How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

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1 How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

2 Overview of Cellular Respiration HO double membrane outer membrane inner membrane CO matrix Produces molecules Requires oxygen Releases carbon dioxide The reverse of photosynthesis Intermembrane space cristae

3 Why is it called cellular respiration??? What is respiration? What do we breathe in? What do we breathe out? Well, your cells do the same thing!!! Cellular respiration is why you breathe!

4 Oxidation & Reduction happens in Cellular Respiration Oxidation = removal of hydrogen atoms Reduction = addition of hydrogen atoms Hydrogens removed from glucose = CO Oxygen accepts hydrogens = water Oxidation C6H1O6 glucose + 6 O 6 CO Reduction + 6 HO + energy

5 Phases of complete glucose breakdown aka your ham sandwich! Glucose broken down in steps More efficient way to capture energy & make Coenzymes (non-protein) enzymes join with hydrogen and e NAD+ NADH FAD FADH

6 The 4 phases of glucose breakdown Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cytoplasm NADH and FADH Glycolysis glucose pyruvate 1.. e Preparatory reaction Glycolysis Preparatory reaction Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain Citric acid cycle 4. Electron transport chain

7 Cytoplasm NADH and FADH Glycolysis: Glucose Breakdown Starts e Glycolysis Preparatory reaction Happens in cytoplasm of all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 1 glucose (6C) broken down into pyruvates (3C) Two steps 1. energy requiring. energy harvesting Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain 34

8 Energy-investment steps transfer phosphates to glucose Activates them for next steps Energy-harvestingsteps enzyme P P ADP P Substrate-level synthesis produces 4 Net gain of NADH made

9 Products of Glycolysis Net yield of glycolysis: pyruvate,, and NADH per glucose Pyruvate may: Enter fermentation pathways in cytoplasm (is reduced) Enter mitochondria and be broken down further in aerobic respiration Glycolysis inputs outputs glucose pyruvate NAD+ NADH 4 ADP + 4 P ADP 4 net

10 7.3 Inside the Mitochondria Other 3 phases take place inside the mitochondria Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cytoplasm location of glycolysis Glycolysis - cytoplasm Preparatory reaction Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain outer membrane matrix cristae Matrix location of the prep reaction and the citric acid cycle Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. inner membrane forms cristae NADH and FADH Intermembrane space e Glycolysis Preparatory reaction Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain Cristae location of the electron transport chain Courtesy Dr. Keith Porter matrix Figure Figure 7.5 Mitochondrion structure and function

11 . Preparatory reaction: acetyl-coa formation 1. Occurs in mitochondrial matrix pyruvate split & oxidized Produces acetyl-coa ( per glucose molecule) CO CO molecule given off ( per glucose molecule) NADH NAD+ NADH ( per glucose molecule) Acetyl-CoA

12 3. Citric Acid Cycle (also called the Krebs Cycle) Citric acid cycle inputs outputs acetyl-coa 6 NAD+ 4 CO 6 NADH FAD FADH ADP+ P Little Johnny Krebs Occurs in mitochondrial matrix Acetyl CoA transfer acetyl group to C4 molecule produces citric acid (6C) Acetyl group oxidized to carbon dioxide all C gone (glucose completely broken down!) NAD+ NADH and FAD FADH Substrate-level synthesis produces Two cycles for each glucose molecule

13 Citric acid cycle CoA CO inputs outputs acetyl-coa 6 NAD+ 4 CO 6 NADH FAD FADH ADP+ P 6 Additional oxidation reactions produce another NADH and an FADH and regenerate the original C4 molecule. NADH CoA NADH NAD+ NAD+ Each C acetyl group combines with a C4 molecule to produce citric acid, a C6 molecule. CO Citric acid cycle NAD+ FADH FAD is produced by substrate-level synthesis. 4 Twice over, oxidation reactions produce NADH, and CO is released. CO ADP + P 5 NADH 3 The loss of two CO results in a new C4 molecule. Figure 7.6

