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1 96 DAFTAR PUSTAKA Abdolmohammadi, M.H., Fouladdel, Sh., Shafiee, A., Amin, Gh., Ghaffari, S.M. & Azizi, E., 2008, Anticancer Effects and Cell Cycle Analysis on Human Breast Cancer T47D Cells Treated with Extracts of Astrodaucus persicus (Boiss.) Drude in Comparison to Doxorubicin, DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 16, Alfa Aesar, 2014, 22 Juni American Cancer Society, 2014, Cancer Facts & Figures 2014, 4/, 11 Mei Anonim a, 2014, CSID:554727, Structure html, 9 September Anonim b, 2014, CSID:14240, Structure html, 9 September Appendino, G., 2008, Capsaicin and Capsaicinoids, dalam Fattorusso, E. & Taglialatela-Scafati, O. (Eds.), Modern Alkaloids: Structure, Isolation, Biosynthesis, and Biology, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. ATCC, 2009, T-47D (ATCC HTB-133 ), 1 Juni ATCC, 2011, MTT Cell Proliferation Assay, 29 Mei Backer, C.A. & Van den Brink, R.C.B., 1965, Flora of Java Volume II, N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen. Baumgartner, B., Erdelmeier, C.A.J., Wright, A.D., Rali, T. & Sticher, O., 1990, An Antimicrobial Alkaloid from Ficus septica, Phtochemistry, 29(10), Burdall, E.S., Hanby, M.A., Lansdown, R.M. & Speirs, V., 2003, Breast Cancer Cell Lines: Friend or Foe?, Breast Cancer Research, 5(2), Cancer Research UK, 2014, Breast Cancer Risk Factors, 9 September 2014.

2 97 Campeau, P.M., Foulkes, W.D. & Tischkowitz, M.D., 2008, Hereditary Breast Cancer: New Genetic Developments, New Therapeutic Avenues, Human Genetics, 124(1), Check, W., 2006, BRCA: What We Know Now, e=%2fportlets%2fcontentviewer%2fshow&_windowlabel=cntvwrptlt& cntvwrptlt{actionform.contentreference}=cap_today%2ffeature_stories %2F0906BRCA.html&_state=maximized&_pageLabel=cntvwr, 9 September Chemler, R.S., 2009, Phenanthroindolizidines and Phenanthroquinolizidines: Promising Alkaloids for Anti-Cancer Therapy, Current Bioactive Compounds, 5(1), Clemedson, C. & Ekwall, B., 1999, Overview of the Final MEIC Results. I. The in vitro-in vitro Evaluation, Toxicology In Vitro, 13, Coe, F.G. & Anderson, G.D., 1996, Screening of Medicinal Plants used by the Garifuna of Eastern Nicaragua for Bioactive Compounds, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 53, Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors, 2012, Menarche, Menopause, and Breast Cancer Risk: Individual Participant Meta-Analysis, Including Women with Breast Cancer from 117 Epidemiological Studies, The Lancet Oncology, 13(11), Cowan, M.M., 1999, Plant Products As Antimicrobial Agents, Clinical Microbioogy Reviews, 12, Damu, A.G., Kuo, P.C., Shi, L.S., Li, C.Y., Su, C.R., & Wu, T.S., 2005, Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Stems of Ficus septica, Journal of Natural Products, 68, Damu, A.G., Kuo, P.C., Shi, L.S., Li, C.Y., Su, C.R., & Wu, T.S., 2009, Cytotoxic Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Roots of Ficus septica, Planta Medica, 75(10), Denizot, F. & Lang, R., Rapid Colorimetric Assay for Cell Growth and Survival Modifications of the Tetrazolium Dye Procedure Giving Improved Sensitivity and Reliability, Journal of Immunological Methods, 89, Dewick, P.M., 2009, Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthesis Approach, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Sussex. Ditjen POM, 1986, Sediaan Galenik, Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta.

