: Overview of EFA metabolism

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download ": Overview of EFA metabolism"

Transcription

1 Figure 1 gives an overview of the metabolic fate of the EFAs when consumed in the diet. The n-6 and n-3 PUFAs when consumed in the form of dietary triglyceride from various food sources undergoes digestion in the small intestine which allows for absorption, transport in the blood, and subsequent assimilation within tissues themselves through the body (including brain, retina, heart, and other tissues). As depicted in Figure 1, the EFAs can undergo cellular beta oxidation to provide cellular energy in the form of ATP as for the more common and prevalent saturated, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and any trans fatty acids that might be present in the diet. EFAs can also undergo esterification into cellular lipids including triglyceride, cholesterol ester, and phospholipid. The essential fatty acids which are assimilated into triglyceride forms are often stored therein until required later for subsequent metabolism and functioning. As such, the EFAs will be released from the stored triglyceride forms by enzymatic/hydrolytic processes. EFAs can also be temporarily stored as esterified fatty acids to a cholesterol backbone (as cholesterol ester); the EFAs can subsequently be released from the cholesterol ester forms and utilized for subsequent metabolism as well. The EFAs which are assimilated into phospholipid are particularly important in the overall structure-function of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids since these membrane forms (as phospholipids) maintain both the structural integrity and the critical functioning of cellular membranes throughout the body. Finally, and very importantly, the dietary EFAs present as linoleic acid (LA) and as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are activated to high-energy forms known as fatty-acyl CoA which provides for the conversion of these dietary PUFAs into their important longer-chain and more polyunsaturated products as derived by a series of desaturation plus elongation reactions which are particularly active in the liver and to a lesser extent in other tissues. Figure 1 : Overview of EFA metabolism 1 / 8

2 From the above discussions, it is apparent that some of the fatty acids which appear in the cells and tissues within the human body are derived directly from dietary sources and/or by way of endogenous synthesis within the body itself. The sources of the major physiologically-occurring fatty acids in the human body are outlined in Table 1 Table 1: Sources of major physiologically-occurring fatty acids (in human body) Physiological Fatty Acid(s) Dietary Source Endogenous (in-body) synthesis A) Saturates 16:0 (de-novo) 2 / 8

3 18:0 (elongation from 16:0) B) Monounsaturates (MUFAs) cis - 18:1 n-9 (desaturation of 18:0) Trans - 18:1 3 / 8

4 No C) Polyunsaturates (PUFAs) 18:2n-6, LA No 18:3n-3, ALA No 4 / 8

5 20:4n-6, AA * 20:5n-3, EPA ** 22:6n-3, DHA ** *Requires metabolic precursor (LA) to be present ** Requires metabolic precursor ( ALA ) to be present (limited conversion from ALA to EPA + DHA) As seen in the Table 1, the saturated fatty acids (e.g., 18:0, a saturated fatty acid of 18 carbons in chain length with no double bonds) can be readily synthesized in the body from the 5 / 8

6 two carbon unit known as acetate (acetyl-coa in its active cellular form). In addition, saturated fatty acids are derived from dietary sources and can be metabolized by desaturation reactions (insertion of a double bond enzymatically) to convert it into a monounsaturated fatty acid (18:1 with one double bond in the molecule which is designated as an n-9 since the double bond is adjacent to the 9 th carbon counting from the methyl end). It is noteworthy in Table 1 that LA and ALA in the body can only be derived by dietary sources since the human body totally lacks the enzymatic capacity to synthesize these two EFAs. In contrast, plant cells do have the enzymatic machinery to synthesize LA and ALA such that many plants and derived vegetable oils are abundant sources of both LA and ALA. AA (20:4n-6) is found in small amounts in animal food sources (e.g., eggs and meats) and can also be formed by desaturation plus elongation reactions from its precursor, LA. The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, DHA and EPA, can be formed to some degree in the human body, albeit to very limited extents as will be discussed later, and can be consumed preformed in the diet from sources rich in DHA/EPA such as fish/fish oils or functional foods which have been enriched or fortified with these important omega-3 fatty acids. Figure 2 shows the metabolic steps (desaturation plus elongation reactions) by which LA is metabolized to AA and by which ALA is metabolically converted to the long chain products including EPA and DHA, the physiologically-essential omega-3 fatty acid for brain and visual functioning. 6 / 8

