator in this contingent group was 92.7%. Currently, we revealed 3N level of micronuclei in 74.5% of active servicemen, and in 31.3% of the rankers. 4. Analysis of cytogenetic status based on age-specific aspect revealed that the level of micronuclei 3N in the age group of years was found in 68%. The groups of years and years had an equally high indicator (60.7% and 60%, respectively). The age groups of years and years had a triple excess in the indicator 45.5% and 33%, respectively. 5. We have found that all employment groups had triple excess in the micronuclei level. 3N micronuclei level was found in 71.4% of representatives of the employment group of 3-9 years, years in 68.7%, years in 58.6%, years in 52.9%, 1-2 years in 29.8%. IJPT Sep-2016 Vol. 8 Issue No Page 15044

5 6. A significant increase in the levels of micronuclei 3N was found in land troops 42.5%, missile troops 62.4%, motorized riffle troops 89.2%. Conclusion This research paper pursued an objective of evaluating the level of carcinogenic hazard in the servicemen based on the indicators of cytogenetic status. The study involved both active and retired servicemen of various military troops (424 persons). We also formed a control group people not related to military activity. Control group involved 380 persons. To evaluate the carcinogenic effects, we used the micronucleus test. It is known that the cell affected by carcinogenic substances and factors acquires properties of a mitotically active cell. This accelerates intracellular processes, impeding the cell division processes that gives rise to cells with the "immature" nuclei. Assessment of cytogenetic status of servicemen has shown an upward trend in the level of micronuclei in peripheral blood of both active and retired servicemen. Double excess in micronuclei, which indicates a pre-disease state, was found in the rankers (2N micronuclei level found in 45.8%). Double excess in micronuclei was found in the age group of years (2N micronuclei level found in 42.9% of test subjects of this group). 2N micronuclei level in the employment group of 1-2 years was found in 45.2% of the test subjects. A pre-disease state was also found in the missile troops, 2N micronuclei level in 68.8%. The risk group of high probability of malignancy includes former servicemen (3N micronuclei level found in 92.7%), as well as active servicemen (3N micronuclei level found in 74.5%). Subject to the age, the risk group of the high chance of malignancy development is the people over age 70. 3N micronuclei level in this age group was found in 93.2% of the test subjects. Subject to the occupational experience, the risk groups of high probability of malignancy are the employment groups of 3-9 years and years, with 3N micronuclei level found in 71.4% and 68.7%, respectively. We have identified a relationship between exposure of occupational hazards and the level of micronuclei in human peripheral blood. Implementation of the molecular-genetic methods of studying the impact of industrial factors on the human body is one of the most promising approaches to the assessment of carcinogenic hazards. Information on the mutagenic danger of chemicals can serve a real basis for the development of risk management activities. Acknowledgements: The team of authors expresses its gratitude to the Kazan Federal University for the opportunity to conduct this study. IJPT Sep-2016 Vol. 8 Issue No Page 15045

6 References S.A.Fadeeva* et al. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology 1. Lopushov D.V. Assessment of carcinogenic risk of industrial enterprises from the perspective of biochemical screening / D.V. Lopushov, I.D. Sitdikova, M.V. Maleev, I.K. Vaziev, M.V. Trofimova // Practical Medicine No (69). Pp Sitdikova I.D. Genotoxic factors the criterion of effectiveness of personal protective equipment / I.D. Sitdikova, L.A. Balabanova, R.Kh. Fatkhutdinov, I.K. Vaziev, M.V. Karpova, L.A. Tarasov, N.F. Kashapov // Kazan Medical Journal V.90, No.4. Pp Bagautdinova E.G. Relevant problems of genetic toxicology / E.G. Bagautdinova, D.O. Karimov, G.F. Mukhammadieva, A.B. Bakirov, L.K. Ibraeva // Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology No.3. Pp Meshkov A.V. Prevention of malignant tumors based on the assessment of cytogenetic status / A.V. Meshkov, I.K. Vaziev, L.I. Gerasimova, G.S. Alieva, I.Kh. Vakhitov // Modern problems of science and education (Electronic journal) No.1. URL: (accessed date: ). 5. Vaziev I.K. Improving the efficiency of primary prevention of malignant tumors among workers of carcinogenic production facilities: Author s abstract of Cand. of Med. Sciences: : defended on Kazan, p. 6. Angerer J. Biological monitoring and biochemical effect monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons / J. Angerer, С. Mannschreck, J. Gundel // International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health Vol. 6, 2. P Ashby, J. Genetic activity of the human carcinogen sulphur mustard towards Salmonella and the mouse bone marrow/j. Ashby [et al.]//mutat. Res., Vol P Beskid, O. The effects of exposure to different clastogens on the pattern of chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH whole chromosome painting in occupationally exposed individuals/o. Beskid [et al.]. -Mutat. Res., Vol P Vaziev I.K. Improving the efficiency of primary prevention of malignant tumors among workers of carcinogenic production facilities: Author s abstract of Cand. of Med. Sciences: / Vaziev Ildar Katipovich; KSMU. - Kazan p. IJPT Sep-2016 Vol. 8 Issue No Page 15046

7 10. Basu, A. Genetic toxicology of a paradoxical human carcinogen, arsenic -a review/а. Basu [et al.]. -Mutat. Res., Vol Р Au, W.W. Usefulness of biomarkers in population studies: from exposure to susceptibility and to prediction of cancer.//w.w. Au/Int. Hyg Environ Health, Vol P Lopushov D.V. Medical and hygienic aspects of prevention of malignant tumors among workers of carcinogenic production facilities (exemplified by machinery building industry): Author s abstract of Cand. of Med. Sciences: / Lopushov Dmitrii Vladimirovich; KSMU. - Kazan, p. Corresponding Author: S.A.Fadeeva*, IJPT Sep-2016 Vol. 8 Issue No Page 15047

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