3 98 Dolinsky, C., 2002, Breast Cancer: The Basic, 24 Mei Easton, D.F., 1999, How Many More Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes Are There?, Breast Cancer Research, 1(1), Ehmann, A., 1977, The Van Urk-Salkowski-Salkowski Reagent - A Sensitive and Specific Chromogenic Reagent for Silica Gel Thin-Layer Chromatographic Detection and Identification of Indole Derivatives, Journal of Chromatography, 132, Evans, W.C., Evans, D. & Trease, E.G., 2009, Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy, 16 th edition, , Saunders/Elsevier, Edinburgh. Facchini, P.J., 2001, Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Plants: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Molecular Regulation, and Metabolic Engineering Applications, Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 52, Fotakis, G. & Timbrell, J.A., 2006, In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assays: Comparison of LDH, Neutral Red, MTT and Protein Assay in Hepatoma Cell Lines Following Exposure to Cadmium Chloride, Toxicology Letters, 160, Gellert, E., 1982, The Indolizidine Alkaloids, Journal of Natural Products, 45(1), Guarneri, V. & Conte, P., 2009, Metastatic Breast Cancer: Therapeutic Options According to Molecular Subtypes and Prior Adjuvant Therapy, The Oncologist, 14, Hanahan, D. & Weinberg, R.A., 2000, The Hallmarks of Cancer, Cell, 100, Handa, S.S., 2008, An Overview of Extraction Techniques for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, dalam Handa, S.S., Khanuja, S.P.S., Longo, G. & Rakesh, D.D., (Eds.), Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, International Centre for Science and High Technology-United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Trieste. Harborne, B.J., 1973, Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis, Chapman & Hall, New York. Hashimoto, Y., Kawanishi, K., Ichimaru, M., 1990, Histochemistry of Alkaloids, dalam Brossi, A., (Ed.), The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Pharmacology Volume 39, , Academic Press, London. Hegnauer, R., 1963, The Taxonomic Significance of Alkaloids, dalam Swain, T., (Ed.), Chemical Plant Taxonomy, Academic Press, London.

4 99 Hegnauer, R., 1969, Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen Volume 5, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel. Heyne, K., 1987, Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia, Jilid II, Badan Litbang Departemen Kehutanan Indonesia, Jakarta. Holliday, D.L. & Speirs, V., 2011, Choosing the Right Cell Line for Breast Cancer Research, Breast Cancer Research, 13, Houghton, J.P., 2008, TLC of Indole Alkaloids, dalam Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M., Sherma, J. & Kowalska, T., (Eds.), Thin Layer Chromatography in Phytochemistry, , CRC Press, Florida. Hurtubise, R.J., 2005, Adsorption Chromatography, dalam Cazes, J., (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Chromatography Volume 1, 21-24, Taylor & Francis Group, Florida. Hutapea, J.R. & Syamsuhidayat, S.S., 1991, Inventaris Tanaman Obat, Jilid I, Balitbang Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Jakarta. Iskandar, D.T. & Erdelen, W.R., 2006, Conservation of Amphibians and Reptiles in Indonesia: Issues and Problems, Amphibian and Reptile Conservation, 4(1), Jang, Y.C., 2003, Effect of Doxorubicin-induced Apoptosis on Gender, Tesis, University of Florida, Florida. King, R.J.B., 2000, Cancer Biology, 2 nd London. edition, Pearson Education Limited, Ko, J. & Prives, C., 1996, p53: Puzzle and Paradigm, Genes and Development, 10, Kundu, J.K. & Surh, Y.J., 2012, Emerging Avenues Linking Inflammation and Cancer, Free Radial Biology and Medicine, 52, Kupcsik, L., 2011, Estimation of Cell Number Based on Metabolic Activity: The MTT Reduction Assay, dalam Stoddart, J., M. (Ed.), Mammalian Cell Viabilty -Methods and Protocols, Methods in Mol. Bio., Humana Press, New York. Lansky, E.P. & Paavilainen, H.M., 2010, FIGS: The Genus Ficus, CRC Press, London. Lansky, P.E., Paavilainen, H.M. & Pawlus, D.A.N.A.R., 2008, Ficus spp. (fig): Ethnobotany and Potential as Anticancer and Anti-inflammatory Agents, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119,

