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1 Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following is TRUE about essential fatty acids? 1) A) No vegetables contain essential fatty acids. Consumption of essential fatty acids raises an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The body produces essential fatty acids. We need to obtain omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids from food. 2) Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat? 2) A) canola oil butter skim milk steamed broccoli 3) What role do polyunsaturated fatty acids play in the brain and spinal cord? 3) A) They regulate calcium within normal ranges. They block the production of vessel-clogging cholesterol. They deplete the brain's glycogen levels. They help transmit information between cells of the brain and spinal cord. 4) One of the two essential fatty acids is alpha-linolenic acid. What is the other one? 4) A) cis linoleic butyric cholesterol 1

2 5) How many Calories does 25 grams of fat provide? 5) A) 2,250 kilocalories 23 kilocalories 225 kilocalories 100 kilocalories 6) A fatty acid that contains a chain of ten carbons and one double bond is a 6) A) monounsaturated, long-chain fatty acid. monounsaturated, medium-chain fatty acid. saturated, long-chain fatty acid. saturated, medium-chain fatty acid. 7) Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs? 7) A) liver adipose tissue lipoproteins beta cells of the pancreas 8) The American Heart Association advises consumers to 8) A) avoid butter and margarine all together. choose butter over trans fat free margarine. use mayonnaise instead or butter or margarine. choose trans fat free margarines over butter. 9) Research has found the strongest association between dietary fat intake and what type of cancer? 9) A) breast prostate lung colon 2

3 10) Fatty acids released from storage travel in the blood attached to the protein 10) A) methionine. lysine. albumin. cysteine. 11) Which of the following ingredients would alert you to the likely presence of trans fatty acids in a product? A) lecithin liquid corn oil vitamin E partially hydrogenated vegetable oil 11) 12) What is the daily recommended intake of saturated fat? 12) A) no more than 5% of total energy intake no more than 10% of total energy intake as little as possible no more than 2% of total energy intake 13) Medium-chain fatty acids are how many carbon atoms in length? 13) A) 2 4 at least 6 at least 14 14) The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called 14) A) deamination. hydrogenation. emulsification. pressurization. 15) Which of the following is a fat replacer? 15) A) phosphate olestra trans fat saccharin 3

4 16) Nuts are a good source of 16) A) lean protein. sodium. healthful unsaturated fats. unnecessary Calories. 17) Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature? 17) A) saturated monounsaturated short-chain polyunsaturated Answer: A 18) Which of the following health problems has been associated with consumption of fat replacers? 18) A) hypertension elevated blood cholesterol levels mild gastrointestinal discomfort allergies 19) The major form of fat in both food and the body is 19) A) glycerols. triglycerides. sterols. phospholipids. 20) Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid? 20) A) phospholipids fatty acids triglycerides sterols 21) Which of the following foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids? 21) A) safflower and corn oils coconut and palm oils olive oil and cashew nuts butter and lard 4

5 22) How many double bonds does a saturated fatty acid contain between carbons? 22) A) none one two more than two Answer: A 23) The vast majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the 23) A) stomach. liver. large intestine. small intestine. 24) Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids? 24) A) flax seed oil margarine made from corn or safflower oil leafy green vegetables salmon 25) One of your friends is trying to decrease his intake of saturated fat. Which of the following items would you recommend he choose to add to his coffee? A) half-and-half fat-free milk or 1% milk whipping cream nondairy creamer 25) 26) How much trans fat is recommended in the diet? 26) A) 20% of total energy intake as little as possible 9% of total energy intake 3% of total energy intake 5

6 27) The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is what percentage of total energy intake? A) no more than 35% no more than 20% no more than 50% no more than 15% Answer: A 27) 28) Which type of fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond? 28) A) trans glycerol saturated cis 29) The most common sterol in our diet is 29) A) phytosterol. stanol. olestra. cholesterol. 30) Yesterday Nadia consumed 250 grams of carbohydrate, 75 grams of protein, and 60 grams of fat. What percentage of Calories of her day's intake came from fat? A) 29% 15% 13% 35% Answer: A 30) 31) A triglyceride is comprised of 31) A) three glycerols and one phospholipid. three glycerols and one fatty acid. three phospholipids and one glycerol. three fatty acids and one glycerol. 6

