decarboxylation. Further work with the enzyme systems involved has shown

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "decarboxylation. Further work with the enzyme systems involved has shown"

Transcription

1 THE BACTERIAL OXIDATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS IV. STITDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF ENZYMATC DEGRADATION OF PROTOCATECHuiC ACID' R. Y. STANIER Department of Bacteriology, University of California, Berkeley, California Received for publication January 16, 1950 Dried cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens, harvested after growth at the expense of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, catalyze a quantitative transformation of protocatechuic acid to,-ketoadipic acid (Stanier, Sleeper, Tsuchida, and Macdonald, 1950). The equation is: COOH COOH C CH H20- C=-O + C02 Q OH I OH (CH2) 2 COOH This equation clearly represents the over-all result of several distinct step reactions, which must include rearrangement, water addition, oxidation, and decarboxylation. Further work with the enzyme systems involved has shown that it is possible to dissociate the decarboxylative step from the other reactions, thus clarifying to some extent the course of biochemical events in this transformation. Materials and methods. Dried cells of P. fluorescens grown on p-hydroxybensoate and prepared as described by Sleeper, Tsuchida, and Stanier (1950) served as the source of enzymes. The analytical techniques used were those described by Stanier, Sleeper, Tsuchida, and Macdonald (1950). RESULTS Extraction of enzymes from whole dried cells. Contrary to our previous report (Sleeper, Tsuchida, and Stanier, 1950), the enzymes responsible for the degradation of protocatechuic acid can be obtained cell-free by extraction of certain batches of dried cells with distilled water and subsequent removal of the insoluble debris by centrifugation at high speeds (10,000 rpm). The ease of extraction varies from batch to batch of dried cells, and even with the most readily extractable batches it is not possible to obtain a complete separation of enzymatic activity from the insoluble cellular debris. This is shown by the following typical experiment: Two grams of dried cells were suspended in distilled water 1 This work was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from the American Cancer Society upon recommendation of the Committee on Growth of the National Research Council. 527

2 528 R. Y. STANIER [VOL. 59 and immediately centrifuged. After removal of the clear supernatant, the debris was resuspended in distilled water and kept for 16 hours at 5 to 10 C. Following a second centrifugation, the debris was extracted once more in the same manner. Thereafter, the enzymatic activities of the successive extracts and of the insoluble, washed debris were determined manometrically, by the rate of oxygen uptake with protocatechuic acid as the substrate. The results (table 1) show that in this experiment only 40 per cent of the total activity was removed by a single extraction, and that an approximately equal amount of enzyme could be obtained in solution by subsequent further prolonged extraction. Dissociation of the decarboeylative step. Successive extracts of dried cells, as well as the extracted residue, all oxidized protocatechuic acid at a steady rate and with a total oxygen uptake of one mole per mole of substrate. However, when Rothera tests were performed after completion of the oxidation, different results were obtained with different fractions. The first extracts from dried cells always gave the intense violet reaction characteristic of,b-ketoadipic acid, whereas later extracts and repeatedly extracted cell residues gave weak and TABLE 1 Distribution of protocatechuate-oxidizing activity in the 8uccessive extracts and the extracted residue of p-hydroxybenzoate-grown cells 03 UPTAX WrE VOLUME 0F FRACTION PIOTOCATECHUIC ATOxN, L TOTAL ACTIVITY ACED W/hrl/ml id 0/hr First extract... 6, ,000 Second extract... 8, ,000 Third extract... 4, ,000 Extracted residue*... 4, ,000 * Resuspended in distilled water. sometimes even negative reactions. Since the total oxygen uptakes in these latter cases were still characteristic of the over-all reaction, the anomalous outcome of the Rothera tests suggested that the decarboxylative step might have been affected. This possibility was checked by making systematic determinations of R.Q. values on the successive fractions of a single sample of extracted dried cells. The results presented in table 2 show that the R.Q. values obtained with the last extract and the extracted residue are markedly below the usual figure of unity. This decline of decarboxylative activity as a consequence of repeated extraction might be ascribable either to preferential extraction of the whole enzyme catalyzing decarboxylation or to the removal in the first extracts of a soluble coenzyme required for the decarboxylative step. In the latter case, dialysis of a first extract possessing full decarboxylative activity should also cause a decline of decarboxylation. Accordingly, a first extract was dialyzed in the cold against several successive changes of distilled water. After dialysis, the R.Q. of this preparation had fallen from an original value of 0.95 to From this

3 1950] BACTERIAL OXIDATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS 529 experiment, it seems probable that a coenzyme is required for the decarboxylative step. Since the oxidizing capacity of the preparation was only slightly diminished by thorough dialysis, it is also evident that freely dissociable coenzymes are not needed for the oxidative step(s). The exploratory experiments described above made it possible to prepare very simply two kinds of cell-free enzyme systems, both capable of oxidizing protocatechuic acid with the full oxygen uptake of one mole per mole of substrate, but differing with respect to their decarboxylative capacities. In order to study the reaction catalyzed by a nondecarboxylating preparation, a cell-free enzyme solution was dialyzed until its decarboxylative activity had reached a negligible level. After dialysis, this preparation oxidized protocatechuic acid with an oxygen uptake of 1.05 moles per mole of substrate and an R.Q. of 0.02; the Rothera reaction was completely negative at the end of the oxidation. This system will henceforth be referred to as OE (oxidizing enzyme), in contradistinction to the complete system, which will be referred to as ODE (oxidizing and decarboxylating enzyme). TABLE 2 Oxygen uptakes and R.Q. values with protocatechuic acid determined on successive extracts from dried cells Oh UPTAKE, MOLES PERL MOLE O SUBSTRATE First extract Second extract * Third extract Fourth extract Extracted residue * Not determined. Formation of acid accompanying the nondecarboxylative oxidation of protocatechuic acid. The acid formation resulting from oxidation of protocatechuic acid by OE was determined manometrically, by carbon dioxide release from bicarbonate buffer. In making calculations, an oxygen consumption of one mole per mole of substrate and an R.Q. of zero were employed, on the basis of the figures given in the preceding paragraphs. At the end of the experiment, the Rothera reaction was negative. As shown in table 3, there is a net acid formation of nearly two equivalents per mole of protocatechuic acid oxidized. Since decarboxylation has not occurred, the substrate carboxyl group must still be present in the product of oxidation; accordingly, the product must contain three acidic groups, of which at least one is a carboxyl group. Enzymatic decarboxylation of the intermediate formed by the oxidation of protocatechuic acid. Since the full oxygen uptake necessary for the transformation of protocatechuic acid to,b-ketoadipic acid occurs when OE acts on protocatechuic acid, the product of this reaction should be transformable without further oxygen uptake into carbon dioxide and p-ketoadipic acid under the R.Q.

