1 Effect of low temperatures on BAX and BCL2 proteins in rats with spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury P. Zhu 1 *, M.Y. Zhao 1,2 *, X.H. Li 1 *, Q. Fu 1, Z.F. Zhou 1, C.F. Huang 1, X.S. Zhang 1, H.L. Huang 1, Y. Tan 3, J.X. Li 1, J.N. Li 1, S. Huang 1, M. Ashraf 3, C. Lu 1, J.M. Chen 1, J. Zhuang 1 and H.M. Guo 1 1 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China 2 Department of Pediatrics, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China 3 Department of Pharmacology, UIC College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this study. Corresponding authors: J.M. Chen / J. Zhuang / H.M. Guo / / Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (3): (2015) Received December 18, 2014 Accepted May 18, 2015 Published September 8, 2015 DOI ABSTRACT. We evaluated changes in BAX and BCL2 expression levels after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (SCII) and hypothermia during operations in rats. Eighty rats were divided into four groups: Group A (N = 20, 18 C); Group B (N = 20, 28 C); Group C (N = 20, room temperature); and Group D (N = 20, sham operation control). Spinal cord ischemia was induced for 90 min. Hypothermia was induced 15 min before, and maintained during ischemia, followed by heating to normothermia for 30 min after reperfusion. Motor function of the lower limbs was evaluated according to the Tarlov score at 72 and 168 h. For each rat, spinal cord samples were taken at 6, 24, 72 h, and 1 week to evaluate the histopathological changes, neuronal
2 BAX and BCL2 in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury rats apoptosis, and BAX and BCL2 expression levels. Compared with normothermia, hypothermia significantly improved hind limb function; Group B achieved a higher score than Group A. Group D showed no neurologic deficiency, while the other groups showed various degrees. Group C exhibited greater neuronal apoptosis, higher BAX expression, but lower BCL2 expression than the other groups. Compared with Group A, BAX was expressed less and BCL2 more in Group B, and there was less apoptosis in Group B. Hypothermia preserves hind limb motor function and reduces neuronal death, thereby protecting rats from SCII. The spinal cord may be protected from SCII by inhibition of BAX and activation of BCL2. However, deep hypothermia may inhibit the expression of BCL2, resulting in a worse outcome than mild hypothermia. Key words: Hypothermia; Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury; BAX; BCL2 INTRODUCTION Surgery on the chest often requires blocking of the abdominal aorta. However, the associated spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (SCII) can cause paraplegia in severe cases (Guo et al., 2004). Conducting heart operations at low temperatures as a means of protecting the central nervous system has been widely used in clinics, and the mechanisms by which SCII is protected against, such as inhibition of apoptosis, excitatory amino acid toxicity, and inflammatory reactions, have been reported (Mahura, 2003). However, these mechanisms are still not completely clear. The protective effects against SCII at various low temperatures (moderately low temperatures and very low temperatures) have rarely been reported in China. Güler et al. (2010) established the rat spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion model using the two-clip method, and reported the influence of low temperature on the apoptosis of cerebral neuronal cells in that model during the acute and subacute stages. Here, we report our preliminary investigation of the neuroprotective effect of different temperatures on the rat spinal SCII model. Our objective was to determine whether the protective effect is closely related to the inhibition of apoptosis in nerve cells to improve the SCII protection method. MATERIAL AND METHODS Establishment of animal SCII model and grouping Eighty adult male Sprague Dawley rats (weight 200 ± 20 g) were provided by the Guangdong Province Medical Animal Experimental Center. They were randomly divided into four groups with 20 rats in each group. The indices of five rats from each group were separately measured at three different points: 24, 72 h, and 1 week. Rats in the 18 C low-temperature treatment group (Group A) were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of 10% chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg). A longitudinal incision was made in the abdominal wall along the ventral midline, and the proximal abdominal aorta was exposed along the left renal artery bifurcation. The distal abdominal aorta was separated and
3 P. Zhu et al exposed at the bifurcation of the iliac artery. An artery clamp was applied to the distal end of the near abdominal aorta. The temperature of the rats was reduced to approximately 8 C 20 min before clamping, and a systemic low temperature of 18 C was maintained during clamping. The artery clamp was opened after 90 min. For the rats in the 28 C low-temperature treatment group (Group B), the procedure was the same as for the Group A, except that the rats body temperature was reduced to 28 C and maintained at that temperature for the clamping period. By gently reheating after lifting the clamp, the rats temperature was increased to normal within 0.5 h. For the normal operation control group (Group C), the surgical procedure was the same as in the previous experiments except that it was conducted at room temperature and there was no cooling before clamping. In the normal temperature sham