7 32) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be derived in limited quantities from A) cholesterol. linoleic acid. trans fat. alpha-linolenic acid. 32) 33) Which of the following are NOT major classes of dietary lipids? 33) A) phospholipids glycogens triglycerides sterols 34) Which of the following statements is FALSE about sterols? 34) A) Cholesterol is the most common sterol found in the human diet. The human body produces sterols. Sterols contain a glycerol backbone and one fatty acid. Sterols are found in both plant and animal foods. 35) Which of the following are excellent sources of unsaturated fats? 35) A) meat nuts and nut butters full-fat dairy products beans and rice 36) Saturated fats are 36) A) found primarily in foods derived from plants. protective for our health. liquid at room temperature. found in whole milk and beef. 7

8 37) Which of the following groups would have the lowest risk for toxicity from eating shark and other fish with high levels of environmental contaminants? A) children breastfeeding women pregnant women teenage boys 37) 38) Which of the following foods contains hidden fats? 38) A) chocolate cake butter olive oil zucchini Answer: A 39) Which lipoprotein transports dietary fat out of the small intestine? 39) A) sterol low-density lipoprotein (LDL) phospholipid chylomicron 40) Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation? 40) A) Hydrogenation makes a product more solid at room temperature. Hydrogenation is the process in which hydrogen atoms are added to double bonds. Hydrogenation creates a "heart healthy" product. Hydrogenation creates trans fatty acids. 41) Which of the following will help keep saturated fat intake at a healthy level? 41) A) avoiding fatty fish, such as salmon choosing hydrogenated vegetable shortening instead of butter eating fewer than 1,500 cal per day keeping cholesterol intake below 300 mg/day 8

9 42) Which of the following is NOT a function of fat in the human body? 42) A) Fat maintains the integrity of cell membranes. Fat provides insulation to help retain body heat. Fats make us feel hungry. Fat assists in the transport of fat-soluble vitamins. 43) To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as 43) A) lipase. bile. bicarbonate. hydrochloric acid. 44) Why are phospholipids NOT essential nutrients? 44) A) Our bodies manufacture phospholipids. Beneficial GI bacteria produce phospholipids. Phospholipids are not naturally found in the healthy body. Phospholipids serve no useful function in the human body. Answer: A 45) Which of the following is a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, yet neutral in flavor, making it a good choice for cooking oil? A) canola oil coconut oil corn oil butter Answer: A 45) 46) A key component(s) of a cell's membrane is/are 46) A) triglycerides. estrogen. phospholipids. glycerol. 9

10 47) Which of the following organs does NOT assist in the digestion of lipids? 47) A) liver large intestine pancreas gallbladder 48) Which of the following describes lipids? 48) A) inorganic nutrients that are insoluble in fat organic nutrients that are insoluble in fat inorganic nutrients that are insoluble in water organic nutrients that are insoluble in water 49) What is the primary form of fat in the diet? 49) A) phospholipids sterols triglycerides glycerols 50) In people who are physically active, extra fat consumed in the diet is stored first in 50) A) adipose cells. the liver. lymphatic tissue. muscle tissue. 51) Which of the following foods contain a large quantity of saturated fatty acids? 51) A) cottonseed and corn oils cashew nuts and almonds olive and canola oils palm kernel and coconut oils 10

11 52) Diets high in trans and what other type of fatty acid contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer? A) saturated polyunsaturated monounsaturated linoleic Answer: A 53) The label on a box of chocolate cookies claims that they are "low-fat." By law, each serving must contain A) less than 0.5 grams of fat. at least 50% less fat as compared to a standard serving. at least 25% less fat as compared to a standard serving. 3 grams or less of fat. 54) Which of the following types of fat is required to be listed on the Nutrition Facts Panel by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration? A) sterols phospholipids trans fatty acids essential fatty acids 55) The spherical compounds made up of bile and phospholipids that transport dietary fat into the intestinal mucosal cells are the A) chylomicrons. albumins. salivary enzymes. micelles. 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids? 56) A) butter beef fat corn oil coconut oil 11

12 57) During exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat? 57) A) insulin lipoprotein lipase estrogen adrenaline 58) Which of the following species of fish would likely contain the highest levels of contaminants? 58) A) mahi-mahi flounder swordfish salmon 59) Which of the following statements is TRUE about trans fatty acids? 59) A) They are made by the body in large quantities. They are created during the hydrogenation process. They decrease the risk of developing heart disease. They are found only in plant products. 60) Fat leaves the chylomicron and moves into adipose cells when the chylomicron comes into contact with A) insulin. trypsin. adrenaline. lipoprotein lipase. 60) TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 61) Lipids that contain multiple carbon-ring structures are known as phospholipids. 61) 62) The human body cannot make cholesterol; thus, it is an essential nutrient we must consume in our diet in moderation. 62) 12