4 530 R. Y. STANIER [VOL. 59 influence of ODE. In order to test this conclusion, a known amount of protocatechuic acid was oxidized by OE and at the end of the oxidation aliquots of the mixture were subjected to treatment with ODE, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and B-ketoacid formation being determined. In order to simplify presentation of the results, the experimental procedure will be outlined in detail. A single Warburg vessel (A) was set up with 1.0 ml of OE and 2.0 ml of M/5 phosphate buffer (ph 7.0) in the main compartment, and 0.3 ml of M/25 Na-protocatechuate in the side arm. The contents of the vessel were mixed, and the course of the reaction was followed by observing oxygen uptake. When oxidation ceased, the vessel was removed from the manometer and 1.0-ml aliquots of its contents were pipetted into three other vessels, B, C, and D. A Rothera test was performed on the remaining contents of vessel A with negative results, showing that a negligible amount of,3-ketoadipic acid had been formed TABLE 3 Acidformationfrom protocatechuic acid by the nondecarboxylating enzyme system CONDITIONS Main compartment: 0.5 ml of enzyme and 1.5 ml of M/25 NaHCOs. Side arm: Na-protocatechuate in M/25 NaHCOs to give amount indicated. Atmosphere: air with 15 per cent carbon dioxide. RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS VESSEL 1 VESSEL 2 Na-protocatechuate supplied, micromoles Observed pressure change, mm Calculated pressure change for 02 consumed, mm (90/Ko) -106 (134/Ko,) Total pressure change for C02 released, mm Acid formed, microliters (111 X Kco,) 259 (180 X Kco) Acid formed, microequivalents Acid formed, equivalents per mole of protocatechuic acid oxidized during the initial oxidation. Vessels B, C, and D each had 0.3 ml of ODE in one side arm. Vessel B, used for determining oxygen uptake, contained KOH in the center well; vessels C and D, used for determining initial bound and final total CO2, respectively, had 0.3 ml of 50 per cent citric acid in a second side arm. (Since catalytic decarboxylations were to be performed on the contents of C and D, care was taken when dumping the acid not to rinse out the side arm that had contained it, this side arm being used subsequently for the addition of aniline citrate.) The contents of vessels B, C, and D were mixed in the usual manner, and readings taken until no further pressure changes occurred. At this time the contents of vessel B were used for a Rothera test, which was strongly positive. Vessels C and D received an addition of aniline citrate to the side arm that had previously contained citric acid; following this addition, catalytic decarboxylations were performed, a control vessel being included in the series

5 1950] BACTERIAL OXIDATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS 5301 to correct for volume changes. The results, calculated in terms of the total contents of the original vessel A, are presented in table 4. From this experiment, the following conclusions can be reached: first, the intermediate compound formed from protocatechuic acid by OE is enzymatically decarboxylated by ODE with a C02 evolution of approximately one mole per mole of protocatechuate originally oxidized, the decarboxylation not being accompanied by further oxygen uptake; second, the intermediate itself cannot be catalytically decarboxylated by aniline citrate; and, third, after enzymatic decarboxylation an amount of,t-ketoacid has been formed that is roughly equimolar with the amount of C02 released. The rate of catalytic decarboxylation by aniline citrate in vessel D was identical with that previously observed (Stanier, Sleeper, Tsuchida, and Macdonald, 1950) for,-ketoadipic acid; taken in conjunction with the characteristic violet Rothera reaction obtained with the con- TABLE 4 The enzymatic decarboxylation of the intermediate formed by the oxidation of protocatechuic acid Na-protocatechuate supplied: 12 micromoles MICRO_ OiMOLES/MOLE VESSEL REACTION OBSERVED MYICROLITERS MOLES PROTOCATECEUIC ACID A 02 uptake with nondecarboxylating enzyme system B Further 02 uptake on addition of decarboxy lating enzyme system D-C C02 production on addition of decarboxylating enzyme system C f3-ketoacid present before addition of decar boxylating enzyme system D j3-ketoacid present after action of decarboxy lating enzyme system D-C Net fb-ketoacid formed by decarboxylating enzyme system tents of vessel B after treatment with ODE, this provides convincing evidence that the product of the enzymatic decarboxylation is,b-ketoadipic acid. DISCUSSION The experiments described above clearly place the decarboxylative step in the transformation of protocatechuic acid to,b-ketoadipic acid after the oxidative step(s). Two pieces of evidence, taken in conjunction, show that the intermediate formed by the nondecarboxylative attack on protocatechuic acid must be a tricarboxylic acid: first, the concomitant production of two equivalents of acid; and, second, the nonoxidative enzymatic decarboxylation of the intermediate to I3-ketoadipic acid. Consequently, the first steps in the degradation of protocatechuic acid must involve oxidative rupture of the benzene ring with the production of an aliphatic, tricarboxylic acid containing seven carbon