operation group (Group D), anesthesia, laparotomy, and separation of the abdominal aorta took place at room temperature, but there was no clamping, and the abdominal cavity was closed after 90 min. Neural function score The nerve function scores for rat lower limbs were assigned according to standard Tarlov scores (Rivlin and Tator, 1977) (Grade 0: no detectable hind limb activity; Grade 1: weak detectable hind limb activity; Grade 2: the subject s hind legs moved against gravity but the subject was unable to stand; Grade 3: the subject could stand but could not jump; Grade 4: the function of the hind limb was fully restored and the subject jumped normally). We scored the neurological behavior. The functional recovery rate of the hind limb = (the average score of the low-temperature protection group - the average score of the experimental control group at normal temperature) / the average score of the of lowtemperature protection group x 100%. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining Five rats from each group were randomly taken at 24 h and 1 week after reperfusion to expose the spinal cord and extract lumbosacral spinal cord samples. The samples were embedded in paraffin and conventional pathological sections were produced, which were subjected to HE and Nissl staining (toluidine blue staining). To observe the morphological changes of spinal cord tissue under the light microscope, the samples were divided into three levels in accordance with the pathological grading standards: level I: normal spinal cord or a small amount of denatured granular tissue and vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm; level II: moderate hyperchromatic and normal neuron cell interphase; and level III: a large degree of neuronal necrosis and dissolution. Immunohistochemical coloration The paraffin sections were immersed in 3% H 2 O 2 at room temperature for 90 s, blocked with normal animal serum for 20 min, and BAX or BCL2 were incubated with 1:200 rabbit anti-rat (Abcam) overnight at 4 C and biotin-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG at 37 C for 2 h. The streptomycin-avidin-biotin peroxidase complex was added at 37 C for 1 h, followed by washing three times with 0.01 M PBS for 5 min each time before changing the fluid; 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and nickel sulfate colorant were used for dehydration and mounting. Positive cells were purple/blue.
4 BAX and BCL2 in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury rats In situ detection of cell apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dutp nick-end labeling (TUNEL) Frozen sections was digested with proteinase K for 60 min, using 50 μl 3% H 2 O 2 - methanol solution to block endogenous peroxidase at room temperature for 10 min. The sections were immersed in a 11% Triton-100 ice bath for 5 min. The TUNEL reaction liquid (50 μl) was incubated at 37 C for 60 min; 50 μl peroxidase was washed with PBS three times for 5 min each time before changing the fluid. DAB and nickel sulfate colorant were used for dehydration and mounting. The apoptotic nerve cell nuclei were granular and colored shades of purple/red. Western blot The animals were anesthetized at the appropriate times and the spinal cord was quickly extracted. Lysate (Pik Wan Days Biotechnology Co. Ltd.) was used to extract proteins and the protein concentration was measured by the Bradford method, ensuring consistency by taking the same amount of protein (30 μg) for the samples. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to isolate the proteins, and the protein bands were transferred to nitrocellulose membrane. The proteins were blocked with 50 g/l skimmed milk for 3 h, and 1:200 rabbit anti-rat antibody was added to BAX or BCL2 for incubation at 37 C overnight, followed by 1:200 horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG at 37 C for 2 h. The samples were colored with DAB and nickel sulfate. The integral absorbance of the western blot strip was measured and analyzed using the Gel-Pro 32 software and the WO-9413B gel imaging system, and the relative expression levels were calculated according to the ratio of integral absorbance in each sample strip and the β-actin reference strip. Statistical analysis All data were analyzed with the SPSS13.0 statistical software and the pathological cumulative scores were analyzed by the rank sum test. The data between pairs of groups were compared by the independent t-test, and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS Neurological function scores of rat hind limbs The Tarlov scores for rat hind limbs in the four groups 72 h and 1 week after operation are shown in Table 1. The nerve function of animals in the sham operation group was normal. When compared with the sham operation group, the function of the hind limbs in the experimental control group at normal temperatures was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and there was also a significant difference 168 h after operation (P < 0.01). When compared with the experimental control group at normal temperatures, the low-temperature protection group obviously recovered after 72 h (P < 0.01), and there was a significant difference after 168 h. Analysis of variance between groups at low temperature showed that the low-temperature 28 C protection group (Group B) recovered more than the low-temperature 18 C protection group (Group A) (P < 0.01), and there were no significant differences in the scores at 72 and 168 h (P > 0.05; see Table 1).