5 100 Leete, E., 1982, A One-stop Synthesis of Ficine and Isoficine, Journal of Natural Products, 45(5), Lieu, N.D., 2012, Chemical Caracteristics of Alkaloids, 10 Agustus Lodish, H., Berk, A., Matsudaira, P., Kaiser, C.A., Krieger, M., Scott, M.P., Zipursky, L. & Darnell, J., 2007, Molecular Cell Biology, 5th edition, W.H. Freeman, New York. Lippman, M.E., Dickson, R.B., Gelmann, E.P., Rosen, N., Knabbe, C., Bates, S., Bronzert, D., Huff, K. & Kasid, A., 1987, Growth Regulation of Human Breast Carcinoma Occurs through Regulated Growth Factor Secretion, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 35, Martin, A.M. & Weber, B.L., 2000, Genetic and Hormonal Risk Factors in Breast Cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92, Martinez, J. D., Parker, M.T., Fultz, K.E., Ignatenko, N.A. & Gerner, E.W., 2003, Molecular Biology of Cancer, Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, 6 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey. Martini, F.H., Nath, J.L. & Bartholomew, E.F., 2012, Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 9 th edition, Pearson Education, Inc., San Fransisco. McPherson, K., Steel, C.M. & Dixon, J.M., 2000, Breast Cancer-Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Genetics, The BMJ, 321, Min, H., Chung, H., Kim, E. & Lee, S.K., 2010, Inhibition of Cell Growth and Potentiation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a (TNF-a)-induced Apoptosis by a Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloid Antofine in Human Colon Cancer Cells, Biochemical Pharmacology, 80(9), Mosmann, T., 1983, Rapid Colorimetric Assay for Cellular Growth and Survival: Application to Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assays, Journal of Immunological Methods, 65, Nastiti, K., 2013, Pengaruh Beberapa Fraksi Ekstrak Daun Awar-awar (Ficus septica Burm. f.) terhadap Aktivitas Fagositosis Makrofag dan Proliferasi Limfosit secara In Vitro dan Uji Kandungan Flavonoid dan Fenolik Total, Tesis, Pascasarjana Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Nelima, N., Devidas, N.G., Sudhakar, M. & V, J.K., 2011, A Preliminary Phytochemichal Investigation on the Leaves of Solanum xanthocarpum, International Journal of Reearch in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 2(3),

6 101 Nugroho, A.E., Hermawan, A., Putri, D.D.P., Meiyanto, E. & Hakim, L., 2012, Synergistic Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Ficus septica Burm. f. and Doxorubicin Chemotherapy on T47D Human Breast Cancer Cell Line, Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 10(10), Nugroho, A.E., Ikawati, M., Hermawan, A., Putri, D.D.P. & Meiyanto, E., 2011, Cytotoxic Effect of Ethanolic Extract Fractions of Indonesia Plant Ficus septica Burm. F. on Human Breast Cancer T47D cell lines, International Journal of Phytomedicine, 3, Nurcahya, B.M., 2007, Efek Antiproliferatif Ekstrak Etanolik Daun Awar-Awar (Ficus septica Burm. f.) terhadap Sel Kanker Payudara T47D, Skripsi, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Osborne, C.K. & Arteaga, C.L., 1990, Autocrine and Paracrine Growth Regulation of Breast Cancer: Clinical Implications, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 15(1), Osborne, C.K., Boldt, D.H., Clark, G.M. & Trent, J.M., 1983, Effects of Tamoxifen on Human Breast Cancer Cell Cycle Kinetics: Accumulation of Cells in Early G1 Phase, Cancer Research, 43(8), Panno, J., 2005, Cancer: The Role of Genes, Lifestyle, and Environment, Facts on File Inc., New York. Pfizer Australia, 2012, Product Information ADRIAMYCIN Solution for Injection, 25 Mei Pratama, R.H., 2010, Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanolik Daun Awar-awar (Ficus septica Burm. f.) dengan Doxorubicin dalam Upaya Peningkatan Aktivitas Sitotoksik Doxorubicin dan Induksi Apoptosis pada Sel Kanker Payudara T47D, Skripsi, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Pratama, T., 2012, Pengaruh Fraksi Tak Larut n-heksana Ekstrak Etanolik Daun Awar-awar (Ficus septica Burm. f.) terhadap Viabilitas Sel dan Daur Sel Kanker Payudara T47D, Skripsi, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Potter, A.J., Gollahon, K.A., Palanca, B.J.A., Harbert, M.J., Choi, Y.M., Moskovitz, A.H., Potter, J.D. & Rabinovitch, P.S., 2002, Flow Cytometric Analysis of the Cell Cycle Phase Specificity of DNA Damage Induced by Radiation, Hydrogen Peroxide and Doxorubicin, Carcinogenesis, 23, Pusztai, L., Lewis, C.E. & Yap, E., (Eds.), 1995, Cell Proliferation in Cancer: Regulatory Mechanisms of Neoplastic Cell Growth, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