6 ,5,302 R. Y. STANIER [VOL. 59 atoms. As yet the constitution of this acid has not been established, although we have produced several millimoles of it by the enzymatic degradation of protocatechuic acid. It is an extremely unstable compound, and we have been unable so far to isolate sufficient amounts in a pure state to permit of chemical characterization. However, the demonstration of its enzymatic decomposition to C02 and fb-ketoadipic acid limits the possibilities to a very small number of compounds. The most obvious possibility, already suggested previously on the basis of other considerations (Stanier, Sleeper, Tsuchida, and Macdonald, 1950), is malonosuccinic acid (Bi-keto,y-carboxyadipic acid). However, this compound appears to be eliminated by the fact that the intermediate is not decarboxylated by aniline citrate. Malonosuccinic acid, by analogy with oxalosuccinic acid (Ochoa, 1948), should be decarboxylated by this reagent. SUMMARY Cell-free enzyme preparations, capable of oxidizing protocatechuic acid to,b-ketoadipic acid, have been obtained by the aqueous extraction of dried, p- hydroxybenzoate-grown cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Such preparations completely lose their decarboxylative activity following thorough dialysis against distilled water, but their oxidative activity is only slightly affected by this treatment. Nondecarboxylating preparations oxidize protocatechuic acid with the formation of a tricarboxylic acid containing seven carbon atoms. On subsequent treatment with a decarboxylating enzyme preparation, this intermediate tricarboxylic acid is decomposed without oxygen uptake to carbon dioxide and jl-ketoadipic acid. REFERENCES OcHOA, S Biosynthesis of tricarboxylic acids by carbon dioxide fixation. I. The preparation and properties of oxalosuccinic acid. J. Biol. Chem., 174, SLEEPER, B. P., TsUCHIDA, M., AND STANIER, R. Y The bacterial oxidation of aromatic compounds. II. The preparation of enzymatically active dried cells, and the influence thereon of prior patterns of adaptation. J. Bact., 59, STANIER, R. Y., SLEEPER, B. P., TsUCHIDA, M., AND MACDONALD, D. L The bacterial oxidation of aromatic compounds. III. The enzymatic oxidation of catechol and protocatechuic acid to j3-ketoadipic acid. J. Bact., 59,

THE ENZYMATIC CONVERSION OF MANDELIC ACID TO BENZOIC ACID

THE ENZYMATIC CONVERSION OF MANDELIC ACID TO BENZOIC ACID THE ENZYMATIC CONVERSION OF MANDELIC ACID TO BENZOIC ACID III. FRACTIONATION AND PROPERTIES OF THE SOLUBLE ENZymES1 C. F. GUNSALUS, R. Y. STANIER,2 AND I. C. GUNSALUS Laboratory of Bacteriology, University

More information

anna.ida3@gmail.com/2013 Have you ever heard HUMUS?? A brown to black complex variable of carbon containing compounds as possessing cellular organization in the form of plant and animal bodies Derived

More information

Prelab 6: Carboxylic Acids

Prelab 6: Carboxylic Acids The Structure of Carboxylic Acids Prelab 6: Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids contain a carboxyl functional group attached to a hydrocarbon (alkyl group) part. Carboxyl groups contain both a carbonyl group,

More information

colorimetrically by the methylene blue method according to Fogo and manometrically. In the presence of excess sulfur the amount of oxygen taken up

colorimetrically by the methylene blue method according to Fogo and manometrically. In the presence of excess sulfur the amount of oxygen taken up GLUTA THIONE AND SULFUR OXIDATION BY THIOBACILLUS THIOOXIDANS* BY ISAMU SUZUKI AND C. H. WERKMAN DEPARTMENT OF BACTERIOLOGY, IOWA STATE COLLEGE Communicated December 15, 1958 The ability of Thiobacillus

More information

Received for publication February 20, acids by a cell-free extract of a Vibrio was. fatty acids by the anaerobe, Clostridium kluyveri

Received for publication February 20, acids by a cell-free extract of a Vibrio was. fatty acids by the anaerobe, Clostridium kluyveri FATTY ACID METABOLISM IN SERRATIA MARCESCENS I. OXIDATION OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS BY WHOLE CELLS D. G. BISHOP AND J. L. STILL Department of Biochemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Received

More information

69. On the Mechanism o f Thiamine Action, II.

69. On the Mechanism o f Thiamine Action, II. 302 [Vol. 27, 69. On the Mechanism o f Thiamine Action, II. Department By Shunzi MIZUHARA, Ryohei TAMURA, and Hidetaka ARATA. of Biological Chemistry, Okayama University Medical School. {Comm. by T. SHIMIZU,

More information

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy AP Biology Reading Guide Name: Date: Period Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take

More information

Citrate Cycle. Lecture 28. Key Concepts. The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions

Citrate Cycle. Lecture 28. Key Concepts. The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions Citrate Cycle Lecture 28 Key Concepts The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions Eight reactions of the Citrate Cycle Key control points in the Citrate Cycle regulate metabolic flux What role

More information

INVESTIGATION OF CHLORINATED METHANES TREATABILITY USING ACTIVATED SODIUM PERSULFATE

INVESTIGATION OF CHLORINATED METHANES TREATABILITY USING ACTIVATED SODIUM PERSULFATE Preprint: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (2005) INVESTIGATION OF CHLORINATED METHANES TREATABILITY USING ACTIVATED SODIUM PERSULFATE Duane K.