5 P. Zhu et al Table 1. Tarlov function scores for rat hindlimbs in each group 72 h and 1 week after operation (means ± SD, N = 5). Group D Group C Group A Group B Function recovery Function recovery P1 P2 P3 rate a rate b 72 h 4.00 ± ± ± ± % 28.26% P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < week 4.00 ± ± ± ± % 28.57% P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 a Recovery rate of the 18 C protection group (Group A); b recovery rate of the 28 C protection group (Group B). P1 < 0.01 when the experimental groups were compared with the sham operation group. P2 < 0.01 when the experimental groups were compared with the normal temperature operation group. P3 < 0.01 when the two experimental groups were compared. Results of HE staining and Nissl staining A light microscope revealed that in the sham operation group (Group D) at each time point the nerve cell body was full, the nucleus was complete, the connective tissue around the neurons was arranged neatly, and there were no cell edema or white halo gaps. In Groups A, B, and C at the different time points there were varying degrees of edema, the volume of some neurons was reduced, the nuclei appeared shrunken, and a white halo gap and vacuolation surrounded the nerve cells. The proliferation of endothelial cells around the blood vessels was visible. The changes were most obvious at 72 h. The pathology scores of 15 rats in Group D were grade I; the pathology scores of seven and eight rats in Group C were grade II and grade III, respectively; the pathology scores of five, eight, and two rats in Group A were grade I, grade II, and grade III, respectively; and the pathology scores of six and nine rats in Group B were grade I and grade II, respectively. The pathological cumulative scores were subjected to analysis of variance, and the result was most obvious in Group C when comparisons were made within the group, followed by Groups A and B (P < 0.05). The results of Nissl staining revealed normal distribution of Nissl bodies in neurons at each time point in Group D, and the cell body had a full shape and a clear boundary; Groups A, B, and C showed varying degrees of volume decrease in the neurons at each time point. The Nissl bodies decreased and there was karyopyknosis deep dyeing, most obviously at 72 h in Group C when comparisons were made within the group; in Groups A and B, there was a small volume reduction in neurons (Figure 1A-D and Figure 2A-D). Figure 1. Hematoxylin and eosin staining after reperfusion for 72 h (10 x 10). A. Low-temperature (18 C) protection group; B. low-temperature (28 C) protection group; C. normal temperature operation control group; D. sham operation group.
6 BAX and BCL2 in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury rats Figure 2. Nissl staining after reperfusion for 72 h (40 x 10). A. Low-temperature (18 C) protection group; B. lowtemperature (28 C) protection group; C. normal temperature operation control group; D. sham operation group. Results of TUNEL staining Group D showed a small number of TUNEL-positive cells. There was a large number of TUNEL-positive cells in Group C, and the nuclei were stained deep brown. TUNELpositive cells were detected in Groups A and B, but there were significantly less than in Group C; Group A had more obvious staining than Group B. The number of TUNEL-positive cells significantly increased after 24 h, a relative maximum mainly appeared after reperfusion at 72 h, and the positive cells obviously declined in number 1 week after injury (Figure 3A-D). Figure 3. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dutp nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining (10 x 10). A. Lowtemperature (18 C) protection group; B. low-temperature (28 C) protection group; C. normal temperature operation control group; D. sham operation group. Results of immunohistochemistry There were different levels of expression of BAX protein in each group: expression in Group C was significantly higher than in the other groups, and was slightly more noticeable in Group A than in Group B. The expression of BCL2 protein was strongest in Group D, followed by Group B, Group A, and Group C (Figure 4A-D and Figure 5A-D).
