1- Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

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1 Name: NetID: Exam 3 - Version 1 October 23, 2017 Dr. A. Pimentel Each question has a value of 4 points and there are a total of 160 points in the exam. However, the maximum score of this exam will be capped at 150 points. Instructions: Select the BEST answer for each question The Cell 1- Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? A. In prokaryotic cells, translation occurs only in the cytosol, and in eukaryotic cells translation may occur both in the cytosol and rough endoplasmic reticulum. B. Prokaryotic cells store their genetic information in the nucleus and eukaryotic cells store their genetic information in the cytosol. C. Prokaryotic cells do not have ribosomes but eukaryotic cells do have ribosomes. D. Only prokaryotic cells have cell walls and eukaryotic cells do not. E. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have nuclear pore complexes. 2- Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRUE in regards to eukaryotic cell compartments? A. The golgi apparatus processes proteins. B. A modified smooth endoplasmic reticulum stores calcium ions. C. The peroxisome digests and breaks down fatty acids by oxidation. D. Chloroplasts produce sugars. E. All of the statements above are true.

2 3- Macrophages are immune cells that engulf and destroy infectious pathogens like bacteria. Macrophages perform many catabolic reactions to break down pathogens like bacteria. Which organelle will be abundant in macrophages? A. Golgi apparatus B. Lysosome C. Nucleus D. Mitochondria E. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 4- The Golgi apparatus of an eukaryotic cell packages proteins in vesicles that are to be released into the environment. The term for this process is called. A. phagocytosis B. pinocytosis C. autophagy D. receptor-mediated endocytosis E. exocytosis 5- Mevalonic aciduria is a genetic disease that affects the synthesis of the cholesterol molecule. In this condition, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cholesterol is mutated. Select the specific site in the cell where this mutated enzyme will be found. A. Golgi apparatus B. Rough ER C. Smooth ER D. Lysosome E. Mitochondria 6- Select the statement that is TRUE about the animal and plant cells. A. Animal cells have mitochondria while plant cells have chloroplasts. B. Animal cells have chloroplasts while plant cells have mitochondria. C. Animal cells have mitochondria while plant cells have both chloroplasts and mitochondria. D. Animal cells have both mitochondria and chloroplasts while plant cells have chloroplasts. E. All of the statements above are true.

3 7- Select the correct statement that explains the chemical reactions in eukaryotic cells are more efficient than the chemical reactions in prokaryotic cells. A. Compatible molecules can be kept in different cellular compartments. B. If substrates are used up in one part of the organelle, additional substrate can diffuse quickly from a different part of the same organelle. C. Groups of enzymes that work in different (non-related) chemical reactions can be clustered together on internal membranes of the organelle instead of floating free in the cytoplasm. D. Incompatible reactions can be kept together in the same compartment. E. All of the statements above are correct. 8- Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome is a disease in which infant brains are degenerated because the brain cells lack an important organelle involved in breaking down molecules by oxidation. Which of the following organelles are virtually absent in infants with this condition? A. Lysosomes B. Peroxisomes C. Golgi apparatus D. Rough ER E. Mitochondria 9- Complete the statement: In the endomembrane system, the protein is synthesized in the, processed from the side of the Golgi apparatus and then leaves in a vesicle through the side of the Golgi apparatus. The vesicle is then sent to the for the protein to serve its function. A. rough ER, trans, cis, cell membrane B. rough ER, cis, trans, cell membrane C. cytoplasm, cis, trans, cell membrane D. cytoplasm, cis, trans, cytoskeleton E. rough ER, trans, cis, cytoplasm Energy 10- Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards Gibbs Free Energy, ΔG? A. Entropy is measured by ΔH and enthalpy is measured by ΔS. B. Enthalpy is measured by ΔH and entropy is measured by ΔS. C. A reaction is favorable or spontaneous when the sign of ΔG is positive. D. A reaction is favorable or spontaneous when the sign of ΔG is negative. E. Both B and D are correct.