More information

David Huang! AP Biology! Oct. 4,2013! AP Biology Osmosis Laboratory Analysis! Introduction:!! There are several different methods for the

David Huang! AP Biology! Oct. 4,2013! AP Biology Osmosis Laboratory Analysis! Introduction:!! There are several different methods for the David Huang AP Biology Oct. 4,2013 AP Biology Osmosis Laboratory Analysis Introduction: There are several different methods for the transportation of molecules across the phospholipid bilayer. These transportation

More information

Chapter 18. Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives. Nucleophilic Addition-Elimination at the Acyl Carbon

Chapter 18. Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives. Nucleophilic Addition-Elimination at the Acyl Carbon Chapter 18 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives. Nucleophilic Addition-Elimination at the Acyl Carbon Carboxylic Acids Organic compounds characterized by their acidity Contains COOH group (must be at

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following statements concerning anabolic reactions is FALSE? A. They are generally endergonic. B. They usually require ATP. C. They are part of metabolism. D.

More information

22. The Fischer Esterification

22. The Fischer Esterification 22. The Fischer Esterification A. Background Esters are an incredibly important functional group in organic chemistry. Esters are typically very pleasant smelling molecules and are therefore frequently

More information

CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview. Concept 7.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels

CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview. Concept 7.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels CH 7: Cell Respiration and Fermentation Overview Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms Energy flows into

More information

PAPER No. : 16 Bioorganic and biophysical chemistry MODULE No. : 25 Coenzyme-I Coenzyme A, TPP, B12 and biotin

PAPER No. : 16 Bioorganic and biophysical chemistry MODULE No. : 25 Coenzyme-I Coenzyme A, TPP, B12 and biotin Subject Paper No and Title Module No and Title Module Tag 16, Bio organic and Bio physical chemistry 25, Coenzyme-I : Coenzyme A, TPP, B12 and CHE_P16_M25 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Learning Outcomes 2. Introduction

More information

Six Types of Enzyme Catalysts

Six Types of Enzyme Catalysts Six Types of Enzyme Catalysts Although a huge number of reactions occur in living systems, these reactions fall into only half a dozen types. The reactions are: 1. Oxidation and reduction. Enzymes that

More information

Portal module: m Glycolysis. First Last. 1 First Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Requiring Steps)

Portal module: m Glycolysis. First Last. 1 First Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Requiring Steps) Portal module: m10399 1 Glycolysis First Last This work is produced by Portal and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 Abstract By the end of this section, you will be able to do

More information

TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle)

TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) TCA CYCLE (Citric Acid Cycle) TCA CYCLE The Citric Acid Cycle is also known as: Kreb s cycle Sir Hans Krebs Nobel prize, 1953 TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle The citric acid cycle requires aerobic conditions!!!!

More information

1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/

1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/ 1 CH:14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS https://biologyaipmt.com/ CHAPTER 14 RESPIRATION IN PLANTS All the energy required for 'life' processes is obtained by oxidation of some macromolecules that we call 'food'.

More information

The Krebs cycle is a central pathway for recovering energy from three major metabolites: carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids.

The Krebs cycle is a central pathway for recovering energy from three major metabolites: carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Chapter 16 - Citric Acid Cycle TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) Citric acid cycle and Krebs cycle. Named after Sir Hans Krebs, Nobel Laureate. He worked as an assistant professor for Otto Warburg (Nobel

More information

THE EFFECT OF MALONATE ON TISSUE RESPIRATION*

THE EFFECT OF MALONATE ON TISSUE RESPIRATION* THE EFFECT OF MALONATE ON TISSUE RESPIRATION* BY C. A. BAUMANN AND F. J. STARE (From the Department of Biochemistry, College of Agriculture, and the Cancer Research Laboratory, University of Wisconsin,

More information

MITOCHONDRIA LECTURES OVERVIEW

MITOCHONDRIA LECTURES OVERVIEW 1 MITOCHONDRIA LECTURES OVERVIEW A. MITOCHONDRIA LECTURES OVERVIEW Mitochondrial Structure The arrangement of membranes: distinct inner and outer membranes, The location of ATPase, DNA and ribosomes The

More information

Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration

Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Section B: The Process of Cellular Respiration 1. Respiration involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport: an overview 2. Glycolysis

More information

AP BIOLOGY Enzyme Catalysis

AP BIOLOGY Enzyme Catalysis AP BIOLOGY Enzyme Catalysis Introduction In general, enzymes are proteins produced by living cells; they act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. A catalyst affects the rate of a chemical reaction. One

More information

BIOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION. Prokaryotes

BIOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION. Prokaryotes Microbial degradation of aromatic organic pollutants A study of dead-end metabolites including the stereochemical mechanistic studies of cycloisomerase enzyme and their products using deuterium labelled

More information

CHEM 527 Final exam, Fall 2006

CHEM 527 Final exam, Fall 2006 EM 527 Final exam, Fall 2006 AME TES: 1. Please stay calm. 2. Where appropriate, show work to receive full credit. 3. This exam contains 11 pages + metabolic charts (detach gently, please). 4. Pace yourself

More information

Biology 2180 Laboratory #3. Enzyme Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis

Biology 2180 Laboratory #3. Enzyme Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis Biology 2180 Laboratory #3 Name Introduction Enzyme Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis Catalysts are agents that speed up chemical processes and the catalysts produced by living cells are called enzymes.

