Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

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1 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Overview: Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals, such as the chimpanzee, obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms that eat plants 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Figure 9.1

4 Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis generates O 2 and organic molecules, which are used in cellular respiration Cells use chemical energy stored in organic molecules to regenerate ATP, which powers work 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Figure 9.2 Light energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Organic CO H O 2 2 molecules O 2 Cellular respiration in mitochondria ATP ATP powers most cellular work Heat energy

6 Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic Fermentation is a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without O 2 Aerobic respiration consumes organic molecules and O 2 and yields ATP Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration but consumes compounds other than O Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Cellular respiration includes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration but is often used to refer to aerobic respiration Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are all consumed as fuel, it is helpful to trace cellular respiration with the sugar glucose C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O + Energy (ATP + heat) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction The transfer of electrons during chemical reactions releases energy stored in organic molecules This released energy is ultimately used to synthesize ATP 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 The Principle of Redox Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants are called oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions In oxidation, a substance loses electrons, or is oxidized In reduction, a substance gains electrons, or is reduced (the amount of positive charge is reduced) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 Figure 9.UN01 becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron)

12 Figure 9.UN02 becomes oxidized becomes reduced

13 The electron donor is called the reducing agent The electron receptor is called the oxidizing agent Some redox reactions do not transfer electrons but change the electron sharing in covalent bonds An example is the reaction between methane and O Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Figure 9.3 Reactants becomes oxidized Products Energy becomes reduced Methane (reducing agent) Oxygen (oxidizing agent) Carbon dioxide Water

15 Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During Cellular Respiration During cellular respiration, the fuel (such as glucose) is oxidized, and O 2 is reduced 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Figure 9.UN03 becomes oxidized becomes reduced

17 Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD + and the Electron Transport Chain In cellular respiration, glucose and other organic molecules are broken down in a series of steps Electrons from organic compounds are usually first transferred to NAD +, a coenzyme As an electron acceptor, NAD + functions as an oxidizing agent during cellular respiration Each NADH (the reduced form of NAD + ) represents stored energy that is tapped to synthesize ATP 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 Figure 9.4 NAD Dehydrogenase Reduction of NAD NADH Nicotinamide (oxidized form) (from food) Oxidation of NADH Nicotinamide (reduced form)

19 Figure 9.UN04 Dehydrogenase

20 NADH passes the electrons to the electron transport chain Unlike an uncontrolled reaction, the electron transport chain passes electrons in a series of steps instead of one explosive reaction O 2 pulls electrons down the chain in an energyyielding tumble The energy yielded is used to regenerate ATP 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Figure 9.5 Free energy, G Free energy, G H 2 1 / 2 O 2 2 H (from food via NADH) Controlled release of 2 H + 2 e energy for synthesis of ATP ATP 1 / 2 O 2 Explosive release of heat and light energy ATP ATP 2 e 2 H + 1 / 2 O 2 H 2 O H 2 O (a) Uncontrolled reaction (b) Cellular respiration

22 The Stages of Cellular Respiration: A Preview Harvesting of energy from glucose has three stages Glycolysis (breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate) The citric acid cycle (completes the breakdown of glucose) Oxidative phosphorylation (accounts for most of the ATP synthesis) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Figure 9.UN Glycolysis (color-coded teal throughout the chapter) Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle (color-coded salmon) Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis (color-coded violet)

24 Figure Electrons carried via NADH Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvate CYTOSOL MITOCHONDRION ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

25 Figure Electrons carried via NADH Electrons carried via NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate Pyruvate oxidation Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle CYTOSOL MITOCHONDRION ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation

26 Figure Electrons carried via NADH Electrons carried via NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvate Pyruvate oxidation Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis CYTOSOL MITOCHONDRION ATP ATP ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Substrate-level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation

27 The process that generates most of the ATP is called oxidative phosphorylation because it is powered by redox reactions 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. BioFlix: Cellular Respiration

