KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.

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1 KEY CONCEPT The overall process of cellular respiration converts sugar into ATP using oxygen.

2 ! Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars. Cellular respiration is aerobic, or requires oxygen. Aerobic stages take place in mitochondria. mitochondrion animal cell

3 ! Glycolysis in detail: Glycolysis is the 1 st stage of cellular respiration. Glycolysis is anaerobic and takes place in the cytoplasm. two ATP molecules are used to split glucose four ATP molecules are produced (2 net ATP) two molecules of pyruvate (3 carbon molecule) produced two molecules of NADH produced (energy carrier) The products of glycolysis enter cellular respiration when oxygen is available.

4 ! Overview of the Kreb s cycle. The main purpose of the Krebs cycle is to produce energycarrying molecules NADH and FADH2. takes place in mitochondrial matrix breaks down 2 three-carbon pyruvate molecules from glycolysis For EACH pyruvate molecule: 3 carbon dioxide released 4 NADH produced 1 ATP produced 1 FADH2 produced Krebs Cycle 1 3 energy from glycolysis and 6O 2 mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) energy 2 inner membrane and 6CO 2 ATP ATP and 6H 2 O 4

5 Overview of ETC: 3 rd stage of cellular respiration: The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP. takes place in inner membrane energy transferred to electron transport chain oxygen enters process ATP produced water released as a waste product 3 1 energy from glycolysis and 6O 2 mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) energy 2 6CO 2 inner membrane Electron Transport and ATP ATP and 6H 2 O 4

6 ! Details of ETC: The electron transport chain is the second main part of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses NADH and to make ATP. high-energy electrons enter electron transport chain energy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner membrane hydrogen ions flow through a channel in the membrane creating ATP 3 ATP created for each NADH molecule 2 ATP created from each FADH 2 molecule

7 The breakdown of one glucose molecule during cellular respiration produces up to 38 molecules of ATP. ATP synthase enzyme produces ATP oxygen picks up electrons and hydrogen ions water is released as a waste product

8 The equation for the overall process is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.

9 KEY CONCEPT Fermentation allows the production of a small amount of ATP without oxygen.

10 ! Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue. Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable. Fermentation is an anaerobic process. occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respiration

11 Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable. NAD + is recycled to glycolysis Lactic acid fermentation occurs in muscle cells. glycolysis splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules pyruvate and NADH enter fermentation energy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acid NADH is changed back into NAD +

12 ! Fermentation and its products are important in several ways. Alcoholic fermentation is similar to lactic acid fermentation. glycolysis splits glucose and the products enter fermentation energy from NADH is used to split pyruvate into an alcohol and carbon dioxide NADH is changed back into NAD + NAD + is recycled to glycolysis

13 Fermentation is used in food production. yogurt cheese bread

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