7 P. Zhu et al Figure 4. BAX protein immunohistochemical results (10 x 10). A. Low-temperature (18 C) protection group; B. low-temperature (28 C) protection group; C. normal temperature operation control group; D. sham operation group. Figure 5. BCL2 protein immunohistochemical results (10 x 10). A. Low-temperature (18 C) protection group; B. low-temperature (28 C) protection group; C. normal temperature operation control group; D. sham operation group. Results of western blot analysis The results of western blot analysis for each specific protein in each group at three time points using the Gel-Pro 32 software and the WO-9413B gel imaging system to analyze the protein bands can be seen in Figure 6. The integral optical density ratios are shown in Table 2. The results indicate that the expression of BAX in Group C was significantly higher than in the other groups at three time points by analysis of variance, while the expression of BCL2 was lower than in the other groups; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The differences of BCL2 expression in Group B and Group D at 24 h were not statistically significant by analysis of variance (P > 0.05).
8 BAX and BCL2 in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury rats Figure 6. Expression of BAX and BCL2 proteins in rat spinal cords after ischemia/reperfusion for different times detected by western blot. Table 2. Western blot to detect the content of BAX and BCL2 proteins in rat spinal cords after ischemia/ reperfusion at different times. BAX BCL2 24 h 72 h 1 week 24 h 72 h 1 week Group A ± ± ± ± ± ± Group B ± ± ± ± ± * ± Group C ± ± ± ± ± ± Group D ± ± ± ± ± * ± *Comparison between two groups (P > 0.05) the rest show comparison between groups (P < 0.05). DISCUSSION The mechanism of SCII involves a complex cascade reaction that may be harmful to the body, the main mechanism including depolarization surrounding the infarction during the acute stage, calcium channel opening, excitatory amino acid toxicity, and free radical release. In the subacute stage, the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and activation of the apoptosis pathway may ultimately lead to neuronal death (Dirnagl et al., 1999). At present, there is a view that the neuronal death induced by hypoxia and ischemia in nerve cells is mainly due to apoptosis, and is closely related to the regulation of BAX and BCL2 proteins (Hardwick et al., 2012). The BCL family of proteins are important transit regulatory proteins in the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway. The activation of the BAX protein has a bearing on the activation of the upstream signal of the MEKK and P53 genes, and activates the final pathway of the caspase family of proteins in the downstream apoptosis signal. The membrane permeability of mitochondria is changed by BAX protein activation, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria induces the cascade reaction of the downstream apoptosis pathway. There is still no clear understanding about the initial factors that activate the upstream pathway of the BAX protein, while the activation of BCL2 is through combination of a protein effectorembedded BAX mitochondrial membrane, which prevents the release of mitochondrial cytochrome C, thereby regulating the apoptosis of cells (García-Sáez, 2012). Low temperature is a double-edged sword; it both protects and damages neural tissue. The mechanism of SCII protection mainly involves reduced metabolism in the ischemic region, inhibition of the release of excitatory amino acids (mainly glutamic acid), relief of
9 P. Zhu et al the inflammatory response, interruption of the apoptosis pathway, inhibition of free radical release, and relief of inflammatory edema (Wu and Grotta, 2013). The damage caused by low temperatures on the central nervous system may be due to the contraction of blood vessels in the spinal cord, higher blood viscosity, slower blood flow, appearance of the no-reflow phenomenon in the tiny blood vessels, and aggravation of the ischemia and hypoxia injury (Jia and Pollock, 1997). In our experiments, the Tarlov scores showed that the recovery rate of hind limbs after the occurrence of SCII in the hypothermia group was significantly higher than in the normal control group, while the recovery rate in the hypothermia group was slightly higher than in the deep hypothermia group (P < 0.05). H E staining showed that the local tissue swelling and karyopyknosis change in rats of the low-temperature treatment groups after SCII was lighter than in the control group, which was most obvious at 72 h, and the moderate hypothermia protection group was less affected than the deep hypothermia group. The results of Nissl body staining were consistent with the H E staining results. The changes in the number of Nissl bodies in the hypothermia group were less marked compared with the positive control group, and the injury in the medium and low-temperature groups were less severe than in the deep hypothermia group. The results further verify that low temperatures not only protect the central nervous system, but can also injury it. The results of TUNEL showed that a large number of TUNEL-positive cells were seen in Group C, followed by Group A, and only a small number of TUNEL-positive cells were found in Group B, while hardly any were found in Group D. Immunohistochemistry and western blot results showed that the expression of BAX protein reached a peak at 24 h and then decreased gradually, and was highest in Group C, followed by Group A and then by Group B. The expression of BAX protein in Group D was low and stable. The expression of BCL2 protein remained high 1 week after damage, and was highest in Group D, followed by Group B, Group A, and Group C. In conclusion, this experiment further confirmed that hypothermia has a protective effects on SCII, which may be through regulation of the apoptosis signal pathway to protect the spinal cord tissue. The experiments also revealed that mild hypothermia may have a greater protective effect than deep hypothermia, which can cause vasoconstriction of nerve tissue leading to aggravated ischemia and hypoxia in tissue. In addition, deep hypothermia can promote the expression of BAX to a certain extent, which may inhibit Bcl2 gene expression, thereby having a protective effect by reducing apoptosis in neural cells. The experimental results have important significance for SCII protection in clinical vascular surgery. The specific signal transduction pathways involved in the low-temperature regulation of apoptosis and the most effective temperature are topics worthy of further study. Conflicts of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (# , # ), the Technology Foundation for Selected Overseas Chinese Scholar, Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of China (P. Zhu, #Z ), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (#S ), and the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, China (# ).
