Innate Immunity. Natural or native immunity

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1 Innate Immunity 1

2 Innate Immunity Natural or native immunity 2

3 When microbes enter in the body 3

4 Secondly, it also stimulates the adaptive immune system 4

5 Immunologic memory 5

6 Components of Innate Immunity 1. Anatomical barriers 2. Mechanical components 3. Normal flora 4. Antigen-nonspecific antimicrobial molecules 5. Innate immun system cells 6. Some molecules 6

7 1 Anatomical barriers are physical barriers Skin Dry Acidic Lower temperature Hair follicles and Sweat gland Lyozyme Toxic lipids Epithelial cells Defensin Cathelicidin 7

8 The respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the genitourinary tract 8

9 Mucous membrane secretes mucus Lysozyme Lactoferrin Lactoperoxidase 9

10 A cilium is an organelle 10

11 These processes remove pathogens cough sneezing diarrhea 11

12 Fluids such as urine sweat tear saliva 12

13 2 Normal flora Approximately 100 trillion bacteria and other microorganisms Produce metabolic products Cover the surface Use nutrients Stimulate immune system 13

14 3 Antigen-nonspecific antimicrobial molecules There are many antigen-nonspecific antimicrobial chemicals Hydrochloric acid and enzymes 14

15 15

16 Defensins form pores 16

17 Cathelicidins are proteins produced by 17

18 Lactic and fatty acids, found in 18

19 Lactoferrin and transferrin trap iron 19

20 5 Innate immun system cells 5a.-Phagocytes 5b.-Cells that release inflamatory mediators 5c.-Lymphoctes 20

21 5a There are two types of phagocytes mononuclear phagocytes 21

22 The other family of phagocytes polymorphonuclear granulocytes 22

23 Monocyte normally make up 2-8% of white blood cells (WBC) 23

24 Resident macrophages are found 24

25 Monocyte has a horseshoe-shaped nucleus and granules the primary (azurophilic) granules lysosomes Peroxidase Acide hydrolase Phagocyte Present antigens Secrete cytokines Long-lived Multiply 25

26 Macrophages have special receptors Special receptors Microbes Cytokines IFN-γ Opsonin molecules 26

27 27

28 There are tree types of polymorphonuclear granulocytes irregular and lobed nucleus Neutrophil granules Eosinophil Basophil 28

29 Neutrophils are the first type of leukocytes to respond to microbial infections % of WBCs 29

30 Neutrophils are important phagocytes. phagocytes the primary (azurophilic) granules lysosomes Acid hydrolases, Myeloperoxidase, Muramidase (Lysozyme) Defensins Cathepsin G Cationic protein Bacterial permeabily increasing protein the secondary granules Lactoferrin Lysozyme Collagenase Elastase 30

31 The granules are also often released extracellularly 31

32 They release the enzyme kallikrein and other enzymes 32

33 Neutrophils express adhesion molecules and reseptors 33

34 Neutrophils The life span is few hours They do not multiply 34

35 5b Eosinophils normally make up 1-4% of the WBCs Bilobed nucleus Many cytoplasmic granules Acid phosphates Peroxidases Major basic protein Potent toxin Induces histamin release Activates neutrophils and platelets Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) Eosinophil derived neurotoxin 35

36 They are capable of phagocytosis Fungi, protozoa and helmints Leukotrienes, prostoglandins 8-12 days 36

37 5b Basophils are found in very small numbers in the circulation 0,2 % Mast cells Their functions are the same Many granules Histamine Leukotrienes Prostoglandins Heparin PAF Secrete IL-4 IL-13 Basophils have much less life span 37

38 The stimulus for the degranulation of mast cell or basophil is often an allergen. 38

39 5c Lymphocytes Natural Killer Cell (NK) Intraepithelial lymphocytes B1 lymphocytes 39

40 NK cells are able to recognize and kill infected cells, cancer cells, and stressed cells Absent T cell reseptors B cell receptors Function Killing Virus-infected cells Tumor cells Stressed cells Secretion IFN-γ 40

41 NK cells use a dual receptor system 41

42 Stress-induced glycoproteins are secreted by 42

43 Viruses, stress, and malignant transformation 43

44 The NK cell then releases pore-forming proteins perforin granzyme 44

45 Cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) 45

46 NK cells also play a role in adaptive immune responses antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) 46

47 Intraepithelial lymphocytes (γδ T cells) may protect the mucosal surface of the body Epidermis Mucosal epithelia PAMP-TCR 47

48 B-1 cells are found mostly in the peritoneal and pleural cavities T-independent antigens Natural antibodies 48

49 6 The molecules involved in natural immun system Complement system Acute phase proteins Cytokines 49

50 The complement system is a series of proteins C3 convertase 50

51 51

52 Many plasma proteins increase rapidly after infection 52

53 53

54 Recognation of Microbes by Innate Immune System 54

55 Innate immunity recognize molecules are not found in mammalian cells. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) LPS Porin protein Lipoprotein Lipid 55

56 Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) Peptidoglycan Teichoic acid Lipoteichoic acid 56

57 Lipoarabinomannan 57

58 Mannose-rich glycans 58

59 59

60 60

61 In order to recognize PAMPs Pattern-Recognation Receptors 61

62 Many pattern-recognition receptors are located 62

63 Endocytic Pattern-Recognition Receptors Signaling Pattern-Recognition Receptors 63

64 Endocytic pattern-recognition receptors LPS Peptİdoglycan teichoic acid CRP C3b, C4b Surfactant protein A and D 64

65 Signaling Pattern-Recognition Receptors Binding of microbial PAMPs to signalling type of PRRs toll-like receptors (TLRs) 65

66 66

67 In response to certain pathogen associated molecular patterns neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) 67

68 The Response of Innate Immune System 68

69 When effectors cells of innate immun system recognize microbial antigens 69

70 Diapedesis In order to perform effector functions 70

71 The resident macrophages recognize the microbe and produce cytokines

72 Diapedesis selectin-mediated rolling integrin-mediated firm adhesion chemokine-mediated motility 72

73 The recognition of microbes by neutrophils or macrophages 73

74 Several enzymes in the phagolysosomes are activated. 74

75 The escaping from phagocytosis 75

76 76

77 Leave cell before the fusing of lysosome to phagosome 77

78 The inhibition of the fusing of lysosome to phagosome. 78

79 The removing of MAC complex 79

80 The escaping from phagocytosis The leaving phagocytic cell before the fusing of lysosome to phagosome The inhibition of the fusing of lysosome to phagosome The resistance to and destroying of microbicidal enzyme in phagolysosome. The inhibition of comlement activation. The production of enzyme for killing of the phagocytes. The stimulation of apoptosis of macrophages. 80

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