29 Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for almost 90% of the ATP generated by cellular respiration A smaller amount of ATP is formed in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle by substrate-level phosphorylation For each molecule of glucose degraded to CO 2 and water by respiration, the cell makes up to 32 molecules of ATP 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 Figure 9.7 Enzyme Enzyme ADP P Substrate ATP Product

31 Concept 9.2: Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Glycolysis ( splitting of sugar ) breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and has two major phases Energy investment phase Energy payoff phase Glycolysis occurs whether or not O 2 is present 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 Figure 9.8 Energy Investment Phase Glucose 2 ADP 2 P 2 ATP used Energy Payoff Phase 4 ADP 4 P 4 ATP formed 2 NAD + 4 e 4 H + 2 NADH 2 H + 2 Pyruvate 2 H 2 O Net Glucose 4 ATP formed 2 ATP used 2 NAD + 4 e 4 H + 2 Pyruvate 2 H 2 O 2 ATP 2 NADH 2 H +

33 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase Glucose ATP ADP Glucose 6-phosphate Hexokinase 1

34 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase Glucose ATP Glucose 6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate ADP Hexokinase 1 Phosphoglucoisomerase 2

35 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase ATP ATP Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ADP ADP Hexokinase 1 Phosphoglucoisomerase Phosphofructokinase 2 3

36 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase ATP ATP Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ADP ADP Hexokinase 1 Phosphoglucoisomerase Phosphofructokinase 2 3 Aldolase 4 Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Isomerase 5 To step 6

37 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase 2 NADH 2 NAD + 2 H Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 6 2 P i 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

38 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase 2 NADH 2 NAD + 2 H 2 ADP 2 ATP 2 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 6 2 P i 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Phosphoglycerokinase 7 3-Phosphoglycerate

39 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase 2 NADH 2 NAD + 2 H 2 ADP 2 ATP 2 2 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 6 2 P i 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Phosphoglycerokinase Phosphoglyceromutase 7 3-Phospho- 8 glycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate

40 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase 2 NADH 2 NAD + 2 H 2 ADP 2 ATP 2 H 2 O Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 6 2 P i 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Phosphoglycerokinase Phosphoglyceromutase 7 3-Phospho- 8 glycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate Enolase 9 Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)

41 Figure Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase 2 NADH 2 NAD + 2 H 2 ADP 2 ATP 2 ATP 2 H 2 O 2 ADP Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 6 2 P i 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Phosphoglycerokinase 7 3-Phospho- 8 glycerate Phospho- Enolase Pyruvate glyceromutase kinase 2-Phosphoglycerate 9 Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) 10 Pyruvate

42 Figure 9.9a Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase Glucose ATP Glucose 6-phosphate ADP Fructose 6-phosphate Hexokinase 1 Phosphoglucoisomerase 2

43 Figure 9.9b Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase Fructose 6-phosphate ATP ADP Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Phosphofructokinase Aldolase 4 3 Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Isomerase 5 To step 6

44 Figure 9.9c Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase 2 NADH 2 NAD + 2 H 2 2 ATP 2 ADP 2 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 6 2 P i 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Phosphoglycerokinase 7 3-Phosphoglycerate

45 Figure 9.9d Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase H 2 O 2 2 ADP 2 ATP 2 3-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoglyceromutase 8 2-Phosphoglycerate Enolase 9 Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Pyruvate kinase 10 Pyruvate

46 Concept 9.3: After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the energyyielding oxidation of organic molecules In the presence of O 2, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion (in eukaryotic cells) where the oxidation of glucose is completed 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA Before the citric acid cycle can begin, pyruvate must be converted to acetyl Coenzyme A (acetyl CoA), which links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle This step is carried out by a multienzyme complex that catalyses three reactions 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 Figure 9.10 MITOCHONDRION CYTOSOL CO 2 Coenzyme A Pyruvate NAD NADH + H Acetyl CoA Transport protein