4 11- Please select the correct statement in regards to catabolic and anabolic reactions in cells. A. Catabolic reactions function to break down complex macromolecules into simple molecules, and require an input of energy in the form of ATP. B. Anabolic reactions function to make complex macromolecules from simple molecules, and require an input of energy in the form of ATP. C. Anabolic reactions function to break down complex macromolecules into simple molecules, and require an input of energy in the form of ATP. D. Catabolic reactions function to break down complex macromolecules into simple molecules, and release energy that can be used to regenerate ADP. E. Catabolic reactions function to make complex macromolecules from simple molecules, and release energy that can be used to regenerate ATP. 12- During translation, proteins are synthesized from amino acids. Which statement is TRUE about the energetics of translation? A. ΔG is positive and ΔS is positive. B. ΔG is negative and ΔH is negative. C. ΔG is positive and ΔS is negative. D. ΔH is negative and ΔS is positive. E. ΔS is positive and ΔH is positive. 13- Select the statement(s) that is/are correct in regards to hydrolysis of ATP. 1. When a covalent bond is formed, energy is released. 2. When a covalent bond is formed, energy is spent. 3. When a covalent bond is broken, energy is released. 4. When a covalent bond is broken, energy is spent. A. 1 and 3 are correct. B. 1 and 4 are correct. C. 1 and 2 are correct. D. 2 and 3 are correct. E. No answer choice is correct.

5 Cellular Respiration 14- ATP is a molecule with high potential energy. Where is this high potential energy stored in an ATP molecule? A. The covalent bond linking the phosphate groups to the ribose sugar. B. The covalent bonds linking the individual phosphates together. C. The covalent bond linking the ribose sugar to adenine. D. The covalent bonds that link both the phosphate groups and the adenine to the ribose sugar. E. None of the above. 15- Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRUE in regards to glycolysis? A. ATP investments make the glucose molecule more stable. B. ATP investments makes the glucose molecule more unstable. C. Two NADH molecules are produced in glycolysis. D. 1 ATP molecule is invested during glycolysis. E. Both B and C are true. 16- Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRUE in regards to cellular respiration? A. During glycolysis, only 2 net ATP are gained and two molecules of pyruvate are produced. B. During the electron transport chain, a gradient of protons is built in the matrix of the mitochondria. C. During the citric acid cycle, most of the energy that comes from the glucose molecule is harvested. D. Answers A and B are correct. E. Answers A and C are correct. 17- Which statement is TRUE in regards to pyruvate oxidation during cellular respiration? A. Pyruvate oxidation converts acetyl CoA into pyruvate, no CO 2 is released, and the overall ΔG is positive. B. Pyruvate oxidation converts acetyl CoA into pyruvate, CO 2 is released, and the overall ΔG is negative. C. Pyruvate oxidation converts pyruvate into acetyl CoA, no CO 2 is released, and the overall ΔG is negative. D. Pyruvate oxidation converts pyruvate into acetyl CoA, CO 2 is released, and the overall ΔG is positive. E. Pyruvate oxidation converts pyruvate into acetyl CoA, CO 2 is released, and the overall ΔG is negative.

6 18- Select the correct statement in regards to the electron transport chain. A. Complexes I, II, III, and IV are all capable of pumping protons into the intermembrane space. B. FADH 2 is oxidized by complex I. C. NADH is oxidized by complex II. D. Oxygen allows electrons to continue their path through the ETC. E. Protons are pumped by the electron transport chain from the intermembrane space to the mitochondrial matrix. 19- During which stages of cellular respiration are the 6 carbons that originate from glucose released in the form of carbon dioxide (CO 2)? A. Glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation. B. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. C. Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. D. Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. E. Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle. 20- How is ATP produced during the citric acid cycle? A. By substrate level phosphorylation in the matrix of the mitochondria. B. By substrate level phosphorylation in the cytoplasm. C. By oxidative phosphorylation in the matrix of the mitochondria. D. By oxidative phosphorylation in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. E. By oxidative phosphorylation in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. 21- During anaerobic conditions where no oxygen is present, what happens to glycolysis in animal cells? A. Pyruvate is reduced to ethanol. B. Pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-coa. C. Pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid. D. Pyruvate is oxidized to lactic acid. E. Pyruvate is converted back to glucose.

