1. Cyanide is introduced into a culture of cells and is observed binding to a mitochondrion, as shown in the diagram below.

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1 1. Cyanide is introduced into a culture of cells and is observed binding to a mitochondrion, as shown in the diagram below. The following observations are made: Cyanide binds to and inhibits an enzyme in the inner mitochondrial membrane. There is a decrease in water production in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Cyanide causes a build-up of NADH in the mitochondrial matrix. Which statement best explains where cyanide causes the initial disruption in an important cellular process? (A) Cyanide prevents the production of carbon dioxide by binding to the enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle. This answer suggests the student may understand that carbon dioxide is produced during the citric acid cycle, but does not understand that cyanide primarily disrupts an enzyme in the electron transport chain from accepting or donating electrons and does not disrupt the citric acid cycle directly. (B) Cyanide prevents enzymes from splitting glucose into smaller organic molecules during substrate-level phosphorylation. Page 1 of 9

2 This answer suggests the student may understand that the splitting of glucose during substrate-level phosphorylation involves enzymes and produces energy-rich molecules that drive the electron transport chain, but does not understand that the splitting of glucose occurs in the cytosol and is not affected by the presence of cyanide. (C) Cyanide prevents enzymes in the inner membrane from allowing ions to move from areas of lower ph to areas of higher ph. This answer suggests the student may understand that ions move across the inner membrane via the enzyme ATP synthase, from an area of high concentration and higher ph to areas of low concentration and lower ph in the matrix, but does not understand that cyanide primarily disrupts the electron transport chain by binding to enzymes that accept or donate electrons along the electron transport chain, as evidenced by the decrease in water production. (D) Cyanide prevents the oxidation of energy-rich molecules by binding to enzymes that facilitate movement of the electrons in the electron transport chain. This answer suggests the student understands that the location of the electron transport chain is in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and that cyanide binds to enzymes in the electron transport chain, preventing them from accepting and donating electrons, evidenced by the buildup of NADH and the lack of water, and also prevents the formation of the protonmotive force needed to pump ions into the intermembrane space in order to create an electrochemical gradient used to produce ATP. Page 2 of 9

3 2. The diagram below shows the pathway for the movement of electrons in a mitochondrion. Which of the following describes the process in chloroplasts that is most similar to the process shown in the diagram? (A) the reduction of carbon dioxide into 3-carbon sugars in the stroma during the Calvin cycle This answer suggests the student may understand that the reduction of carbon dioxide into 3-carbon sugars involves the transfer of electrons, but does not understand that electrons are not transferred in a way that is similar to the movement of electrons down an electrochemical gradient in the electron transport chain. (B) the excitation of electrons in photosystem II on the thylakoid membrane during the lightdependent reaction Page 3 of 9

4 This answer suggests the student may understand that electrons are excited by light in photosystem II, but does not understand that electrons are excited to higher energy levels in photosystem II, rather than moving to lower energy levels as they move through the electron transport chain. (C) the movement of hydrogen ions from a high concentration inside of the thylakoid space to the stroma via chemiosmosis This answer suggests the student may understand that hydrogen ions move from the thylakoid space to the stroma during chemiosmosis in chloroplasts, but does not understand that the movement of hydrogen ions in the diagram is from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration (via energy released from the electron transport chain), which produces the electrochemical gradient that is then used to drive the production of ATP (when ions move back to the stroma from the thylakoid space). (D) the oxidation of proteins on the thylakoid membrane during noncyclic photophosphorylation to create an electrochemical gradient This answer suggests the student understands that the electron transport chain on the thylakoid membrane is similar to the electron transport chain on the inner mitochondrial membrane, and that the energy released by the transfer of electrons through the electron transport chain via redox reactions is used to pump protons across a membrane, which produces an electrochemical gradient that provides energy for the production of ATP (chemiosmosis). Page 4 of 9

5 3. A root cutting is placed in a sealed container. The relative levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen gas in the container are measured and recorded in millimeters of mercury (mmhg) every 6 hours over the next 24 hours. The results are shown in the table below. Which statement best explains the results shown in the table? (A) The root cutting is undergoing anaerobic fermentation to generate energy because the low oxygen levels prevent the root cutting from utilizing the citric acid cycle or oxidative phosphorylation. This answer suggests the student may understand that an organism undergoes fermentation when oxygen levels are too low, but does not understand that oxygen is not used during fermentation, and that the root cutting is undergoing cellular respiration, as evidenced by the decreasing oxygen concentration and by the increasing carbon dioxide concentration. (B) The root cutting is using the Calvin cycle to generate energy by consuming oxygen because there is not enough light available to stimulate the movement of electrons to carry out the light reactions. This answer suggests the student may understand that the root cutting is consuming oxygen, but does not understand that carbon dioxide (not oxygen) is used during the Calvin cycle to produce sugar, and that the plant is undergoing cellular respiration, as evidenced by the decreasing oxygen concentration and by the increasing carbon dioxide concentration. (C) The root cutting is undergoing aerobic cellular respiration because the root cutting is generating carbon dioxide from organic molecules and is reducing oxygen to form water. Page 5 of 9