49 The Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle, also called the Krebs cycle, completes the break down of pyruvate to CO 2 The cycle oxidizes organic fuel derived from pyruvate, generating 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH 2 per turn 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 Figure 9.11 Pyruvate NAD NADH CO 2 CoA + H Acetyl CoA CoA CoA Citric acid cycle 2 CO 2 FADH 2 FAD 3 NAD 3 NADH + 3 H ADP + P i ATP

51 The citric acid cycle has eight steps, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme The acetyl group of acetyl CoA joins the cycle by combining with oxaloacetate, forming citrate The next seven steps decompose the citrate back to oxaloacetate, making the process a cycle The NADH and FADH 2 produced by the cycle relay electrons extracted from food to the electron transport chain 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 Figure Acetyl CoA CoA-SH 1 Oxaloacetate Citrate Citric acid cycle

53 Figure Acetyl CoA CoA-SH 1 H 2 O Oxaloacetate 2 Citrate Isocitrate Citric acid cycle

54 Figure Acetyl CoA CoA-SH 1 H 2 O Oxaloacetate 2 Citric acid cycle Citrate Isocitrate NAD NADH 3 + H CO 2 -Ketoglutarate

55 Figure Acetyl CoA CoA-SH 1 H 2 O Oxaloacetate 2 Citric acid cycle Citrate Isocitrate NAD NADH 3 + H CO 2 CoA-SH 4 -Ketoglutarate NAD CO 2 Succinyl CoA NADH + H

56 Figure Acetyl CoA CoA-SH 1 H 2 O Oxaloacetate 2 Citric acid cycle Citrate Isocitrate NAD NADH 3 + H CO 2 CoA-SH 5 CoA-SH 4 NAD CO 2 -Ketoglutarate Succinate ADP GTP GDP P i Succinyl CoA NADH + H ATP

57 Figure Acetyl CoA CoA-SH 1 H 2 O Oxaloacetate 2 Citric acid cycle Citrate Isocitrate NAD NADH 3 + H CO 2 Fumarate CoA-SH -Ketoglutarate 6 CoA-SH 4 FADH 2 FAD 5 NAD CO 2 Succinate GTP GDP ADP P i Succinyl CoA NADH + H ATP

58 Figure Acetyl CoA CoA-SH 1 H 2 O Oxaloacetate 2 H 2 O 7 Malate Citric acid cycle Citrate Isocitrate NAD NADH 3 + H CO 2 Fumarate CoA-SH -Ketoglutarate 6 CoA-SH 4 FADH 2 FAD 5 NAD CO 2 Succinate GTP GDP ADP P i Succinyl CoA NADH + H ATP

59 Figure Acetyl CoA CoA-SH NADH + H 1 H 2 O NAD 8 Oxaloacetate 2 H 2 O 7 Malate Citric acid cycle Citrate Isocitrate NAD NADH 3 + H CO 2 Fumarate CoA-SH -Ketoglutarate 6 CoA-SH 4 FADH 2 FAD 5 NAD CO 2 Succinate GTP GDP ADP P i Succinyl CoA NADH + H ATP

60 Figure 9.12a Acetyl CoA CoA-SH 1 H 2 O Oxaloacetate 2 Citrate Isocitrate

61 Figure 9.12b 3 Isocitrate NAD NADH + H CO 2 CoA-SH 4 -Ketoglutarate NAD CO 2 Succinyl CoA NADH + H

62 Figure 9.12c Fumarate 6 CoA-SH FADH 2 5 FAD Succinate GTP GDP ADP P i Succinyl CoA ATP

63 Figure 9.12d NADH NAD + H 8 Oxaloacetate Malate H 2 O 7 Fumarate

64 Concept 9.4: During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis Following glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, NADH and FADH 2 account for most of the energy extracted from food These two electron carriers donate electrons to the electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