7 22- Barbiturates were historically prescribed to treat seizures and were commonly used as sedatives. After the 1970s, barbiturates were highly regulated because of their toxicity after prolonged use. One side effect of these drugs is its ability to permanently reduce Complex I of the electron transport chain. Which of the following statement is TRUE about the cells of an individual with prolonged barbiturate use? A. The mitochondria will not produce any ATP but the cells will produce ATP. B. More H + will be pumped into the intermembrane space. C. ATP production will be less efficient but cells will continue to produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. D. Only substrate level phosphorylation will take place in the cells. E. NAD + concentration in the cells will be abnormally high. 23- Accumulation of which of the following molecules will slow down cellular respiration? A. NAD + B. ATP C. ADP D. NADPH E. Glucose 24- The image above represents a step/reaction in glycolysis. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the molecules involved in this reaction? A. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is going to be reduced and 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate is going to be oxidized. B. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is going to be oxidized and 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate is going to be reduced. C. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is going to be going to be reduced and NAD + is going to be oxidized. D. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is going to be oxidized and NADH is going to be reduced. E. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is going to be oxidized and NAD + is going to be reduced

8 25- Assertion Reason Increasing the acidity in the intermembrane space will increase ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation. Because The flow of protons through ATP synthase produces sufficient kinetic energy to phosphorylate ADP into ATP. A. Assertion is true; Reason is true; Reason is the correct explanation B. Assertion is true; Reason true; Reason is NOT the correct explanation C. Assertion is true; Reason is false D. Assertion is false; Reason is true E. Assertion is false; Reason is false 26- Which condition would increase substrate level phosphorylation in the cell? A. Increasing ATP levels in the cell. B. Increasing NADH levels in the cell. C. Decreasing ADP levels in the cell. D. Increasing FADH 2 levels in the cell. E. Decreasing oxygen levels in the cell. 27- For every glucose molecule, the cell will produce. A. 10 NADH molecules, 2 FADH 2 molecules, 32 ATP molecules, and 6 CO 2 molecules. B. 10 NADH molecules, 1 FADH 2 molecule, 28 ATP molecules, and 6 CO 2 molecules. C. 10 NADH molecules, 2 FADH 2 molecules, 32 ATP molecules, and 4 CO 2 molecules. D. 6 NADH molecules, 1 FADH 2 molecule, 28 ATP molecules, and 6 CO 2 molecules. E. 6 NADH molecules, 2 FADH 2 molecules, 32 ATP molecules, and 4 CO 2 molecules. 28- Assertion Reason When yeast are deprived of oxygen, pyruvate is reduced to ethanol. Because NADH is reduced to NAD +. A. Assertion is true; Reason is true; Reason is the correct explanation B. Assertion is true; Reason true; Reason is NOT the correct explanation C. Assertion is true; Reason is false D. Assertion is false; Reason is true E. Assertion is false; Reason is false

9 Fact: Cyanide is a chemical that causes cytochrome C oxidase to be permanently reduced. 29- Assertion Reason When the cells are exposed to high doses of cyanide, complex IV will remain oxidized, while complex I and II will be reduced. Because In cells exposed to high concentrations of cyanide, ATP will be produced through substrate level phosphorylation. A. Assertion is true; Reason is true; Reason is the correct explanation B. Assertion is true; Reason true; Reason is NOT the correct explanation C. Assertion is true; Reason is false D. Assertion is false; Reason is true E. Assertion is false; Reason is false 30- Assertion Reason If complex II stopped pumping protons into the intermembrane space there would be less production of ATP. Because All proteins in the ETC pump protons into the intermembrane space. A. Assertion is true; Reason is true; Reason is the correct explanation B. Assertion is true; Reason true; Reason is NOT the correct explanation C. Assertion is true; Reason is false D. Assertion is false; Reason is true E. Assertion is false; Reason is false 31-2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a drug used for weight loss, creates holes in the outer membrane of the mitochondria. Select the answer that correctly describes the effect of this drug on the mitochondria. A. Oxygen would no longer be reduced to water by the ETC. B. Little to no ATP would be made during the electron transport chain. C. Mitochondria would show a burst of increased ATP synthesis. D. Mitochondria would switch from glycolysis to fermentation. E. Glycolysis would stop.