7 It cells) which phospholipids) particularly relatively consumed available also (retroconversion) Some popular addressed experiments figure, systems levels resulted LA omega-6:omega-3 DHA/EPA fixed recommendations, recommended Canadian that somewhat higher amounts reactions studies pre-formed omega-3 questionable desaturation/elongation concept, reconsidered directly The (AA, and reproduction problematic As cyclo-oxygenase eicosanoids, Figure is mentioned moderately is and noted 2 lowering cells. indicates 20:4n-6) with depicted can is of commentary levels which ALA the 2 press (including dietary based of high for fatty presented be their While and moderately a herein. high efficiency DHA same ALA. where smaller and prostaglandins, readily of the since compared lower product which have previously. dietary acids to the ALA that enhancing preformed throughout EPA the concentrations very approximately Figure LA(n-6):ALA(n-3) Thus, and other back amount. development The dietary level animal initial such considerable enrichment attempts high lowered ratios context accumulates provided rise the EPA limited undergoes of levels. lipoxygenase formed enhanced the cells Figure to omega-6:omega-3 blood processes, metabolized higher dietary reactions 2 to of : levels found 3, marketing delta-6 relative EPA Furthermore, Desaturation, state. studies so-called provides various These higher that AA DHA/EPA those of and even of should This leukotrines samples for from conversion dietary/health 2. intakes initial to can of elevations AA has ALA 10:1 n-6:n-3 and/or tissues desaturation). levels beta to However, by provide animal omega-6:omega-3 to indicated for with cellular/tissue focusing tissues excessively from be of ALA systems) for partly be very to down (omega-6) such the body oxidation various levels of metabolized taken higher desaturation their Health EPA a progression made it potential elongation, such direct of (n-3), and experiments ALA highly body of for most due and concept enrichments. to upon it becoming by corresponding ALA plus situations from a of (as thromboxanes. to that 4:1. DHA intakes and nutritional concentrations giving the to do cells, somewhat tissues Early cellular levels high most dietary efficient to form reduce lipids/phospholipids DHA to LA: reaction. have dependency Subsequent subjects much dotted the Welfare originates undergo by EPA of and plus levels animal ratios interesting fact ALA a rise (e.g., of consumption mitochondria apparent have some diet various due where family plus EPA the elevation retroconversion ALA In supplements lower via elongation that line does better ) ratios of were conclusion, Thus, given products even Canada have 27:1 influenced omega-6:omega-3 very studies DHA. the chronic some which body. (particularly is despite AA primarily of the important much EPA oxygenase ratios human not then that a desaturation/elongation varying found conversion alone, down when not are high competitive of wide lower human reverse note As usually is plus of and figure. of that health these via shown considered of even readily DHA 1990 indicated studies subsequent to revealed needs variety ratios that functions, direct EPA common only dependent products LA:ALA of used moderate n-6:n-3 partially the 3:1) membrane body is enzymes when amount important accumulate omega-6:omega-3 metabolism and conditions. ALA a efficiency where numerous arachidonic referred a early are of inhibitory significant does consumption excessively have of limited which be (tissues EPA. by be ratios ingested consumed human enzyme known suppress such rodent one briefly they of dietary be moderately rise allow indicated (including and long-chain ALA Unlike amount of previous potentially the becomes to human strategy and effect as rise ALA acid as tissues omega-3 ratios, for EPA the was high the of LA a Fig to of polyun 7 / 8

8 Holub, , Wijendran, health. Williams, AA is rheumatoid cells 2) promotion. known important infarctions allow thereby with replacement activity) contrast Figure considered LTB which can Nutrition various and for B.J. as 4, Annu. be 3 reducing products has the tissues, C. PGE role a (heart converted those In V., Clinical arthritis, pro-thrombotic M., chronic Society. partial PUFAs been circulating Rev. to 2, and thrombus products attacks). the of AA associated Hayes, Nutr. nutrition: replacement a EPA disorders psoriasis Burdge, for amount 65:42-50, pro-inflammatory into TXA converted AA : blood 24: , plus Oxygenase-derived neutrophils High formed K.C. formation 2, and 4. G. of respectively. DHA cell with platelets, Omega vaso-constrictory Dietary intakes AA Long-chain the (reduction) mentioned. membranes, into from enhanced do available skin, and (white not the eicosanoid AA n-6 of associated fatty and EPA appear prostaglandin Finally, via and n-3 of is blood to Furthermore cell metabolites inflammatory acids converted AA can plus form PUFA: n-3 eicosanoid proliferation, same cells) associated also fatty DHA have with enzyme-generated cardiovascular plant inhibit aforementioned enzymatic form metabolites acid fatal the (eicosanoids) EPA form thromboxine-a gastrointestinal the v. which balance known potentially with mitogenesis, the marine plus diet, leukotriene-b non-fatal chronic conversion is pathways. DHA, such that though care. and sources. prostaglandin-e from harmful cellular have (via as when myocardial cardiovascular conditions 2 CMAJ. disorders. and (TXA to from AA 4 oxygenase efficiency been play (LTB Proceedings present possibly systems effects (n-6) fish/fish 2) 166: an associated which such 4 In ) of 2 certain which cancer (PGE oils, AA isof 8 / 8

Essential Fatty Acids Essential for Good Health SIE

Essential Fatty Acids Essential for Good Health SIE Page 1 of 6 Essential Fatty Acids Essential for Good Health SIE By Yousry Naguib, PhD Essential fatty acids (EFAs) must be obtained through the diet and cannot be synthesized by the human body. EFAs are

More information

Lipids Types, Food Sources, Functions

Lipids Types, Food Sources, Functions Lipids Types, Food Sources, Functions What Are Lipids? Lipids Diverse group of molecules that are insoluble in water Fats The lipid content of diets and foods 1 Lipids in Body Cells and Tissues Types of

More information

ANSC/NUTR 618 LIPIDS & LIPID METABOLISM. Fatty Acid Elongation and Desaturation

ANSC/NUTR 618 LIPIDS & LIPID METABOLISM. Fatty Acid Elongation and Desaturation ANSC/NUTR 618 LIPIDS & LIPID METABOLISM I. Fatty acid elongation A. General 1. At least 60% of fatty acids in triacylglycerols are C18. 2. Free palmitic acid (16:0) synthesized in cytoplasm is elongated

More information

Table 1: Dietary Sources of Omega-3 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Fatty Acid. Food Sources. (i) Omega-6 Types. LA, linoleic acid (18:2 n-6)