More information

Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways

Concept 9.1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Several processes are central to cellular respiration and related pathways Overview: Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals, such as the chimpanzee, obtain energy by eating plants, and some animals feed on other organisms that eat plants Energy

More information

METABOLISM OF L-RHAMNOSE BY ESCHERICHIA COLI

METABOLISM OF L-RHAMNOSE BY ESCHERICHIA COLI METABOLISM OF L-RHAMNOSE BY ESCHERICHIA COLI I. L- RHAMNOSE ISOMERASE DOROTHY M. WILSON1 AND SAM AJL Department of Bacteriology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D. C. The methyl pentose,

More information

DEVELOPMENTAL VALIDATION OF SPERM HY-LITER EXPRESS Jennifer Old, Chris Martersteck, Anna Kalinina, Independent Forensics, Lombard IL

DEVELOPMENTAL VALIDATION OF SPERM HY-LITER EXPRESS Jennifer Old, Chris Martersteck, Anna Kalinina, Independent Forensics, Lombard IL DEVELOPMENTAL VALIDATION OF SPERM HY-LITER EXPRESS Jennifer Old, Chris Martersteck, Anna Kalinina, Independent Forensics, Lombard IL Background and Introduction SPERM HY-LITER is the first immunofluorescent

More information

NITROGEN METABOLISM An Overview

NITROGEN METABOLISM An Overview 1 University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine and Health Sciences Division of Basic Medical Sciences Discipline of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology PBL Seminar & Health Sciences NITROGEN METABOLISM

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy You should be able to: 1. Explain how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. Name and describe the three stages of cellular respiration;

More information

CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012. How cells release Chemical Energy

CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012. How cells release Chemical Energy CHAPTER 7 10/16/2012 How cells release Chemical Energy 1 7.1 OVERVIEW OF CARBOHYDRATE BREAKDOWN PATHWAYS Organisms stay alive by taking in energy. Plants and all other photosynthetic autotrophs get energy

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Assemble polymers, pump substances across membranes, move and reproduce The giant panda Obtains energy for its cells by eating plants which get

More information

Extraction News Notes Blog

Extraction News Notes Blog Extraction News Notes Blog www.infinitysupercritical.com BY: Infinity Supercritical Staff EG TAGS: Supercritical CO2 Oil Extraction, Cannabis, Oil Concentrates Sustainable Production of Cannabinoids with

More information

Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Extraction of the Diffusible Substances Concerned. Kenneth V. Thimann, and G. W. Beadle

Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Extraction of the Diffusible Substances Concerned. Kenneth V. Thimann, and G. W. Beadle Development of Eye Colors in Drosophila: Extraction of the Diffusible Substances Concerned Kenneth V. Thimann, and G. W. Beadle PNAS 1937;23;143-146 doi:10.1073/pnas.23.3.143 This information is current

More information

Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration An Introduction to Essential Cellular Metabolic athways GLY e- Cytolplasm TS e- KC Matrix of Mitochondria Cytolplasm By Noel Ways Basic Metabolic athways: Glycolosis,

More information

Sheet #13. #Citric acid cycle made by zaid al-ghnaneem corrected by amer Al-salamat date 11/8/2016. Here we go.. Record #18

Sheet #13. #Citric acid cycle made by zaid al-ghnaneem corrected by amer Al-salamat date 11/8/2016. Here we go.. Record #18 1 Sheet #13 #Citric acid cycle made by zaid al-ghnaneem corrected by amer Al-salamat date 11/8/2016 Here we go.. Record #18 2 Three processes play central role in aerobic metabolism: 1) The citric acid

More information

Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate. Chapter 16 Homework Assignment. Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate. Chapter 16 Homework Assignment. Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 Homework Assignment The following problems will be due once we finish the chapter: 1, 3, 7, 10, 16, 19, 20 Additional Problem: Write out the eight reaction steps of the Citric Acid Cycle, using

More information

Human Alpha 1 microglobulin ELISA Kit

Human Alpha 1 microglobulin ELISA Kit Human Alpha 1 microglobulin ELISA Kit Catalogue No.: EH4144 Size: 48T/96T Reactivity: Human Range:0.625-40ng/ml Sensitivity:

More information

Microbial Metabolism. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Bradley W. Christian, McLennan Community College C H A P T E R

Microbial Metabolism. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Bradley W. Christian, McLennan Community College C H A P T E R PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Bradley W. Christian, McLennan Community College C H A P T E R 5 Microbial Metabolism Big Picture: Metabolism Metabolism is the buildup and breakdown of nutrients

More information

LAB 6 Fermentation & Cellular Respiration

LAB 6 Fermentation & Cellular Respiration LAB 6 Fermentation & Cellular Respiration INTRODUCTION The cells of all living organisms require energy to keep themselves alive and fulfilling their roles. Where does this energy come from? The answer

More information

2: Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at its start and end and some intermediates

2: Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at its start and end and some intermediates 1 Life 20 - Glycolysis Raven & Johnson Chapter 9 (parts) Objectives 1: Know the location of glycolysis in a eukaryotic cell 2: Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at

More information

THE ABSORPTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS FROM THE RUMEN

THE ABSORPTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS FROM THE RUMEN VOL. 24, Nos. 1 & 2 SEPTEMBER 1947 THE ABSORPTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS FROM THE RUMEN BY F. V. GRAY From the Division of Biochemistry and General Nutrition of the Council for Scientific and Industrial

More information

THE DECARBOXYLATION OF AMINO ACIDS, PROTEINS, AND PEPTIDES BY N-BROMOSUCCINIMIDE

THE DECARBOXYLATION OF AMINO ACIDS, PROTEINS, AND PEPTIDES BY N-BROMOSUCCINIMIDE THE DECARBOXYLATION OF AMINO ACIDS, PROTEINS, AND PEPTIDES BY N-BROMOSUCCINIMIDE BY EMMETT W. CHAPPELLE AND J. MURRAY LUCK (From the Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California)