13 63) Lipids can be either solid or liquid at room temperature. 63) 64) Saturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature. 64) 65) Unless labeled as zero trans fatty acids, most margarines will have more trans fatty acids than butter. 65) 66) Saturated fatty acids can occur in either a cis or trans shape. 66) 67) Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed and transported more quickly than long-chain fatty acids. 67) 68) Invisible or "hidden" fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature. 68) 69) Fat is the most energy-dense of all the macronutrients. 69) 70) Fat is digested more easily than carbohydrate or protein. 70) 71) Even if the Nutrition Facts panel states 0 g trans fats, the product could still have 1/2 g of trans fat per serving. 71) 72) Triglycerides, phospholipids, and glycerols are the three types of lipids commonly found in foods. 72) 73) Studies show that the use of fat replacers will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity. 73) 74) Americans consume adequate amounts of linoleic acid but not enough ALA, EPA, or DHA. 74) 13

14 75) Plant fats provide 80-90% of their energy from saturated fats. 75) 76) Lipids with a glycerol backbone and two fatty acids with a phosphate group are known as sterols. 76) 77) Several recent research studies have indicated people who eat an ounce or two of nuts each day in addition to their usual diet did NOT gain weight as would be expected from their increased caloric intake. 78) In 2006 the Food and Drug Administration issued an optional recommendation to list the amounts of trans fatty acids on the Nutrition Facts panel of food products. 77) 78) 79) In general, animal-based fats are high in saturated fats. 79) 80) If an ingredient label indicates a product contains partially hydrogenated oils, it will almost assuredly contain trans fats. 80) 81) Olive oil, canola oil, and cashew nuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. 81) 82) Only plants can synthesize cholesterol. 82) 83) The term "monounsaturated" describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain. 84) People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15% of kilocalories. 83) 84) 85) Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy. 85) 14

15 86) Cashews are high in saturated fats. 86) ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 87) One of your friends has decided to purchase a chitosan supplement to help her lose weight. She is convinced the $40 for a one-month supply is worth it if she can just lose 10 pounds. After examining the data, how would you counsel your friend? Does the data convince you that fat blockers are worth the money and the side effects? Answer: Answers will vary. 88) Describe the role that fats play in the structure of a cell and its primary functions. Answer: Answers will vary. 89) Describe some specific steps you could take to select foods with a healthier fat content when you are grocery shopping and when you are eating at a restaurant. Answer: Answers will vary. 90) Discuss the impact of environmental contaminants on the current recommendations for safe fish consumption. How does this relate to the advice to consume abundant sources of omega-3 fatty acids? Answer: Answers will vary. 91) What is hydrogenation? Why do food manufacturers utilize this process, and what are the potential health impacts of hydrogenation? Answer: Answers will vary. 92) Explain the current scientific understanding of the influence of a diet high in saturated fats on the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Answer: Answers will vary. 15

16 Answer Key Testname: C5 1) D 2) B 3) D 4) B 5) C 6) B 7) B 8) D 9) B 10) C 11) D 12) B 13) C 14) B 15) B 16) C 17) A 18) C 19) B 20) D 21) C 22) A 23) D 24) B 25) B 26) B 27) A 28) D 29) D 30) A 31) D 32) D 33) B 34) C 35) B 36) D 37) D 38) A 39) D 40) C 41) D 42) C 43) B 44) A 45) A 46) C 47) B 48) D 49) C 50) D 16

17 Answer Key Testname: C5 51) D 52) A 53) D 54) C 55) D 56) C 57) D 58) C 59) B 60) D 61) FALSE 62) FALSE 63) TRUE 64) FALSE 65) TRUE 66) FALSE 67) TRUE 68) FALSE 69) TRUE 70) FALSE 71) TRUE 72) FALSE 73) FALSE 74) TRUE 75) FALSE 76) FALSE 77) TRUE 78) FALSE 79) TRUE 80) TRUE 81) TRUE 82) FALSE 83) TRUE 84) FALSE 85) FALSE 86) FALSE 87) Answers will vary. 88) Answers will vary. 89) Answers will vary. 90) Answers will vary. 91) Answers will vary. 92) Answers will vary. 17

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