Table 1: Dietary Sources of Omega-3 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Fatty Acid. Food Sources. (i) Omega-6 Types. LA, linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) As for saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are chemically linked to fat structures known as triglycerides in the various foods and oils

More information

Differentiating omega-3 fatty acids from SPMs (specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators)

Differentiating omega-3 fatty acids from SPMs (specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators) NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre in nutrition Differentiating omega-3 fatty acids from SPMs (specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators) Philip Calder Professor of Nutritional Immunology University

More information

ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS - RED CELL

ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS - RED CELL Healthscope Functional Pathology 1868 Dandenong Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia www.functionalpathology.com.au ABN 62 006 823 089 T 1300 55 44 80 F 03 8540 5555 infofp@healthscope.com.au LAB No:

More information

OUTLINE. The need for fat. What is fat? Types of fats. Dietary sources of the different types of fat

OUTLINE. The need for fat. What is fat? Types of fats. Dietary sources of the different types of fat DIETARY FATS OUTLINE The need for fat What is fat? Types of fats Dietary sources of the different types of fat Evidence for cardiovascular health benefit of fish omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids Possible

More information

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism I. Overall concepts A. Definitions ANC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism 1. De novo synthesis = synthesis from non-fatty acid precursors a. Carbohydrate precursors (glucose, lactate, and pyruvate) b.

More information

There are three major types of omega-3 fatty acids that are ingested in foods and used by the body:

There are three major types of omega-3 fatty acids that are ingested in foods and used by the body: Long-chain fatty acids (LC-PUFAs: ARA, DHA and EPA) AT A GLANCE Introduction LC-PUFAs or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are mainly found in the form of two families of conditionally essential fatty

More information

Objectives By the end of lecture the student should:

Objectives By the end of lecture the student should: Objectives By the end of lecture the student should: Illustrate α oxidation of fatty acids. Understand ω oxidation of fatty acids. List sources and fates of active acetate. Discuss eicosanoids. 2- α Oxidation

More information

FATS The Facts. compiled by the Nestlé Research Center

FATS The Facts. compiled by the Nestlé Research Center FATS The Facts compiled by the Nestlé Research Center Dietary fats are a public health concern Dietary fats are necessary for ensuring optimal health. Recent dietary guidelines focus on fat quality and

More information

Heart Health and Fats

Heart Health and Fats ww Heart Health and Fats By Marie Spano, M.S., R.D., C.S.C.S., Contributing Editor Dietary-fat recommendations for heart health are more specific now then ever, breaking down different types of polyunsaturated

More information

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Athletics. Current Sports Medicine Reports July 2007, 6:

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Athletics. Current Sports Medicine Reports July 2007, 6: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Athletics 1 Current Sports Medicine Reports July 2007, 6:230 236 Artemis P. Simopoulos, MD The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, Washington, DC, USA EIB exercise-induced

More information

CHAPTER 28 LIPIDS SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS

CHAPTER 28 LIPIDS SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS HAPTER 28 LIPIDS SLUTINS T REVIEW QUESTINS 1. The lipids, which are dissimilar substances, are arbitrarily classified as a group on the basis of their solubility in fat solvents and their insolubility

More information

MODULE ID F14TN34 ROLE OF PUFA, MUFA AND TRANS FAT.

MODULE ID F14TN34 ROLE OF PUFA, MUFA AND TRANS FAT. Paper No. F14- Therapeutic Nutrition F14TN34- ROLE OF PUFA, MUFA AND TRANS FAT. 1. INTRODUCTION Presently the incidence of non communicable diseases is increased in most of the countries. The World Health

More information

A Specially Formulated Medical Food for the Dietary Management of Diabetic Retinopathy

A Specially Formulated Medical Food for the Dietary Management of Diabetic Retinopathy A Specially Formulated Medical Food for the Dietary Management of Diabetic Retinopathy TM Physician and Patient Focus nuretin is an orally administered Medical Food recommended by physicians for the prevention

More information

Lipid & Fat: Overview

Lipid & Fat: Overview Lipid & Fat: Overview What is a lipid? Triglycerides, Phospholipids and Sterols Triglycerides = Fat Saturated & unsaturated Essential fatty acids ü Omega 3 & Omega 6 Trans fat Why do you need fat? How

More information

Good, bad or essential fats: what is the story with Omega-3?

Good, bad or essential fats: what is the story with Omega-3? Good, bad or essential fats: what is the story with Omega-3? The author is Communications Manager, Roche Vitaminfo Service, UK. Keywords Disease, Fats Abstract Explains the value of Omega-3 fatty acids

More information

Erythrocyte Fatty Acid

Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Dr ******* **** ** ********** **** **** ******** Reference: :******** Receive date:02/11/2011 Print date:24/09/2013 Les données administratives enregistrées dans notre fichier informatisé sont celles qui

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following is TRUE about essential fatty acids? 1) A) No vegetables contain

More information

Introduction to the Study of Lipids

Introduction to the Study of Lipids Introduction to the Study of Lipids Factors to Consider in the Study of Biomolecules What are the features of the basic building blocks? (ex: monosaccharides, alcohols, fatty acids, amino acids) 1) General

More information

ALTERATIONS IN NEURAL FATTY ACID METABOLISM CAUSED BY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY

ALTERATIONS IN NEURAL FATTY ACID METABOLISM CAUSED BY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY ALTERATIONS IN NEURAL FATTY ACID METABOLISM CAUSED BY VITAMIN E DEFICIENCY Bonnie Buckingham Faculty Mentor: Dr. Maret Traber Linus Pauling Institute HHMI Summer 2011 Outline Significance Background Hypothesis