10 BAX and BCL2 in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury rats REFERENCES Dirnagl U, Iadecola C and Moskowitz MA (1999). Pathobiology of ischaemic stroke: an integrated view. Trends Neurosci. 22: García-Sáez AJ (2012). The secrets of the Bcl-2 family. Cell Death Differ. 19: Güler A, Sahin MA, Ucak A, Onan B, et al. (2010). Protective effects of angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockade with olmesartan on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury: an experimental study on rats. Ann. Vasc. Surg. 24: Guo HM, Zhang JF, Wu RB, Zheng SY, et al. (2004). Abdominal complications after cardiac surgery. Zhongshandaxuexuebao (Med. Sci.) 1: Hardwick JM, Chen YB and Jonas EA (2012). Multipolar functions of BCL-2 proteins link energetics to apoptosis. Trends Cell Biol. 22: Jia J and Pollock M (1997). The pathogenesis of non-freezing cold nerve injury. Observations in the rat. Brain 120: Mahura IS (2003). Cerebral ischemia-hypoxia and biophysical mechanisms of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection effects. Fiziol. Zh. 49: Rivlin AS and Tator CH (1977). Objective clinical assessment of motor function after experimental spinal cord injury in the rat. J. Neurosurg. 47: Wu TC and Grotta JC (2013). Hypothermia for acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet Neurol. 12:
Int J Clin Exp Med 2016;9(4):7431-7437 www.ijcem.com /ISSN:1940-5901/IJCEM0016426 Original Article Protective effects of tamoxifen on traumatic brain injury in rats Xiaodong Qing 1, Peilong Jiang 1, Li
J Neurosurg 77: 169-184, 1992 Review Article Pathophysiology and treatment of focal cerebral ischemia Part I: Pathophysiology Bo K. SIESJO, M.D. Laborutory for Experimental Bruin Reseurch, Experrmc~ntul
PUMA gene transfection can enhance the sensitivity of epirubicin-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells C.-G. Sun 1 *, J. Zhuang 1 *, W.-J. Teng 1, Z. Wang 2 and S.-S. Du 3 1 Department of Oncology,
HiPer Western Blotting Teaching Kit Product Code: HTI009 Number of experiments that can be performed: 5/20 Duration of Experiment: ~ 2 days Day 1: 6-8 hours (SDS- PAGE and Electroblotting) Day 2: 3 hours
Recent Studies of Phenylketonuria By: Jennifer Gastelum Dr. Koni Stone Copyright 2014 Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes an accumulation of toxic metabolites in
Biomedical Research 2017; 28 (17): 7720-7724 ISSN 0970-938X www.biomedres.info The alleviation of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by lycopene. Zhenjun Liu *, Guangming He, Lili Zhao Intensive Care
Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment ISSN 1533-0346 Volume 6, Number 6, December 2007 Adenine Press (2007) Cryoablation Induces Necrosis and Apoptosis in Lung Adenocarcinoma in Mice www.tcrt.org
10.1: Introduction Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cell types in neural tissue: Neurons Neuroglial cells (also known as neuroglia, glia, and glial
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 2010 Vol 31(1):66-70 THE EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID ON RENAL FUNCTION IN DOGS WITH ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY KISANI 1 A.I* and AKINRIMADE 2 J.F 1 Department of Veterinary Surgery
Sperm DNA: organization, protection and vulnerability from basic science to clinical application Methods to assess the status of the sperm DNA: The Comet and TUNEL Assays Lars Björndahl Centre for Andrology
Effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A on myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction in rats M.X. Zhou 1 *, J.H. Fu 2 *, Q. Zhang 2 and J.Q. Wang 3 1 Beijing Hospital of TCM Affiliated with Capital
Pei et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation (2017) 14:97 DOI 10.1186/s12974-017-0870-1 RESEARCH Open Access HSYA alleviates secondary neuronal death through attenuating oxidative stress, inflammatory response,