7 102 Rathod, C.P., Dhawale, S.C. & Kshirsagar, R.V., 2011, Recent Trends in Screening and Evaluation Methods of Anticancer Drugs, Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 1(6), Rohman, A., 2007, Kimia Farmasi Analisis, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta. Riss, T.L., Moravec, R.A., Niles, A.L., Benink, H.A., Worzella, T.J. & Minor, L., 2004, Cell Viability Assays, dalam Sittampalam, G.S., Gal-Edd, N., Arkin, M., Auld, D., Austin, C., Bejcek, B., Glicksman, M., Inglese, J., Lemmon, V., Li, Z., McGee, J., McManus, O., Minor, L., Napper, A., Riss, T., Trask, O.J. & Weidner, J., (Eds.), Assay Guidance Manual, Eli Lilly & Company and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Bethesda (MD). Sang, K.L., Kyung-Ae, N. & Yoen-Hoi, H., 2003, Cytotoxic Activity and G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest Mediated by Antofine A Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloid Isolated from Cynanchum paniculatum, Planta Medica, 69(1), Schafer, J.M., Lee, E.S., O'Regan, R.M., Yao, K. & Jordan, V.C., 2000, Rapid Development of Tamoxifen-stimulated Mutant p53 Breast Tumors (T47D) in Athymic Mice, Clinical Cancer Research, 6(11), Setiawan, P.Y.B., 2013, Penerapan Metode Simplex Lattice Design dalam Penentuan Komposisi Pelarut Etanol-Air pada Proses Ekstraksi Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya) dengan Respon Aktivitas Larvasida Nyamuk Aedes aegypti, Skripsi, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Sigma-Aldrich, 1998, 23 Juni Simo, C.C.F., Kouam, S.F., Poumale, H.M.P., Simo, I.K., Ngadjui, B.T., Green, I.R. & Krohn, K., 2008, Benjaminamide: A New Ceramide and Other Compounds from the Twigs of Ficus benjamina (Moraceae), Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 36, Siwon, J., 1982, A Pharmacognostical Study of Some Indonesian Medicinal Plants of the Family Menispermaceae, Disertasi, Leiden University, Leiden. Singh, J., 2008, Maceration, Percolation and Infusion Techniques for the Extraction of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, dalam Handa, S.S., Khanuja, S.P.S., Longo, G. & Rakesh, D.D., (Eds.), Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, International Centre for Science and High Technology-United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Trieste.

8 103 Spangenberg, B., 2008, Derivatization, Detection (Quantification), and Identification of Compounds Online, dalam Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M., Sherma, J. & Kowalska, T., (Eds.), Thin Layer Chromatography in Phytochemistry, CRC Press, Florida. Spangenberg, B., Poole, C.F. & Weins, C., 2011, Quantitative Thin-Layer Chromatography A Practical Survey, Springer, Berlin. Sparks, T., 2010, Alumina: Filtration in the Alumina Production Process, 22 Juni Staerk, D., Lykkeberg, A.K., Christensen, J., Budnik, B.A., Abe, F. & Jaroszewski, J.W., 2002, In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from Cynanchum vincetoxicum and Tylophora tanakae Against Drug-Sensitive and Multidrug Resistant Cancer Cells, Journal of Natural Products, 65, Stahl, Egon, 1969, Dünnschicht-Chromatographie: Ein Laboratoriumshandbuch, Springer, Berlin. Stahl, Egon, 1985, Analisis Obat Secara Kromatografi dan Mikroskopi, diterjemahkan oleh Kosasih Padmawinata dan Iwang Sudiro, Penerbit ITB, Bandung. Stephenson, Charles, H., 1921, Some Microchemical Tests for Alkaloids, Charles Griffin & Co. Ltd., London. Stoddart, J., M., (Ed.), 2011, Mammalian Cell Viability - Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, Humana Press, New York. Strumfa, I., Vanags, A., Abolins, A. & Gardovskis, J., 2013, Pathology of Breast Cancer: from Classic Concepts to Molecular Pathology and Pathogenesis, Acta Chirurgica Latviensis, 12, Sudarsono, Gunawan, D., Wahyuono, S., Donatus, I.A. & Purnomo, 2002, Tumbuhan Obat II: Hasil Penelitian, Sifat-sifat dan Penggunaan, Pusat Studi Obat Tradisional Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Sukadana, I.M., 2010, Aktivitas Antibakteri Senyawa Flavonoid dari Kulit Akar Awar-awar (Ficus septica Burm. f.), Jurnal Kimia, 4(1), Tiwari, P., Kumar, B., Kaur, M., Kaur, G. & Kaur, H., 2011, Phytochemichal Screening and Extraction: A Review, Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia, 1(1),

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