More information

3.9 Carbohydrates. Provide building materials and energy storage. Are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

3.9 Carbohydrates. Provide building materials and energy storage. Are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio 3.9 Carbohydrates Provide building materials and energy storage Are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Are of two main types Simple carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates

More information

Lipids and Classification:

Lipids and Classification: Lipids and Classification: Lipids: Biological lipids are a chemically diverse group of organic compounds which are insoluble or only poorly soluble in water. They are readily soluble in non-polar solvents

More information

Lecture: 26 OXIDATION OF FATTY ACIDS

Lecture: 26 OXIDATION OF FATTY ACIDS Lecture: 26 OXIDATION OF FATTY ACIDS Fatty acids obtained by hydrolysis of fats undergo different oxidative pathways designated as alpha ( ), beta ( ) and omega ( ) pathways. -oxidation -Oxidation of fatty

More information

Fats & Fatty Acids. Answer part 2: 810 Cal 9 Cal/g = 90 g of fat (see above: each gram of fat provies 9 Cal)

Fats & Fatty Acids. Answer part 2: 810 Cal 9 Cal/g = 90 g of fat (see above: each gram of fat provies 9 Cal) Fats & Fatty Acids Function of Fats Store energy (typically stored in the form of triglyceride fat molecules, shown on next page) Burn for energy (energy content is 9 Cal/g) Fatty acids are components

More information

Pattern of lipid biomarkers and risk of cardiovascular disease

Pattern of lipid biomarkers and risk of cardiovascular disease Pattern of lipid biomarkers and risk of cardiovascular disease Robert Clarke Clinical Trial Service Unit University of Oxford 9 January 2017 Biomarkers for dietary fats Blood lipids (LDL, HDL, triglycerides,

More information

Omega 3s A Key Nutrient for Good Heart Health Laurence Smith, CNC, B.A. 2-On Time Prize Drawing Winners. Omega 3s A Key Nutrient for Good Heart Health

Omega 3s A Key Nutrient for Good Heart Health Laurence Smith, CNC, B.A. 2-On Time Prize Drawing Winners. Omega 3s A Key Nutrient for Good Heart Health Omega 3s A Key Nutrient for Good Heart Health Download the PDF Handouts at nspwebinars.com 2-On Time Prize Drawing Winners Winners, please email your mailing address and NSP account number to: nspwebinars@natr.com

More information

Oils Rich in alpha-linolenic acid independently protect against characteristics of fatty liver disease in the delta-6 desaturase null mouse

Oils Rich in alpha-linolenic acid independently protect against characteristics of fatty liver disease in the delta-6 desaturase null mouse Oils Rich in alpha-linolenic acid independently protect against characteristics of fatty liver disease in the delta-6 desaturase null mouse By Jessica Monteiro A Thesis presented to The University of Guelph

More information

ENERGY NUTRIENTS: THE BIG PICTURE WHY WE EAT FUNCTIONS FATS FAT, CARBS, PROTEIN

ENERGY NUTRIENTS: THE BIG PICTURE WHY WE EAT FUNCTIONS FATS FAT, CARBS, PROTEIN ENERGY NUTRIENTS: FAT, CARBS, PROTEIN Angeline B. David, DRPH, MHS NAD Health Summit March 14, 2013 The science of cooking is not a small matter.... This art should be regarded as the most valuable of

More information

ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES. Lipid Chemistry NO. OF CARBONS COMMON NAME GENEVA NAME STRUCTURE

ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES. Lipid Chemistry NO. OF CARBONS COMMON NAME GENEVA NAME STRUCTURE ANSC 619 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF LIVESTOCK SPECIES I. Common Saturated Fatty Acids NO. OF CARBONS COMMON NAME GENEVA NAME STRUCTURE 4 Butyric Tetranoic CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 COOH 6 Caproic Hexanoic CH 3 (CH

More information

Lipids Definition. Definition: Water insoluble No common structure (though generally large R groups)

Lipids Definition. Definition: Water insoluble No common structure (though generally large R groups) Lipids Definition Definition: Water insoluble No common structure (though generally large R groups) Water Solubility (Hydrophilic) What makes molecules water soluble (hydrophilic)? Like dissolves like

More information

FLAXSEED Health Benefits and Functionality. Kelley C. Fitzpatrick Director of Health FLAX COUNCIL OF CANADA

FLAXSEED Health Benefits and Functionality. Kelley C. Fitzpatrick Director of Health FLAX COUNCIL OF CANADA FLAXSEED Health Benefits and Functionality Kelley C. Fitzpatrick Director of Health FLAX COUNCIL OF CANADA Consumers are interested in Positive Nutrition The trend is no longer just to remove bad ingredients

More information

Healthier Oils: Stability & Performance. Chakra Wijesundera CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences Werribee, Vic 3030

Healthier Oils: Stability & Performance. Chakra Wijesundera CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences Werribee, Vic 3030 Healthier Oils: Stability & Performance Chakra Wijesundera CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences Werribee, Vic 3030 Presentation Outline Growing consumer demand for healthier oils What are the healthier

More information

FATTY ACIDS --- BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

FATTY ACIDS --- BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION FATTY ACIDS --- BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Studies on Fatty Acids in the Brain Bourre JM. Importance of Exogenous Saturated Fatty Acids During Brain Development and Mylenization in mice. Ann. Biol Anim

More information

Fats Can Be Good For You!