6 This answer suggests the student understands that the root cutting is undergoing cellular respiration, as evidenced by the decreasing oxygen concentration (oxygen is reduced to form water in cellular respiration) and by the increasing carbon dioxide concentration (carbon dioxide is generated from organic molecules during the citric acid [Krebs] cycle). (D) The root cutting is undergoing photolysis in the light-dependent reactions because oxygen is being split and combined with carbon to form carbon dioxide. This answer suggests the student may understand that photolysis occurs during the lightdependent reactions in photosynthesis, but does not understand that oxygen is not split and is not combined with carbon to form carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, or that the plant is undergoing cellular respiration, as evidenced by the decreasing oxygen concentration and the increasing carbon dioxide concentration. 4. The diagram below shows how the nutrients triglycerides, glucose, and amino acids are metabolized to generate ATP in a mitochondrion. Page 6 of 9

7 Which statement best explains how the mitochondrion utilizes nutrients to generate ATP? (A) Triglycerides are utilized to generate ATP only when the amount of FAD is greater than the amount of NAD +. This answer suggests the student may understand that the role of NAD + and FAD in cellular respiration is to carry electrons to the electron transport chain, but does not understand that both of these molecules are reduced regardless of the type of nutrient being utilized. (B) Excess fatty acids in the cytosol are used in the Krebs cycle only when supplies of glucose and amino acids are too low to produce sufficient amounts of Acetyl-CoA. This answer suggests the student may understand that excess nutrients are converted into fatty acids in the cytosol, but does not understand that all nutrients are catabolized to generate ATP simultaneously, or that proteins, carbohydrates, and fats can all be used as sources to produce Acetyl CoA. (C) Each type of nutrient is processed by a different pathway in the Krebs cycle, and the number of electrons that can be used to generate ATP is controlled by each pathway. This answer suggests the student may understand that nutrients are metabolized by processes in the Krebs cycle, but does not understand that most of the nutrients are metabolized into the same molecule, Acetyl-CoA, which is used to drive the Krebs cycle, or that the amount of ATP generated depends on which enzyme (NAD + or FAD) is used to carry electrons to the electron transport chain. (D) Glucose is utilized to generate ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation when oxygen levels are too low to utilize triglycerides or amino acids via oxidative phosphorylation. This answer suggests the student understands that cellular respiration of triglycerides and amino acids requires oxygen in order to generate ATP, and that only glucose can continue to be catabolized when oxygen is limited, which may result in more ATP generated from glucose when blood oxygen levels are low. Page 7 of 9

8 5. The diagram below shows the processes occurring in and around the inner mitochondrial membrane. Based on the diagram, which question best investigates a factor that affects the processes shown? (A) What effect will lowering the ph in the intermembrane space have on the proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane? This answer suggests the student understands that H + ions are being pumped into the intermembrane space, which lowers the ph, and that lowering the ph in this space even further may affect the structure and function (denaturing) of proteins in the membrane and may prevent the proteins from pumping H + ions or transferring electrons in the electron transport chain. (B) If oxygen gas is being converted into water in the mitochondrial matrix, will the contents of the mitochondrial matrix become more polar as the processes occur? This answer suggests the student may understand that water is a polar molecule, but does not understand that the contents of the matrix already include a high concentration of water and are, therefore, already polar. (C) If water is generated in the mitochondrial matrix, will the mitochondrial matrix become hypotonic to the intermembrane space as the processes occur? This answer suggests the student may understand that a high concentration of water on one side of a plasma membrane will make that area hypotonic to another side with a lower water concentration, but does not understand that water can diffuse through plasma membranes (via aquaporins), so a hypotonic environment will not be produced. Page 8 of 9

9 (D) What effect will the movement of negatively charged ions through the inner mitochondrial membrane have on the production of water? This answer suggests the student may understand that the movement of electrons through the electron transport chain results in the formation of water molecules, but does not understand that the electrons are being passed from protein to protein through reductionoxidation reactions within the membrane, and that the electrons are not being passed within the membrane itself. Page 9 of 9

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