More information

Enzymes & Experimental Design

Enzymes & Experimental Design Lab 4- Bio 201 Name: Enzymes & Experimental Design OBJECTIVES: To continue to practice to apply hypothesis testing. To continue to practice experimental design. To gain a better understanding of enzymes

More information

Influence of Glucose and Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations on Yields of Escherichia colt' B in Dialysis Culture

Influence of Glucose and Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations on Yields of Escherichia colt' B in Dialysis Culture Journal of General Microbiology (1977), 103, 353-358. Printed in Great Britain 353 Influence of Glucose and Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations on Yields of Escherichia colt' B in Dialysis Culture By PETER

More information

3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP]

3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP] 3.7 Cell respiration ( Chapter 9 in Campbell's book) 3.7.1 Define cell respiration [Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP] Organic compounds store

More information

What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP

What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP ATP Chapter 8 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP Flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Energy is stored in organic compounds Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins Heterotrophs eat

More information

Oxidative phosphorylation & Photophosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation & Photophosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation & Photophosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation is the last step in the formation of energy-yielding metabolism in aerobic organisms. All oxidative steps in the degradation of

More information

Releasing Chemical Energy

Releasing Chemical Energy Releasing Chemical Energy Ø Energy From Carbohydrates Ø Aerobic Respiration/ Stages Ø Fermentation Ø Food as a Source of Energy How Do Cells Access the Chemical Energy in Carbohydrayes? Aerobic Respiration

More information

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush

number Done by Corrected by Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush number 7 Done by حسام أبو عوض Corrected by Shahd Alqudah Doctor Nafeth Abu Tarboush 1 P a g e As we have studied before, in the fourth reaction of the Krebs cycle, α- ketoglutarate is converted into Succinyl-CoA

More information

Page 2 of 51 WJEC/CBAC 2016 pdfcrowd.com

Page 2 of 51 WJEC/CBAC 2016 pdfcrowd.com 1. Page 2 of 51 WJEC/CBAC 2016 Page 3 of 51 WJEC/CBAC 2016 2. Page 4 of 51 WJEC/CBAC 2016 Page 5 of 51 WJEC/CBAC 2016 3. Page 6 of 51 WJEC/CBAC 2016 Page 7 of 51 WJEC/CBAC 2016 4. Page 8 of 51 WJEC/CBAC

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Chapter 8

How Cells Release Chemical Energy. Chapter 8 How Cells Release Chemical Energy Chapter 8 Impacts, Issues: When Mitochondria Spin Their Wheels More than forty disorders related to defective mitochondria are known (such as Friedreich s ataxia); many

More information

True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy.

True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy. True or False: 1. Reactions are called endergonic if they occur spontaneously and release free energy. 2. Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy 3. Biochemical pathways are

More information

Lecture 11 AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS

Lecture 11 AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS Lecture 11 AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS The word "Protein" was coined by J.J. Berzelius in 1838 and was derived from the Greek word "Proteios" meaning the first rank. Proteins are macromolecular polymers composed

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

Name: Student Number

Name: Student Number UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH CHEM 454 ENZYMOLOGY Winter 2003 Quiz #1: February 13, 2003, 11:30 13:00 Instructor: Prof R. Merrill Instructions: Time allowed = 80 minutes. Total marks = 34. This quiz represents

More information

Fall 2005: CH395G - Exam 2 - Multiple Choice (2 pts each)

Fall 2005: CH395G - Exam 2 - Multiple Choice (2 pts each) Fall 2005: CH395G - Exam 2 - Multiple Choice (2 pts each) These constants may be helpful in some of your calculations: Avogadro s number = 6.02 x 10 23 molecules/mole; Gas constant (R) = 8.3145 x 10-3

More information

BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE

BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE BY: RASAQ NURUDEEN OLAJIDE LECTURE CONTENT INTRODUCTION CITRIC ACID CYCLE (T.C.A) PRODUCTION OF ACETYL CoA REACTIONS OF THE CITIRC ACID CYCLE THE AMPHIBOLIC NATURE OF THE T.C.A CYCLE THE GLYOXYLATE CYCLE

More information

INTERNATIONAL ŒNOLOGICAL CODEX. BENTONITES Bentonita N SIN: 558 (Oeno 11/2003 modified Oeno )

INTERNATIONAL ŒNOLOGICAL CODEX. BENTONITES Bentonita N SIN: 558 (Oeno 11/2003 modified Oeno ) BENTONITES Bentonita N SIN: 558 (Oeno 11/2003 modified Oeno 441-2011) 1. OBJECT, ORIGIN AND FIELD OF APPLICATION Bentonites are hydrous aluminium silicates belonging to the montmorillonite group. The brute

More information

Experiment 3: Activity Determination

Experiment 3: Activity Determination Experiment 3: Activity Determination Introduction: Specific activity is a method for measuring enzymatic activity and the enzyme purity in a mixture. In order to determine the specific activity of an enzyme,

More information

Novel Activation Technologies for Sodium Persulfate In Situ Chemical Oxidation

Novel Activation Technologies for Sodium Persulfate In Situ Chemical Oxidation Novel Activation Technologies for Sodium Persulfate In Situ Chemical Oxidation Frank Sessa FMC Corporation Philadelphia, PA Dalbir Sethi FMC Corporation Philadelphia, PA Jean Pare ChemCo Quebec, CA Persulfate

More information

NIS/WW Report 1 1 of 11. Report 1. Testing of Willard s Water for antioxidant capacity and cellular uptake of selected nutrients.