Learning Objectives List the four traits that all muscle types have in common. CHAPTER 6 The Muscular System Demonstrate and explain the use of antagonistic muscle pairs. Describe the attachment of muscle
ER- 36, a Novel Variant of ER-, is Expressed in ER-positive and -negative Human Breast Carcinomas LISA M.J. LEE 1, JIANG CAO 3, HAO DENG 4, PING CHEN 3, ZORAN GATALICA 1 and ZHAO-YI WANG 1,2 1 Department
AN INTRODUCTION TO MUSCLE TISSUE Muscle Tissue- 3 Types Skeletal muscle (focus on these) Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES Produce movement of the skeleton Maintain posture and
[Chinese Journal of Cancer 27:8, 102-108; August 2008]; 2008 Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center Basic Research Paper Effect of starvation-induced autophagy on cell cycle of tumor cells Jun-Na Ge, 1 Dan
E.Z.N.A. SQ Blood DNA Kit II Table of Contents Introduction and Overview...2 Kit Contents/Storage and Stability...3 Blood Storage and DNA Yield...4 Preparing Reagents...5 100-500 μl Whole Blood Protocol...6
Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 11: Neural Tissue & The Nervous System Question No. 1 of 10 The human body contains different types of tissue. The tissue is formed into organs and organ systems.
Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction Peter Takizawa Department of Cell Biology Types and structure of muscle cells Structural basis of contraction Triggering muscle contraction Skeletal muscle consists of
The Nervous System: Tissues and the Spinal Cord Nervous & Endocrine Systems Compare the mode of communication in these two systems. (Complete the worksheet on page 124 in your course packet. 1 Organization
April 2016 Optic Nerve Aplasia with Microphthalmia 133 Fig. 1 Gross anatomy of the brain of the cadaver, a 70-yr-old female. A, Inferior view of the brain; B, Medial view of the brain. In (A, B), the red
[Chinese Journal of Cancer 27:12, 568-573; December Expression 2008]; 2008 and significance Sun Yat-sen of University Bmi-1 and Cancer Ki67 in Center colorectal carcinoma tissues Clinical Research Paper
Cell Injury MECHANISMS OF CELL INJURY The cellular response to injurious stimuli depends on the following factors: Type of injury, Its duration, and Its severity. Thus, low doses of toxins or a brief duration
APPENDIX 1 ETHICAL CLEARANCE 75 APPENDIX 2 76 PROCEDURE FOR PREPARING OF LIVER HISTOLOGY SLIDES Overview: Histology involves the use of a set of techniques to examine the morphology, architecture and composition
CHAPTER 10 THE SOMATOSENSORY SYSTEM 10.1. SOMATOSENSORY MODALITIES "Somatosensory" is really a catch-all term to designate senses other than vision, hearing, balance, taste and smell. Receptors that could
1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous
Bile acids initiate cholestatic liver injury by triggering a hepatic specific inflammatory response Shi-Ying Cai 1, Xinshou Ouyang 1, Yonglin Chen 1, Carol J. Soroka 1, Juxian Wang 2, Albert Mennone 1,
NNZ-2566 in Rett Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders Role and Update 1 Overview The natural growth factor IGF-1 is broken down in the body to IGF-1[1-3] NNZ-2566 is an analogue of IGF-1[1-3] developed
Agonistic Autoantibodies to Angiotensin II Type I Receptor Contributes Partly to Placental Ischemia-Induced Cerebrovascular Abnormalities Junie Paula Warrington 1, Fan Fan 1, Babbette B. LaMarca 1, Ralf
Oxidative Stress in PGE2 Treated H9c2 Cardiomyocytes Rose Picklo Abstract Heart disease is the leading cause of adult death in the United States. Chronic ischemia resulting from obstruction of coronary
STAT3 (py705)/ Pan STAT3 (Human/Mouse/Rat) ELISA Kit Catalog Number KA2176 96 assays Version: 02 Intended for research use only www.abnova.com Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Principle of the Assay...