Fats Can Be Good For You! Fats Can Be Good For You! Fat Quiz (True or False) 1. Excess fat in the diet is a major cause of heart disease. 2. Saturated fats raise cholesterol levels. 3. The saturated fats in butter and coconut oil

More information

Dr. Nafith Abu Tarboush

Dr. Nafith Abu Tarboush 5 Dr. Nafith Abu Tarboush June 25 th 2013 Mohammad Abu Dosh Sheet 5.. Lipids ( Dr. Nafith ) : Classification of fatty acids : - they are classified depending on the existence of double bonds to : 1) Saturated

More information

THE PROBLEM OMEGA 3. pure

THE PROBLEM OMEGA 3. pure p2 THE PROBLEM Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are polyunsaturated fats that our bodies need but cannot produce. Therefore, they must be consumed through food or supplements. Omega 3 and Omega 6 are EFAs.

More information

OPINION. of the French Food Safety Agency on the update of French population reference intakes (ANCs) for fatty acids. Maisons-Alfort, 1 March 2010

OPINION. of the French Food Safety Agency on the update of French population reference intakes (ANCs) for fatty acids. Maisons-Alfort, 1 March 2010 Maisons-Alfort, 1 March 2010 OPINION THE DIRECTOR GENERAL of the French Food Safety Agency on the update of French population reference intakes (ANCs) for fatty s 1. REVIEW OF THE REQUEST The French Food

More information

NORDIC NATURALS NORDIC PET

NORDIC NATURALS NORDIC PET NORDIC NATURALS NORDIC PET Introducing The Nordic Pet Range Exceptional Products for Your Exceptional Pet Nordic Naturals achieves exceptional products by using fish oils that surpass stringent quality

More information

UCLA Nutrition Noteworthy

UCLA Nutrition Noteworthy UCLA Nutrition Noteworthy Title Effects of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Breast Cancer Permalink https://escholarship.org/uc/item/12g6398b Journal Nutrition Noteworthy, 2(1) ISSN 1556-1895

More information

PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ABNORMALITIES AND REDUCED NIACIN SKIN FLUSH RESPONSE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ABNORMALITIES AND REDUCED NIACIN SKIN FLUSH RESPONSE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ABNORMALITIES AND REDUCED NIACIN SKIN FLUSH RESPONSE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA Alena Buretić-Tomljanović 1, Jasminka Giacometti 1, Sergej Nadalin 1, Gordana Rubeša 2, Mirjana Vulin 3, Draško

More information

Lipids. OpenStax College

Lipids. OpenStax College OpenStax-CNX module: m44401 1 Lipids OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section, you will be able

More information

Steroid Hormones Synthesis

Steroid Hormones Synthesis *I ll try my best to incorporate the Slides in this Sheet; you don t need to study the slides if you study this sheet. Steroid Hormones Synthesis - The figure to the right is the Steroid nucleus, it has

More information

UGRC 145: FOOD AND NUTRITION IN EVERYDAY LIFE

UGRC 145: FOOD AND NUTRITION IN EVERYDAY LIFE UGRC 145: FOOD AND NUTRITION IN EVERYDAY LIFE Session 2 MACRONUTRIENTS Lecturer: PROF. MATILDA STEINER-ASIEDU, SBS, CBAS; University of Ghana, Email: tillysteiner@gmail.com College of Education School

More information

Fats and Lipids (Ans570)

Fats and Lipids (Ans570) Fats and Lipids (Ans570) Outlines Fats and Lipids Structure, nomenclature Phospholipids, Sterols, and Lipid Derivatives Lipid Oxidation Roles of fat in food processing and dietary fat Lipid and fat analysis:

More information

Prostaglandins And Other Biologically Active Lipids

Prostaglandins And Other Biologically Active Lipids Prostaglandins And Other Biologically Active Lipids W. M. Grogan, Ph.D. OBJECTIVES After studying the material of this lecture, the student will: 1. Draw the structure of a prostaglandin, name the fatty

More information

Other Health Benefits of Flax

Other Health Benefits of Flax Chapter 7 Other Health Benefits of Flax Previous chapters examined the benefits of flax and its key constituents the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), dietary fibre and alpha-linolenic acid

More information

NEW SOYBEAN OIL INNOVATIONS:

NEW SOYBEAN OIL INNOVATIONS: INNOVATE COLLABORATE ADVANCE NEW SOYBEAN OIL INNOVATIONS: COMING TO A PLATE NEAR YOU A GUIDE FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONALS SOYBEAN OIL REACHES NEW HEIGHTS Soybean oil is one of the most abundant vegetable oils

More information

Oxidation of Long Chain Fatty Acids

Oxidation of Long Chain Fatty Acids Oxidation of Long Chain Fatty Acids Dr NC Bird Oxidation of long chain fatty acids is the primary source of energy supply in man and animals. Hibernating animals utilise fat stores to maintain body heat,

More information

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and risk of type-2 diabetes: Lack of antioxidants?

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and risk of type-2 diabetes: Lack of antioxidants? Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and risk of type-2 diabetes: Lack of antioxidants? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition August 2011; Vol. 94; No. 2; pp. 618-619 Bjarne Osterud This author cites evidence

More information

Omega-3 Index Complete We are pleased to bring you a new test for fatty acids that requires no blood draw, at a great price.