NIS/WW Report 1 1 of 11. Report 1. Testing of Willard s Water for antioxidant capacity and cellular uptake of selected nutrients. NIS/WW Report 1 1 of 11 October 18, 2012. Report for: John Willard WW Industries, Inc. PO Box 4040 Rapid City, South Dakota 57709 Phone: (888) 379-4552 Fax: (605) 343-0109 Email: john@drwillard.com Web:

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Enzymes: The Catalysts of Life

Enzymes: The Catalysts of Life Chapter 6 Enzymes: The Catalysts of Life Lectures by Kathleen Fitzpatrick Simon Fraser University Activation Energy and the Metastable State Many thermodynamically feasible reactions in a cell that could

More information

4. Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules? a. 2. d. 5

4. Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules? a. 2. d. 5 1. Which of the following statements about NAD + is false? a. NAD + is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. b. NAD + has more chemical energy than NADH. c. NAD + is reduced

More information

Name: Date: AP Biology LAB : FACTORS INFLUENCING ENZYME ACTIVITY

Name: Date: AP Biology LAB : FACTORS INFLUENCING ENZYME ACTIVITY LAB : FACTORS INFLUENCING ENZYME ACTIVITY Background Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of speeding up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy. One benefit of enzyme catalysts is that the

More information

NEW ONE-STAGE PROCEDURES FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF PROTHROMBIN AND LABILE FACTOR*

NEW ONE-STAGE PROCEDURES FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF PROTHROMBIN AND LABILE FACTOR* NEW ONE-STAGE PROCEDURES FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF PROTHROMBIN AND LABILE FACTOR* MARIO STEFANINI, M.D.f From the Department ofbiochemistry, Marquette University School of Medicine, Milwaukee,

More information

Properties of Alcohols and Phenols Experiment #3

Properties of Alcohols and Phenols Experiment #3 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols Experiment #3 Objectives: To observe the solubility of alcohols relative to their chemical structure, to perform chemical tests to distinguish primary, secondary and

More information

Chapter 9 Overview. Aerobic Metabolism I: The Citric Acid Cycle. Live processes - series of oxidation-reduction reactions. Aerobic metabolism I

Chapter 9 Overview. Aerobic Metabolism I: The Citric Acid Cycle. Live processes - series of oxidation-reduction reactions. Aerobic metabolism I n n Chapter 9 Overview Aerobic Metabolism I: The Citric Acid Cycle Live processes - series of oxidation-reduction reactions Ingestion of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids Provide basic building blocks for

More information

Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading

Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading Citrate Cycle Supplemental Reading Key Concepts - The Citrate Cycle captures energy using redox reactions - Eight enzymatic reactions of the Citrate Cycle - Key control points in the citrate cycle regulate

More information

Enzymes what are they?

Enzymes what are they? Topic 11 (ch8) Microbial Metabolism Topics Metabolism Energy Pathways Biosynthesis 1 Catabolism Anabolism Enzymes Metabolism 2 Metabolic balancing act Catabolism Enzymes involved in breakdown of complex

More information

Nuclear Extraction Kit

Nuclear Extraction Kit Nuclear Extraction Kit Item No. 10009277 www.caymanchem.com Customer Service 800.364.9897 Technical Support 888.526.5351 1180 E. Ellsworth Rd Ann Arbor, MI USA TABLE OF CONTENTS GENERAL INFORMATION 3 Materials

More information

STUDIES OF AN ENZYME PRODUCED BY BACILLUS FULMINANS

STUDIES OF AN ENZYME PRODUCED BY BACILLUS FULMINANS STUDIES OF AN ENZYME PRODUCED BY BACILLUS FULMINANS THAT INACTIVATES BLOOD GROUP 0 SUBSTANCE1 INGEBORG NAYLOR AND HAROLD BAER Department of Microbiology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans,

More information

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP

Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATP 2006-2007 What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP 2006-2007 Harvesting stored energy Energy is stored in organic molecules carbohydrates, fats,

More information

Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism

Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism Chapter 13 Carbohydrate Metabolism Metabolism of Foods Food is broken down into carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins and sent through catabolic pathways to produce energy. Glycolysis glucose 2 P i 2 ADP

More information

Chapter 17 - Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 17 - Citric Acid Cycle hapter 17 - itric Acid ycle I. Introduction - The citric acid cycle (A) was elucidated in the 1930's by ans Krebs, who first noticed that oxygen consumption in suspensions of pigeon breast muscle was greatly

More information

Chapter 20: Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution

Chapter 20: Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution hapter 20: arboxylic Acid Derivatives: ucleophilic Acyl Substitution 20.1: omenclature of arboxylic Acid Derivatives (please read) carboxylic acid -oic acid ' ester -oate ' lactone cyclic ester l acid

More information

CoQ10(Coenzyme Q10) ELISA Kit

CoQ10(Coenzyme Q10) ELISA Kit CoQ10(Coenzyme Q10) ELISA Kit Catalogue No.: EU0196 Size: 48T/96T Reactivity: Universal Detection Range: 0.781-50ng/ml Sensitivity:

More information

Toxic Effects of Oxygen and of Hydrogen Peroxide on Brain Metabolism

Toxic Effects of Oxygen and of Hydrogen Peroxide on Brain Metabolism Vol. 40 ELIMINATION OF ACIDS AND THEIR AMIDES 139 Baumann, E. & Herter, E. (1877). Hoppe-Seyl. Z. 1, 244. Folin, 0. (1905-6). J. biol. Chem. 1, 131. Gonnermann, M. (1902). Pftug. Arch. ge8. Physiol. 89,

More information

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF GROWTH IN APPLE FRUITS. By JUDITH A. PEARSON<), and R. N. ROBERTSON<),