65 The Pathway of Electron Transport The electron transport chain is in the inner membrane (cristae) of the mitochondrion Most of the chain s components are proteins, which exist in multiprotein complexes The carriers alternate reduced and oxidized states as they accept and donate electrons Electrons drop in free energy as they go down the chain and are finally passed to O 2, forming H 2 O 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

66 Free energy (G) relative to O 2 (kcal/mol) Figure e NADH NAD FADH 2 40 FMN Fe S I 2 e Fe S FAD II Multiprotein complexes Q Cyt b III 30 Fe S Cyt c 1 Cyt c Cyt a IV 20 Cyt a e (originally from NADH or FADH 2 ) 0 2 H + 1 / 2 O 2 H 2 O

67 Electrons are transferred from NADH or FADH 2 to the electron transport chain Electrons are passed through a number of proteins including cytochromes (each with an iron atom) to O 2 The electron transport chain generates no ATP directly It breaks the large free-energy drop from food to O 2 into smaller steps that release energy in manageable amounts 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

68 Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling Mechanism Electron transfer in the electron transport chain causes proteins to pump H + from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space H + then moves back across the membrane, passing through the proton, ATP synthase ATP synthase uses the exergonic flow of H + to drive phosphorylation of ATP This is an example of chemiosmosis, the use of energy in a H + gradient to drive cellular work 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

69 Figure 9.14 INTERMEMBRANE SPACE Rotor H Stator Internal rod Catalytic knob ADP + P i ATP MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX

70 Figure 9.15 H H Protein complex of electron carriers H Cyt c H I II Q FADH 2 FAD III 2 H + 1 / 2 O 2 IV H 2 O ATP synthase NADH NAD (carrying electrons from food) ADP P i H ATP 1 Electron transport chain 2 Chemiosmosis Oxidative phosphorylation

71 The energy stored in a H + gradient across a membrane couples the redox reactions of the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis The H + gradient is referred to as a protonmotive force, emphasizing its capacity to do work 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

72 An Accounting of ATP Production by Cellular Respiration During cellular respiration, most energy flows in this sequence: glucose NADH electron transport chain proton-motive force ATP About 34% of the energy in a glucose molecule is transferred to ATP during cellular respiration, making about 32 ATP There are several reasons why the number of ATP is not known exactly 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

73 Figure 9.16 Electron shuttles span membrane 2 NADH or MITOCHONDRION 2 FADH 2 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate Pyruvate oxidation 2 Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis 2 ATP 2 ATP about 26 or 28 ATP Maximum per glucose: About 30 or 32 ATP CYTOSOL

74 Concept 9.5: Fermentation and anaerobic respiration enable cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen Most cellular respiration requires O 2 to produce ATP Without O 2, the electron transport chain will cease to operate In that case, glycolysis couples with fermentation or anaerobic respiration to produce ATP 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

75 Anaerobic respiration uses an electron transport chain with a final electron acceptor other than O 2, for example sulfate Fermentation uses substrate-level phosphorylation instead of an electron transport chain to generate ATP 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

76 Types of Fermentation Fermentation consists of glycolysis plus reactions that regenerate NAD +, which can be reused by glycolysis Two common types are alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

77 In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, with the first releasing CO 2 Alcohol fermentation by yeast is used in brewing, winemaking, and baking 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

78 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Fermentation Overview Right-click slide / select Play

79 Figure ADP 2 P 2 ATP i 2 ADP 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis Glucose Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD 2 NADH 2 H 2 CO 2 2 NAD 2 NADH 2 H 2 Pyruvate 2 Ethanol 2 Acetaldehyde (a) Alcohol fermentation 2 Lactate (b) Lactic acid fermentation

80 Figure 9.17a 2 ADP 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 NAD 2 NADH 2 H 2 Pyruvate 2 CO 2 2 Ethanol 2 Acetaldehyde (a) Alcohol fermentation

