Unit 2: Metabolic Processes

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1 How is energy obtained biologically? Recall: Red Ox Reactions Unit 2: Metabolic Processes Oxidation Is the chief mechanism by which chemical potential energy is released This energy comes from reduced compounds. Reduced compounds include: Lipids (high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms) Carbohydrates (broken down into simple sugars) Even proteins (amino acids) in a pinch. Redox Rx ns involve the flow of electrons Oxidation: loss of e remove H add O Reduction: gain of e gain H lose O eg. Acetaldehyde + NADH + H + => ethanol + NAD + NADH + H + => NAD + + H 2 O=CH CH 3 + H 2 => HO CH 2 CH 3 LEO (oxidised) GER(reduced) 1

2 RedOx in Biological systems: When and how Oxidation/Reduction occurs at: moderate temperatures in the presence of enzymes in small steps to minimize energy loss eg. NAD + + H 2 NADH + H+ (Oxidised Form) (Reduced Form) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide the reduced version carries 2 electrons from enzyme to enzyme In the example above, the electrons most likely came from a energy source like glucose eg. FAD + H 2 FADH 2 Flavin adenine dinucleotide - the reduced version carries electrons from enzyme to enzyme (and has the ability to carry the 2 protons too!) 2

3 Cellular Respiration goal is to breakdown molecules (glucose) into useful energy sources (ATP adenosine triphosphate) there are two types of cellular respiration 1) Aerobic 2) Anaerobic Aerobic respiration occurs in 4 steps / phases 1) Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm 2) Transition phase / Pyruvate Oxidation occurs as pyruvate enters into the mitochondria 3) Kreb Cycle / Citric Acid Cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix 4) Electron Transport Chain occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane (eukaryotes) 3

4 = Energy investment phase = phosphorylation isomerization (fructose 1,6 biphosphate in text) = phosphorylation Glycolysis Phase 1: Catabolism of Glucose Phase 1 (overview) In > 1 molecule of glucose goes in (one 6 C molecule) In > 2 molecules of ATP Out > 2 molecules of PGAL (G3P text) (two 3C molecules) Out > 2 molecules of ADP Stage I is the same in both aerobic respiration and in anaerobic fermentation (take note of this it comes up later) 4

5 Glycolysis phase 2 = energy payoff phase (1,3 biphosphoglycerate in text) isomerization Remember that this reaction proceeds twice, so the two ATP s produced will actually result in a total of 4 ATP s Glycolysis Phase 2: Catabolism of PGAL Phase 2 (overview) inorganic phosphate is added to each of the 2 PGAL's NAD+ acts as an oxidizing agent It gains an H and an e and is therefore reduced NAD + + 2H > NADH + H + 4 ATP molecules and 2 pyruvic acid molecules are produced for every molecule of glucose which under goes glycolysis two 3 phosphoglyceraldehyde are produced therefore, phase II occurs 2 X per glucose molecule. Glycolysis Phase 2 Summary What goes in must come out molecules in: 2 PGAL, 2 NAD+, 2 Pi, 4 ADP molecules out: 2 pyruvic acid 2 NADH (used elsewhere by cell) 4 ATP 2 H 2 O Note: 2 ATP in during phase 1 4 ATP out in phase 2 Therefore a net gain of 2 ATP 5

6 Glycolysis Summary : Phase I + II 1 glucose + 2 ATP + 2 NAD+ >2 NADH + 4 ATP + 2 pyruvic acid NET energy gain And 2 NADH 2ATP 1 glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvate molecules 2 6

7 Free Energy per molecule Free Energy 7

8 Goal of glycolysis: It is a process to harness energy in which a glucose molecule is broken down into 2 pyruvate molecules in the cytoplasm of a cell READ: Section 3.2, 3.4 (background) What is substrate level phosphorylation? What is oxidative phosphorylation? Section 4.1, 4.2 8

9 Pyruvate Oxidation Pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrion Pyruvate is broken down into Acetyl CoA in a process called oxidative decarboxylation glucose > 2 Pyruvate + 2 NAD+ > 2 Acetyl CoA + 2NADH + 2CO 2 Glycolysis generates a NADH so does This! (Find out later how NAD+ is reformed) 9

10 10

11 11

12 Krebs = TCA = Citric Acid CYCLE 12

13 CoA CoA 13

14 Conversion of Energy Molecules: NADH = 3 ATP FADH 2 = 2 ATP NADH in cytoplasm from glycolysis = FADH 2 in mitochondrial matrix Theoretical Yield of ATP substrate level phosphorylation transport + ETC ETC substrate level phosphorylation ETC ETC Total ATP is 36 ATP / glucose molecule, which is about 41% of the energy of Glucose. 14

15 Summary of Aerobic Respiration 15

16 **How to move NADH into mitochondria: 1) Glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle transports NADH with the cost of an ATP molecule If this is used, you will have 36 ATP theoretically from 1 glucose molecule There are A LOT of these shuttles 2) Malate aspartate shuttle transports NADH without the use of an ATP molecule! If this is used, you will end up with 38 ATP theoretically from 1 glucose molecule There are very few of these shuttles 16

17 Carbohydrates Short term, used first Alternatives to Glucose Lipids Triglycerides are the major source They are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol is converted to PGAL then enters into glycolysis II Fatty acids undergo beta oxidation to become acetyl coa Proteins Normally not used for energy, can be used during starvation Proteins are hydrolyzed before being oxidized Amino group is removed and the remaining molecule enters as pyruvate or acetyl coa or a component of the kreb cycle; depends on R group and enzymes that convert them. Liver stores excess glucose as glycogen (glycogenesis) and fat (lipogenesis) and converts amino acids into glucose (gluconeogenesis, the opposite of glycolysis) Adipose tissue stores (lipogenesis) & breaks down (lipolysis) fats Brain can only use glucose don't draw diagram 17

18 Regulation of Cellular Respiration: Mostly Negative Feedback Inhibition **** high [citrate] inhibits phosphofructokinase 18

19 The Fate of pyruvate Which pathway to choose? Options cellular respiration alcoholic fermentation lactic acid fermentation (aerobes) (yeast) (Oxygen deprived muscles) Cytoplasm Ethanol Cytoplasm Lactic Acid Acetyl CoA 19

20 Read Section creatine phosphate + rates Do Pg 189 #2,

21 Phosphorylation Substrate level vs. Oxidative 21

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