14 Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at

15 1. Remember that there are pyruvate molecules from glycolysis!!! pyruvate coenzyme A (CO) NAD+ NADH CoA acetyl-coa Krebs Cycle 4C molecule is oxaloacetate regenerated You know the NADH drill!!! FAD picks up hydrogen and electrons, forming FADH FADH Acetyl-CoA transfers C to 4C molecule, forming citrate (6C) CoA citrate NAD+ NAD+ FAD NAD+ ADP + phosphate group CO released NAD+ picks up NADH hydrogen and electrons, forming NADH Ditto! C s of NADH pyruvate are now all gone! Substrate-level phosphorylation

16 The Results of the 1st 3 stages!!! In acetyl Co-A formation and citric acid cycle: Six CO, two, eight NADH, and two FADH for every two pyruvates Adding the yield from glycolysis, the total is Twelve reduced coenzymes and four for each glucose molecule Coenzymes deliver electrons and hydrogen to the electron transport chain!!!

17 Aerobic Respiration s Big Energy Payoff 4. Electron Transport Chain Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. NADH and FADH e Glycolysis Preparatory reaction Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain 34 Many are formed during the third and final stage of aerobic respiration Occurs in cristae of mitochondria Electrons are passed from one carrier molecule to another NADH & FADH deliver electrons

18 4. The electron transport chain: path of e- & H+ Coenzymes NADH and FADH donate electrons and H+ to electron transfer chains As e- go through transport chain, H+ gets shuttled out (via active transport), forming a H+ concentration gradient NADH

19 Formation let s follow the H+ H+ concnetration is now greater in the outer compartment. H+ follows these gradients through synthases to the interior, forming INNER COMPARTMENT ADP + Pi

20 Let s follow the efinally, oxygen accepts electrons and combines with H+, forming water

21 Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at

22 Summary: The Energy Harvest Energy yield from glucose metabolism Maximum of 38 made Some cells make only 36 s or less about 40% of available energy in a glucose molecule Rest is lost as heat Phase NADH Glycolysis Prep reaction Citric acid cycle 6 10 Electron transport chain Total FADH Yield

23 Summary: Aerobic Respiration 3-34

24 What if you re on a lowcarb diet (not so much glucose)??? Alternative metabolic pathways Cells use other energy sources There are C s in proteins! There are C s in lipids! Food NH3 Proteins Carbohydrates amino acids glucose Fats and oils glycerol Glycolysis pyruvate Acetyl-CoA Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain HO O fatty acids

25 Anaerobic Energy-Releasing Pathways: Fermentation Oxygen is required for the complete breakdown of glucose Fermentation pathways break down carbohydrates without using oxygen (anaerobic) The final steps in these pathways regenerate NAD + but do not produce only glycolysis for! Only per glucose molecule!!!

26 Fermentation in animal cells Pyruvate reduced to lactate in muscle cells Provides brief burst of energy when no oxygen Recovery from oxygen deficit complete when enough oxygen is present to completely break down glucose why you breathe hard! Fermentation inputs outputs glucose lactate or alcohol and CO 4 ADP + 4 P ADP 4 net

27 glucose Fermentation in microorganisms AD P Bacteria & yeast (unicellular fungus) use fermentation to produce: lactate or other organic acids alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide yogurt, wine, beer, leavening of bread, sauerkraut, dry sausages, kimchi, vinegar P NAD + P NADH +4 P P 4 ADP 4 pyruvate NADH NAD + Fermentation inputs outputs glucose lactate or alcohol and CO 4 ADP+ 4 P Net gain: CO or ethyl alcohol lactate Bread ADP 4 net Athlete W ine

28 Reflections on Life s Unity The Circle of Life! Photosynthesizers use energy from the sun to feed themselves and other forms of life Aerobic respiration balances photosynthesis

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