Omega-3 Index Complete We are pleased to bring you a new test for fatty acids that requires no blood draw, at a great price. The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc. Omega-3 Index Complete We are pleased to bring you a new test for fatty acids that requires no blood draw, at a great price. Many studies have shown that people with higher

More information

Fats, Cholesterol, and Hormones

Fats, Cholesterol, and Hormones Fats, Cholesterol, and Hormones 1 Types of Fats Lipids biological origin sparingly soluble in water Main classes of lipids Fatty Acids long hydrocarbon chains with a carboxylic acid on one end Triacylglycerols

More information

LIPIDS Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012

LIPIDS Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012 LIPIDS Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012 The Lipid Family Triglycerides Phospholipids Sterols All types of lipids are: soluble in organic solvents such as chloroform, benzene, and ether, but not in water. Differ

More information

Nutritional Oils. NOW Guide to Nutritional Oils

Nutritional Oils. NOW Guide to Nutritional Oils Nutritional Oils NOW Guide to Nutritional Oils The Health Benefits of Nutritional Oils Fatty Acids & Nutritional Oils for Human Health Nutritional oils are a class of lipids (fats) that belong to a larger

More information

Lipid Metabolism. Catabolism Overview

Lipid Metabolism. Catabolism Overview Lipid Metabolism Pratt & Cornely, Chapter 17 Catabolism Overview Lipids as a fuel source from diet Beta oxidation Mechanism ATP production Ketone bodies as fuel 1 High energy More reduced Little water

More information

The health benefits of shellfish: What should we be promoting? Professor Bruce Griffin Nutrition Division Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences

The health benefits of shellfish: What should we be promoting? Professor Bruce Griffin Nutrition Division Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences The health benefits of shellfish: What should we be promoting? Professor Bruce Griffin Nutrition Division Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences What should we be promoting? Define health benefits in terms

More information

ECUOMEGA THE BEST BALANCE

ECUOMEGA THE BEST BALANCE ECUOMEGA 3-6-9 THE BEST BALANCE THE BEST BALANCE GENERAL DESCRIPTION. Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis linneo) is a native oil plant in the Amazon region of Ecuador, but in the last twenty years plantations

More information

Composition and Structure of Oil and Fats and its Relationship to Health and Nutrition

Composition and Structure of Oil and Fats and its Relationship to Health and Nutrition Composition and Structure of Oil and Fats and its Relationship to Health and Nutrition SB Neoh* & K. Sundram** * Managing Director, Soon Soon Oilmills Sdn Bhd, Malaysia **Deputy CEO and Director, Science

More information

Whole Body Synthesis of Docosahexaenoic Acid from Alpha-Linolenic Acid in. Rodents

Whole Body Synthesis of Docosahexaenoic Acid from Alpha-Linolenic Acid in. Rodents Whole Body Synthesis of Docosahexaenoic Acid from Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Rodents By Anthony Frank Domenichiello A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

More information

Omega-3 supplementation promotes key anti-inflammatory pathways that naturally support back, neck, and joint health and mobility

Omega-3 supplementation promotes key anti-inflammatory pathways that naturally support back, neck, and joint health and mobility n Promotes key anti-inflammatory pathways n Promotes joint mobility and flexibility n Is a natural adjunct to conventional therapies n Is safe for long-term use Omega-3 supplementation promotes key anti-inflammatory

More information

Nutrition & Wellness for Life 2012 Chapter 6: Fats: A Concentrated Energy Source

Nutrition & Wellness for Life 2012 Chapter 6: Fats: A Concentrated Energy Source Tools: Printer 8.5 x 11 paper Scissors Directions: 1. Print 2. Fold paper in half vertically 3. Cut along dashed lines Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Tissue in which the body

More information

FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF FISH, LINSEED AND RAPESEED OILS

FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF FISH, LINSEED AND RAPESEED OILS Short Communication FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF FISH, LINSEED AND RAPESEED OILS S. Ezhil Valavan 1, B Mohan, P Selvaraj, S. C. Edwin, K. Mani, R. Amutha and A. Bharathidhasan Directorate of Distance Education

More information

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fish Oils

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fish Oils Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fish Oils A. Macrophage Production of Eicosanoids B. w-3 PUFA Supplementation of Macrophages C. w-3 PUFA in IR & diabetes Oswald Quehenberger Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology

More information

BIOSYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS. doc. Ing. Zenóbia Chavková, CSc.

BIOSYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS. doc. Ing. Zenóbia Chavková, CSc. BIOSYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS doc. Ing. Zenóbia Chavková, CSc. The pathway for the of FAs is not the reversal of the oxidation pathway Both pathways are separated within different cellular compartments In

More information

Increasing Dietary Linoleic Acid Does Not Increase Tissue Arachidonic Acid Content in Adults Consuming Western- Type Diets

Increasing Dietary Linoleic Acid Does Not Increase Tissue Arachidonic Acid Content in Adults Consuming Western- Type Diets University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Masters Theses Graduate School 5-2011 Increasing Dietary Linoleic Acid Does Not Increase Tissue Arachidonic Acid Content

More information

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose.

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose. The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available body fuel is: a. fat. b. glucose. c. acetyl CoA. d. cellulose. Dietary fats are important because: a. they keep blood pressure normal.