J Neurosurg 77:337-354, 1992 Review Article Pathophysiology and treatment of focal cerebral ischemia Part 11: Mechanisms of damage and treatment Bo K. SIESJO, M.D. Laboratory for Experimental Brain Research,
Venous system Large veins (capacitance vessels) Small veins (capacitance vessels) Postcapillary venule Thoroughfare channel Heart Large lymphatic vessels Lymph node Lymphatic system Arteriovenous anastomosis
Portland State University PDXScholar University Honors Theses University Honors College 2015 Changes in Cerebral Cortical Aquaporin-1 Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Thao Pham Portland State University
Resistin expression in adipose tissues and its effect on glucose metabolism in rats with brain injury R. Zhang 1, Z.Y. Wang 1, L.L. Zhu 1, F. Wu 1, D.Q. Chen 1, L.F. Sun 1 and Z.Q. Lu 2 1 Department of
ab65320 Mitochondria/Cytosol Fractionation Kit Instructions for Use For the rapid, sensitive and accurate isolation of Mitochondrial and Cytosolic fractions from living cells. This product is for research
Outline Nervous System - Neurons Biol 105 Lecture Packet 9 Chapter 7 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Nervous system function Central and peripheral nervous system Nervous system cells Myelinated neurons Nerve signal
BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 Ch 10 A This set Ch 10 B CHAPTER 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 BASIC STRUCTURE and FUNCTION Dr. Lawrence G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy of McGraw-Hill.
Product Datasheet Caspase-3 Antibody - (active/cleaved) NB100-56113 Unit Size: 0.05 ml Store at -20C. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles. Publications: 16 Protocols, Publications, Related Products, Reviews, Research
EXPERIMENTAL AND THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE 8: 973-977, 2014 Pharmacological postconditioning with tanshinone IIA attenuates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats by activating the phosphatidylinositol
BIOH111 o Cell Module o Tissue Module o Integumentary system o Skeletal system o Muscle system o Nervous system o Endocrine system Endeavour College of Natural Health endeavour.edu.au 1 TEXTBOOK AND REQUIRED/RECOMMENDED
PART I: MUSCLE STRUCTURE Muscle Tissue A primary tissue type, divided into: skeletal muscle cardiac muscle smooth muscle Functions of Skeletal Muscles Produce skeletal movement Maintain body position Support
Neural Tissue Chapter 12 Part B CNS Tumors - Neurons stop dividing at age 4 but glial cells retain the capacity to divide. - Primary CNS tumors in adults- division of abnormal neuroglia rather than from
1 Introduction to The Human Body FOCUS: The human organism is often examined at seven structural levels: chemical, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and the organism. Anatomy examines the structure
International Conference on Biomedical and Biological Engineering (BBE 2016) Injury Mechanism of Sub-Micron Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate and Dihydrate Crystals on Renal Epithelial Cells Poonam BHADJA, Kai
Varicose veins are a very common problem, generally appearing as twisting, bulging rope-like cords on the legs, anywhere from groin to ankle. Spider veins are smaller, flatter, red or purple veins closer
BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 Ch 10 A Ch 10 B CHAPTER 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM 1 BASIC STRUCTURE and FUNCTION Dr. Lawrence G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy of McGraw-Hill.