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF GROWTH IN APPLE FRUITS. By JUDITH A. PEARSON<), and R. N. ROBERTSON<), 1. INTRODUCTION In earlier papers in this series (Robertson and Turner 1951; Pearson and Robertson 1952, 1953), Maskell's hypothesis was used to explain the rise in respiration rate, the climacteric rise,

More information

ESTERS AND RELATED CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES. Jack DeRuiter

ESTERS AND RELATED CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES. Jack DeRuiter ESTES AD ELATED ABYLI AID DEIVATIVES I. Structure and Preparation Jack Deuiter Esters are derivatives of carboxylic acids that arise via replacement of the hydroxyl () portion of the acid function with

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Chapter 9 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Fatty acid breakdown

Fatty acid breakdown Fatty acids contain a long hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxylate group. Most contain between 14 and 24 carbon atoms. The chains may be saturated or contain double bonds. The complete oxidation of

More information

CORESTA RECOMMENDED METHOD N 39

CORESTA RECOMMENDED METHOD N 39 CORESTA RECOMMENDED METHOD N 39 DETERMINATION OF THE PURITY OF NICOTINE AND NICOTINE SALTS BY GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS - TUNGSTOSILICIC ACID METHOD (November 1994) 0. INTRODUCTION Several methods for checking

More information

H O. rapidly reduces. They dissolve. because they can hydrogen bond to the water molecules.

H O. rapidly reduces. They dissolve. because they can hydrogen bond to the water molecules. 3.9 arboxylic Acids and Derivatives Naming arboxylic acids These have the ending oic acid but no number is necessary for the acid group as it must always be at the end of the chain. The numbering always

More information

Lecture 10: MS Interpretation Part 4 Postulation of Molecular Structures

Lecture 10: MS Interpretation Part 4 Postulation of Molecular Structures Lecture 10: MS Interpretation Part 4 Postulation of Molecular Structures CU- Boulder CHEM 5181 Mass Spectrometry & Chromatography Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez Postulation of Molecular Structures There are several

More information

Glucose 6 Phosphate Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

Glucose 6 Phosphate Assay Kit (Colorimetric) ab83426 Glucose 6 Phosphate Assay Kit (Colorimetric) Instructions for Use For the rapid, sensitive and accurate measurement of Glucose 6 Phosphate levels in various samples This product is for research

More information

Describe the roles of calcium ions and ATP in the contraction of a myofibril

Describe the roles of calcium ions and ATP in the contraction of a myofibril Q1.(a) Describe the roles of calcium ions and ATP in the contraction of a myofibril............................... (Extra space)............... (5) ATP is an energy source used in many cell processes.

More information

Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky Enzymes and Metabolism Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb 1 Protein Macromolecules composed of combinations

More information

Production of Low Ester (LM) Pectin 307 In this study, attempts were made to determine the experimental procedures required to prepare low ester apple

Production of Low Ester (LM) Pectin 307 In this study, attempts were made to determine the experimental procedures required to prepare low ester apple Scientia Iranica, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp 306{310 c Sharif University of Technology, July 25 Research Note Production of Low Ester (LM) Pectin by De-esterication of High Ester (HM) Apple Pectin I. Alemzadeh,

More information

Lecture Outline Correlates with our Chapter 7

Lecture Outline Correlates with our Chapter 7 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Lecture Outline Correlates with our Chapter 7 Overview: Life Is Work To perform their many tasks, living cells require energy from outside sources.

More information

Isolation and Purification of Organic Compounds Steam Distillation of Essential Oils

Isolation and Purification of Organic Compounds Steam Distillation of Essential Oils Isolation and Purification of Organic Compounds Steam Distillation of Essential Oils Distillation relies on the fact that the substance with the greatest vapor pressure will be enriched in the vapor phase

More information

STUDIES ON THIAMINE ANALOCUES

STUDIES ON THIAMINE ANALOCUES STUDIES ON THIAMINE ANALOCUES III. EFFECTS ON ENZYME SYSTEMS* BY STEPHEN EICH AND LEOPOLD R. CERECEDO (From the Department of Biochemistry, Fordham University, New York, New York) (Received for publication,

More information

Energy Metabolism. Topics

Energy Metabolism. Topics Energy Metabolism Nur Hidayat Topics TOPIC 1: OXIDATION, REDUCTION, AND NADH TOPIC 2: GLYCOLYSIS TOPIC 3: KREBS (CITRIC ACID) CYCLE TOPIC 4: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION TOPIC

More information

Metabolism. Metabolic pathways. BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways

Metabolism. Metabolic pathways. BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways BIO 5099: Molecular Biology for Computer Scientists (et al) Lecture 11: Metabolic Pathways http://compbio.uchsc.edu/hunter/bio5099 Larry.Hunter@uchsc.edu Metabolism Metabolism is the chemical change of

More information

Metabolic Classification of the Amino Acids

Metabolic Classification of the Amino Acids Metabolic Classification of the Amino Acids *Essential and Non-essential * Glucogenic and Ketogenic 1 Essential Amino Acids Of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins 10 of them can be synthesized by

More information

Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle

Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle Metabolism Gluconeogenesis/Citric Acid Cycle BIOB111 CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY Session 21 Session Plan Gluconeogenesis Cori Cycle Common Metabolic Pathway The Citric Acid Cycle Stoker 2014, p859 Gluconeogenesis

More information

4. Determination of fat content (AOAC, 2000) Reagents

4. Determination of fat content (AOAC, 2000) Reagents 94 ANALYTICAL METHODS 1. Determination of moisture content (AOAC, 2000) 1. Dry the empty dish and lid in the oven at 105 C for 3 h and transfer to desiccator to cool. Weigh the empty dish and lid. 2. Weigh

More information