81 In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced to NADH, forming lactate as an end product, with no release of CO 2 Lactic acid fermentation by some fungi and bacteria is used to make cheese and yogurt Human muscle cells use lactic acid fermentation to generate ATP when O 2 is scarce 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

82 Figure 9.17b 2 ADP 2 P i 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis 2 NAD 2 NADH 2 H 2 Pyruvate 2 Lactate (b) Lactic acid fermentation

83 Comparing Fermentation with Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration All use glycolysis (net ATP = 2) to oxidize glucose and harvest chemical energy of food In all three, NAD + is the oxidizing agent that accepts electrons during glycolysis The processes have different final electron acceptors: an organic molecule (such as pyruvate or acetaldehyde) in fermentation and O 2 in cellular respiration Cellular respiration produces 32 ATP per glucose molecule; fermentation produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

84 Obligate anaerobes carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration and cannot survive in the presence of O 2 Yeast and many bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning that they can survive using either fermentation or cellular respiration In a facultative anaerobe, pyruvate is a fork in the metabolic road that leads to two alternative catabolic routes 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

85 Figure 9.18 Glucose CYTOSOL Glycolysis Pyruvate No O 2 present: Fermentation O 2 present: Aerobic cellular respiration Ethanol, lactate, or other products Acetyl CoA MITOCHONDRION Citric acid cycle

86 The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis Ancient prokaryotes are thought to have used glycolysis long before there was oxygen in the atmosphere Very little O 2 was available in the atmosphere until about 2.7 billion years ago, so early prokaryotes likely used only glycolysis to generate ATP Glycolysis is a very ancient process 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

87 Concept 9.6: Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways Gycolysis and the citric acid cycle are major intersections to various catabolic and anabolic pathways 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

88 The Versatility of Catabolism Catabolic pathways funnel electrons from many kinds of organic molecules into cellular respiration Glycolysis accepts a wide range of carbohydrates Proteins must be digested to amino acids; amino groups can feed glycolysis or the citric acid cycle 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

89 Fats are digested to glycerol (used in glycolysis) and fatty acids (used in generating acetyl CoA) Fatty acids are broken down by beta oxidation and yield acetyl CoA An oxidized gram of fat produces more than twice as much ATP as an oxidized gram of carbohydrate 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

90 Figure 9.19 Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Amino acids Sugars Glycerol Fatty acids Glycolysis Glucose Glyceraldehyde 3- P NH 3 Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation

91 Biosynthesis (Anabolic Pathways) The body uses small molecules to build other substances These small molecules may come directly from food, from glycolysis, or from the citric acid cycle 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

92 Regulation of Cellular Respiration via Feedback Mechanisms Feedback inhibition is the most common mechanism for control If ATP concentration begins to drop, respiration speeds up; when there is plenty of ATP, respiration slows down Control of catabolism is based mainly on regulating the activity of enzymes at strategic points in the catabolic pathway 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

93 Figure 9.20 Glucose Inhibits Glycolysis Fructose 6-phosphate Phosphofructokinase Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate AMP Stimulates Inhibits Pyruvate ATP Acetyl CoA Citrate Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation

94 Figure 9.UN06 Inputs Glucose Glycolysis Outputs 2 Pyruvate 2 ATP 2 NADH

95 Figure 9.UN07 Inputs Outputs 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA 2 Oxaloacetate Citric acid cycle 2 6 ATP CO NADH FADH 2

96 Figure 9.UN08 H INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H Protein complex of electron carriers H Cyt c I Q III IV II FADH 2 FAD 2 H + 1 / 2 O 2 H 2 O NADH NAD (carrying electrons from food) MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX

97 Figure 9.UN09 INTER- MEMBRANE SPACE H MITO- CHONDRIAL MATRIX ATP synthase ADP + P i H ATP

98 Figure 9.UN10 ph difference across membrane Time

99 Figure 9.UN11

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