10 Endomembrane System 32- Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to hydrophilic proteins A. Hydrophilic proteins will be synthesized in the cytosol if they contain no signal sequence for the signal receptor particle. B. Hydrophilic proteins will be synthesized in the cytosol if they contain a signal sequence for the signal receptor particle. C. Hydrophilic proteins will be synthesized in the rough ER if they do not contain a signal sequence for the signal receptor particle. D. Hydrophilic proteins will be synthesized in the rough ER if they contain a signal sequence for the signal receptor particle. E. Hydrophilic proteins are synthesized in the smooth ER if they contain a signal sequence for the signal receptor particle. 33- Complete the following statement: The signal recognition particle (SRP) helps to dock actively translating ribosomes to the by the SRP receptor, and the ribosome will continue synthesizing the protein into the. A. smooth ER, lumen of the smooth ER B. rough ER, lumen of the rough ER C. rough ER, lumen of the smooth ER D. rough ER, cytosol E. smooth ER, cytosol 34- Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to the nuclear pore? A. The nuclear pore allows for the transport of both DNA and RNA out of the nucleus, and proteins into the nucleus. B. The nuclear pore allows for the transport of RNA out of the nucleus and proteins into the nucleus. C. The nuclear pore allows for the transport of DNA out of the nucleus and RNA into the nucleus. D. The nuclear pore allows for the transport of DNA out of the nucleus and proteins into the nucleus. E. The nuclear pore allows for the transport of proteins out of the nucleus and RNA into the nucleus.

11 Fact: Actin is a protein found in the cytoskeleton of the cell which extend from the outer nuclear membrane to the inner side of the cell membrane. 35- Assertion Reason Actin is synthesized by free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Because Actin is a hydrophilic protein. A. Assertion is true; Reason is true; Reason is the correct explanation B. Assertion is true; Reason true; Reason is NOT the correct explanation C. Assertion is true; Reason is false D. Assertion is false; Reason is true E. Assertion is false; Reason is false 36- Insulin is a peptide-based hormone secreted by the pancreatic cells and functions in body cells to reduce blood glucose levels. Which of the following statement(s) is/are TRUE? A. Insulin has to cross a membrane of the pancreatic cells. B. Insulin is synthesized by free ribosomes in the cytoplasm. C. Insulin is synthesized using the endomembrane system. D. Insulin is synthesized by smooth ER. E. A and C are correct Enzymes 37- Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to enzyme catalysis? A. An enzyme increases the activation energy only in endergonic reactions. B. An enzyme increases the activation energy only in exergonic reactions. C. An enzyme decreases the activation energy only in endergonic reactions. D. An enzyme decreases the activation energy only in exergonic reactions. E. An enzyme decreases the activation energy in endergonic and exergonic reactions. 38- Assertion Reason Competitive inhibitors bind to the allosteric site of the enzyme. Because Only the substrate can bind to the active site of an enzyme. A. Assertion is true; Reason is true; Reason is the correct explanation B. Assertion is true; Reason true; Reason is NOT the correct explanation C. Assertion is true; Reason is false D. Assertion is false; Reason is true E. Assertion is false; Reason is false

12 Extra Credit 39- Which of the following statements are TRUE in regards to the electron transport chain? 1. We get more energy from FADH 2 than NADH. 2. We get more energy from NADH than FADH Water is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. 4. Complex II does not pump any protons. 5. Coenzyme Q is the only electron carrier in the electron transport chain. 6. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. A. 1, 3, 5 B. 2, 4, 6 C. 1, 4, 6 D. 2, 4, 5, 6 E. 3, 5, A scientist adds a recently identified molecule to a solution that contains an enzyme and its substrate. The scientist notices that the rate of enzymatic activity increases tremendously after this molecule is added. An additional study shows that the molecule interacts with a site away from the active site in the enzyme. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. The molecule binds to the allosteric site of the substrate and prevents the substrate from binding to the active site. B. The molecule binds to the allosteric site of the substrate and changes the shape of the active site so that substrate is now able to bind to the enzyme. C. The molecule binds to the allosteric site of the enzyme and prevents the substrate from binding to the active site. D. The molecule binds to the allosteric site of the enzyme and changes the shape of the active site so that substrate is now able to bind to the enzyme. E. The molecule increases the activation energy of the reaction.

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