More information

Lipid Metabolism * OpenStax

Lipid Metabolism * OpenStax OpenStax-CNX module: m46462 1 Lipid Metabolism * OpenStax This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this section, you will be able

More information

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism I. verall concepts A. Definitions ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism 1. De novo synthesis = synthesis from non-fatty acid precursors a. Carbohydrate precursors (glucose and lactate) 1) Uses glucose

More information

Unit IV Problem 3 Biochemistry: Cholesterol Metabolism and Lipoproteins

Unit IV Problem 3 Biochemistry: Cholesterol Metabolism and Lipoproteins Unit IV Problem 3 Biochemistry: Cholesterol Metabolism and Lipoproteins - Cholesterol: It is a sterol which is found in all eukaryotic cells and contains an oxygen (as a hydroxyl group OH) on Carbon number

More information

Chapter 3: Macromolecules. 1. Carbohydrates. Polysaccharides. Maltose is a disaccharide. Macromolecules (in general) Most macromolecules are polymers

Chapter 3: Macromolecules. 1. Carbohydrates. Polysaccharides. Maltose is a disaccharide. Macromolecules (in general) Most macromolecules are polymers Chapter 3: Macromolecules Macromolecules is just a fancy word for: Giant Molecules Made From Smaller Building Blocks Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids Macromolecules (in general) Most macromolecules

More information

Agenda. Chapter 3: Macromolecules. 1. Carbohydrates. Macromolecules (in general) What are organic compounds?

Agenda. Chapter 3: Macromolecules. 1. Carbohydrates. Macromolecules (in general) What are organic compounds? Agenda Chapter 3 The molecules of life Macromolecules --Detour into Healthy Pig Land 4. Nucelic acids Chapter 3: Macromolecules Macromolecules is just a fancy word for: Giant Molecules Made From Smaller

More information

Chemistry Chapter 21

Chemistry Chapter 21 Chemistry 2100 Chapter 21 Lipids Fa3y Acids CH oleic acid (mp 4 C) CH stearic acid (mp 70 C) Triacylglycerols Fatty Acids! The fatty acid components of triglycerides have certain things in common: 1.

More information

Transfer of food energy to chemical energy. Includes anabolic and catabolic reactions. The cell is the metabolic processing center

Transfer of food energy to chemical energy. Includes anabolic and catabolic reactions. The cell is the metabolic processing center Metabolism There are a lot of diagrams here. DO NOT, I repeat, DO NOT get overly anxious or excited about them. We will go through them again slowly!! Read the slides, read the book, DO NOT TAKE NOTES.

More information

MILK BIOSYNTHESIS PART 3: FAT

MILK BIOSYNTHESIS PART 3: FAT MILK BIOSYNTHESIS PART 3: FAT KEY ENZYMES (FROM ALL BIOSYNTHESIS LECTURES) FDPase = fructose diphosphatase Citrate lyase Isocitrate dehydrogenase Fatty acid synthetase Acetyl CoA carboxylase Fatty acyl

More information

Reactivity and Biological Functions of Oxidized Lipids

Reactivity and Biological Functions of Oxidized Lipids Reactivity and Biological Functions of Oxidized Lipids Matthew J. Picklo, Sr. Outline 1. Lipid Oxidation Mechanisms and Products 2. Biological Mechanisms 3. n-3 vs n-6 PUFA Oxidation 1. Fatty acids 2.

More information

Milk Fatty Acids: The Building Blocks of Fat

Milk Fatty Acids: The Building Blocks of Fat Milk Fatty Acids: The Building Blocks of Fat Lawrence R. Jones, PhD American Farm Products, Inc ljones@afpltd.net FARME Institute, Inc info@farme.com The mammary cell has evolved to provide nourishment

More information

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism

ANSC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid ynthesis I. verall concepts A. Definitions ANC/NUTR 618 Lipids & Lipid Metabolism Fatty Acid ynthesis 1. De novo synthesis = synthesis from non-fatty acid precursors a. Carbohydrate precursors

More information

THE SECRET TO SOFT, SMOOTH SKIN

THE SECRET TO SOFT, SMOOTH SKIN THE SECRET TO SOFT, SMOOTH SKIN Dr. James Meschino, D.C., M.S., N.D. One of the best kept secrets in the health and beauty world is that nutritional supplementation with the right dosage and combination

More information

The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids and Sterols

The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids and Sterols The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids and Sterols Chapter 5 The Lipids-Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols The Lipid Family Triglycerides (fats and oils) Predominate in the body (99%) and in foods

More information

Chapter 11 Nutrition: Food for Thought

Chapter 11 Nutrition: Food for Thought Chapter 11 Nutrition: Food for Thought Do you think about the food that goes into your body and how it affects you? How can you interpret the various nutrition information found in the press? What are

More information

Important Differences Exist in the Dose Response Relationship between Diet and Immune Cell Fatty Acids in Humans and Rodents

Important Differences Exist in the Dose Response Relationship between Diet and Immune Cell Fatty Acids in Humans and Rodents Lipids (2007) 42:961 979 DOI 10.1007/s11745-007-3106-9 REVIEW Important Differences Exist in the Dose Response Relationship between Diet and Immune Cell Fatty Acids in Humans and Rodents Kevin Fritsche

More information

Metabolism is the sum of body processes inside living cells that sustain life and health.

Metabolism is the sum of body processes inside living cells that sustain life and health. Keeping it Simple Nutrition in General: Metabolism is the sum of body processes inside living cells that sustain life and health. The registered dietician role is to carry out major responsibilities in

More information

Carlo Agostoni Fondazione IRCCS Department of Maternal and Pediatric Sciences University of Milan, Italy

Carlo Agostoni Fondazione IRCCS Department of Maternal and Pediatric Sciences University of Milan, Italy Carlo Agostoni Fondazione IRCCS Department of Maternal and Pediatric Sciences University of Milan, Italy Energy Protein Fat quality docosahexaenoic acid Micronutrients Vitamin D Dieting during lactation?