University of Groningen The Groningen hypothermic liver perfusion system for improved preservation in organ transplantation Plaats, Arjan van der IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's
PSK4U THE NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM REVIEW Review of muscle so we can see how the neuromuscular system works This is not on today's note Skeletal Muscle Cell: Cellular System A) Excitation System Electrical
Lab 1 ANIMAL TISSUES Levels of Organization Animals are multicellular heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls. Most animals exhibit a hierarchical level of organization: Cells are organized into tissues
Sicily, October 18 TH 2006 The clinical evidence: Hypothermia for other indications K.H. Polderman, internist/intensivist University medical center Utrecht, The Netherlands That is why we need temperature
GENERAL PATHOLOGY LECTURE - 3 DR. M. TARIQ JAVED Professor Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. 9/11/2009 1 CELL INJURY No adaptive response
210 A novel bfgf antagonist peptide inhibits breast cancer cell growth QUCHOU LI 1, SUSU GAO 1, YONGLIN YU 1, WENHUI WANG 1, XILEI CHEN 1, RUIXUE WANG 1, TAO LI 1, CONG WANG 1, XIAOKUN LI 1,2 and XIAOPING
Expression levels of survivin, Bcl-2, and KAI1 proteins in cervical cancer and their correlation with metastasis X.L. Zhou 1 and M. Wang 2 1 Department of Gynecology, Liaocheng Second Hospital, Taishan
Original article Apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced by IgA1 isolated from Henoch- Schonlein purpura children Ping Yuan, 1 Yan Bo, 2 Gui Ming, 1 Fei Wen-Jun, 1 Zhang Qin
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, July 2004, p. 7784 7794 Vol. 78, No. 14 0022-538X/04/$08.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.78.14.7784 7794.2004 Copyright 2004, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Comparison
1 International Graduate Research Programme in Cardiovascular Science This work has been supported by the European Community s Sixth Framework Programme under grant agreement n LSHM-CT-2005-01883 EUGeneHeart.
Chapter 12 Muscle Physiology Outline o Skeletal Muscle Structure o The mechanism of Force Generation in Muscle o The mechanics of Skeletal Muscle Contraction o Skeletal Muscle Metabolism o Control of Skeletal
6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis IB Biology SL Part 1 - Nerves Outcomes Part 1 6.5.1State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves, and is composed
1. Name several SOMATIC SENSES Light touch (being touched by a feather), heat, cold, vibration, pressure, pain are SOMATIC SENSES. 2. What are proprioceptors; and how is proprioception tested? PROPRIOCEPTORS
Concept 50.5: The physical interaction of protein filaments is required for muscle function Muscle activity is a response to input from the nervous system The action of a muscle is always to contract Vertebrate
Aortic Dissection with Arch Entry Tear: Surgical Experience in 104 Patients during a 12-Year Period Wei Zhang, Wei-Guo Ma, Long-Fei Wang, Jun Zheng, Bulat A. Ziganshin, Paris Charilaou, Xu-Dong Pan, Yong-Min
The 7 th lecture In Anatomy and Physiology For the 1 st Class By Dr. Ala a Hassan Mirza Nervous System (part I) The Nerve Tissue and the Nervous System The Tissues of the Body There are 4 types of tissues
The Neuron by Richard H. Hall, 1998 External Structure A neuron can be defined as a nerve cell. The neuron is often thought of as the "building block" of the nervous system, and for good reason. The neuron
Chapter 10: Muscles 37. Describe the structural components of skeletal muscle tissue from the molecular to the organ level. 38. Describe the structure, function, and importance of sarcomeres. 39. Identify
236 Paget's Disease of the Breast: Clinical Analysis of 45 Patients Mingfian Yang Hao Long Jiehua He Xi Wang Zeming Xie Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou
Muscular System Chapter 7 The Muscular System Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement they contract or shorten and are the machine of the body Three basic muscle types are found in the body
Muscle Physiology Dr. Ebneshahidi Skeletal Muscle Figure 9.2 (a) Functions of the muscular system 1. Locomotion body movements are due to skeletal muscle contraction. 2. Vasoconstriction and vasodilatation
211MDS Pain theories Definition In 1986, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defined pain as a sensory and emotional experience associated with real or potential injuries, or described
Muscle Histology Dr. Heba Kalbouneh Assistant Professor of Anatomy and Histology Functions of muscle tissue Movement Maintenance of posture Joint stabilization Heat generation Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal
Part of GE Healthcare Data File 28-415-39 AA ECL Plex Western Blotting Detection System Multiplex protein detection based on direct fluorescent CyDye-labeled conjugates ECL Plex fluorescent Western blotting
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.