More information

Figure 13-1: Antiplatelet Action of Aspirin (Modified After Taneja et.al 2004) ASPIRIN RESISTANCE

Figure 13-1: Antiplatelet Action of Aspirin (Modified After Taneja et.al 2004) ASPIRIN RESISTANCE CHAPTER 13 ASPIRIN Action Aspirin Resistance Aspirin Dose Therapeutic Efficacy - Secondary prevention - Acute coronary syndromes - Primary prevention Limitations and Side Effects Aspirin Aspirin should

More information

What should I eat? I am so confused. Jennifer Lyon DO

What should I eat? I am so confused. Jennifer Lyon DO What should I eat? I am so confused. Jennifer Lyon DO Conflict of Interest Disclosure I have no conflict of interest to report Overview 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines 5 primary guidelines Sugar intake Sodium

More information

Alternative IV Lipid Emulsions. Michelle Henry, MPH, RD, CNSC Medical Science Liaison, Fresenius Kabi LLC, USA Oley Conference January 2017

Alternative IV Lipid Emulsions. Michelle Henry, MPH, RD, CNSC Medical Science Liaison, Fresenius Kabi LLC, USA Oley Conference January 2017 Alternative IV Lipid Emulsions Michelle Henry, MPH, RD, CNSC Medical Science Liaison, Fresenius Kabi LLC, USA Oley Conference January 2017 Provide brief background on lipids and their function Discuss

More information

The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols

The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols Chapter 5 The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols PowerPoint Lectures for Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, eleventh edition Frances Sizer and Ellie Whitney ectures by Judy Kaufman, Ph.D.

More information

Synthesis and degradation of fatty acids Martina Srbová

Synthesis and degradation of fatty acids Martina Srbová Synthesis and degradation of fatty acids Martina Srbová martina.srbova@lfmotol.cuni.cz Fatty acids (FA) mostly an even number of carbon atoms and linear chain in esterified form as component of lipids

More information

LIPIDS C H A P T E R 6

LIPIDS C H A P T E R 6 LIPIDS C H A P T E R 6 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES Explain the basic chemical structure of fatty acids and how they are named Describe the functions of triglycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols in

More information

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic disease

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic disease N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic disease Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care Volume 7(2) March 2004 pp 123-129 Susan Prescott and Philip Calder Abbreviations DHA: EPA:

More information

Victor Tambunan. Department of Nutrition Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Victor Tambunan. Department of Nutrition Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia Victor Tambunan Department of Nutrition Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia 1 Handbook of Clinical Nutrition 4th ed., 2006, by D. C. Heimburger & J. A. Ard Krause s Nutrition & Diet Therapy 12th

More information

Nutraceuticals & Lifestyle Changes That Can Halt The Progression Of Alzheimer s. by Dr. Gregory Smith

Nutraceuticals & Lifestyle Changes That Can Halt The Progression Of Alzheimer s. by Dr. Gregory Smith Nutraceuticals & Lifestyle Changes That Can Halt The Progression Of Alzheimer s by Dr. Gregory Smith DIET: Studies of dietary influences on Alzheimer's disease do not yet provide clear evidence. Also the

More information

Inflammation and the Role of Essential Fatty Acids

Inflammation and the Role of Essential Fatty Acids Functional Diagnostic Medicine Training Program Module 5 * FMDT 541B Inflammation and the Role of Essential Fatty Acids Limits of Liability & Disclaimer of Warranty We have designed this book to provide

More information

Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids by skin epidermal enzymes: generation of antiinflammatory and antiproliferative metabolites 1 3

Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids by skin epidermal enzymes: generation of antiinflammatory and antiproliferative metabolites 1 3 Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids by skin epidermal enzymes: generation of antiinflammatory and antiproliferative metabolites 1 3 Vincent A Ziboh, Craig C Miller, and Yunhi Cho ABSTRACT In the

More information

Reviewers' comments: Reviewer #1 (Remarks to the Author):

Reviewers' comments: Reviewer #1 (Remarks to the Author): Reviewers' comments: Reviewer #1 (Remarks to the Author): Bempedoic acid (ETC-1002) is an ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) inhibitor that in clinical studies has been shown to decrease plasma LDL cholesterol apparently

More information

Influence of Fats and Oils in Evolutionary Aspects of Humanity. Fats made us humans

Influence of Fats and Oils in Evolutionary Aspects of Humanity. Fats made us humans Influence of Fats and Oils in Evolutionary Aspects of Humanity. Fats made us humans José Enrique Campillo Álvarez. University of Extremadura, Spain elmonoobeso@hotmail.com There are two importants facts

More information

Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of oxidizing food molecules, like glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released is trapped in the form of

More information

Regulation of Enzyme Activity

Regulation of Enzyme Activity Regulation of Enzyme Activity Enzyme activity must be regulated so that the proper levels of products are produced at all times and places This control occurs in several ways: - biosynthesis at the genetic

More information

Name: Class: "Pharmacology NSAIDS (1) Lecture

Name: Class: Pharmacology NSAIDS (1) Lecture I Name: Class: "Pharmacology NSAIDS (1) Lecture د. احمد الزهيري Inflammation is triggered by the release of chemical mediators from injured tissues and migrating cells. The specific mediators vary with

More information