CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Glycolysis

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1 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Glycolysis

2 Sources of Energy Carbohydrates glucose most usable source of energy cells turn to other fuels only if glucose supplies have been depleted stored in glycogen (animal) & starch (plant) Lipids (fat) when glucose is depleted, this becomes the source of energy

3 Sources of Energy Proteins final resort when no energy forms of energy are available cell is breaking down its own structures to obtain energy (not good!!)

4 Thought Questions Why do football players eat a huge bowl of pasta before their game? What do you think is the scientific reasoning behind low carb / high protein diets?

5 Cellular Respiration Purpose: to breakdown stored energy into usable energy (ATP) process of converting stored energy in organic fuel into ATP glucose + oxygen à carbon dioxide + water + energy C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO 2 + 6H 2 O 36 ADP + 36 Pà 36 ATP

6 Goals of Cellular Respiration To break 6-carbon glucose down and release 6 molecules of CO 2 Move glucose electrons to O 2, and combine with H + ions to form 6 molecules of H 2 O as end product Collect energy in the form of ATP

7 Types of Cellular Respiration In the presence of oxygen: aerobic In the absence of oxygen: anaerobic alcoholic fermentation (yeast) lactic acid fermentation (humans)

8 An overview of cellular respiration

9 Four Major Stages of Cellular Respiration 1. Glycolysis Breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate 2. Oxidative Decarboxylation Pyruvate oxidation 3. Krebs / Citric acid cycle Completes the breakdown of glucose 4. Electron Transport Chain does not require O 2 occurs in the cytoplasm require O 2 occurs in the mitochondria Generates ATP through oxidative phosphorylation

10 Substrate-level Phosphorylation Formation of ATP by direct transfer of phosphate group from a substrate to ADP

11 Oxidative Phosphorylation Formation of ATP using energy transferred indirectly through a series of redox reaction

12 GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis

13 Glycolysis Glyco... lysis splitting of sugar From 6-C sugar to two 3-C sugar Breaks down glucose (6C) into pyruvate (3C) Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell

14 Two major phases in Glycolysis Energy investment phase Energy payoff phase

15 Energy Investment

16 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 1: carbon 6 phosphorylated using ATP to prevent glucose from leaving the cell reaction type: phosphorylation energy: absorbed

17 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 2: atoms of molecule are rearranged reaction type: isomerization energy: no change

18 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 3: carbon 1 phosphorylated to cause the molecule to be energetically unstable reaction type: phosphorylation energy: absorbed

19 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 4: the unstable molecule is split into two molecules reaction type: cleavage energy: no change -3-

20 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 5: Dihydroxyacetone (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate (G3P) are isomers Only G3P continues in glycolysis DHAP is converted into G3P (total 2 molecules of G3P/glucose) reaction type: isomerization energy: no change

21 Energy Payoff Phase For each molecule of G3P

22 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 6: NADH (energy molecule) is created reaction type: redox and phosphorylation energy: released

23 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 7: ADP phosphorylate to create ATP reaction type: substrate- level phosphorylation energy: released

24 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 8: phosphate moved from carbon 3 to carbon 2 reaction type: isomerization energy: no change

25 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 9: water removed to set up next reaction reaction type: dehydration energy:

26 Glycolysis: Step by Step Step 10: ADP phosphorylate to ATP reaction type: substrate- level phosphorylation energy: released

27 Activity Summarize glycolysis by drawing 10 steps pathway Include all reactants and products of glycolysis

28 Glycolysis Puzzle Arrange the puzzle in correct order

29 Glycolysis Summary glucoseà 2 pyruvate net 2 ATP molecules produced 2 used; 4 generated 2 NADH molecules produced

30 Glycolysis Animations /student_view0/chapter25/ animation how_glycolysis_works.html Biology1111/animations/glycolysis.html

31 Glucose song: Glycolysis rap: eature=related

32 FERMENTATION Glycolysis

33 Pyruvate in Catabolism Pyruvate will continue to the Kreb cycle and the ETC to synthesize ATP only in the presence of O 2 Aerobic Respiration

34 Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic conditions: without oxygen Cells can only utilize glycolysis to make ATP Cells without mitochondria can only utilize glycolysis Glycolysis couples with fermentation to produce ATP

35 Types of Fermentation Fermentation: Glycolysis + reactions that regenerate NAD + (which can be reused by glycolysis) In alcohol fermentation Pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, one of which releases CO 2 During lactic acid fermentation Pyruvate is reduced directly to NAD+ to form lactate as a waste product

36

37 Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactate dehydrogenase converts pyruvate into lactic acid Final product: lactic acid / lactate (3C)

38 Lactic Acid Fermentation

39 Lactic Acid Fermentation Occurs in some fungi and bacteria Useful in the dairy industry: cheese & yogurt Occurs in humans during anaerobic conditions What could we be doing to cause our cells to face anaerobic conditions?

40 Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic acid build up in muscle is what causes muscle ache/pain Carried to liver where it can be converted back to pyruvate

41 Questions: Why does the body feel fatigue when it is undergoing anaerobic respiration?

42 Alcohol Fermentation Pyruvate is decarboxylated (loss of CO2) into acetaldehyde (a 2 carbon compound) Alcohol dehydrogenase converts acetylaldehyde into ethanol (2C) NADH is converted back into NAD+ for glycolysis to continue to occur Ethanol will not be converted back to pyruvate even if O 2 concentration has increased

43 Alcohol Fermentation

44 Alcohol Fermentation Occurs in yeast (and other organisms without mitochondria) Products of alcohol fermentation useful in industry: Ethanol: brewing and wine making CO 2 : bread production

45 Purpose of Fermentation If no new ATP is made during the process of fermentation, then why doesn t the metabolic process just end at pyruvate when in anaerobic conditions? What is the main purpose of fermentation?

46 Fermentation Summary lactic acid fermentation 2 pyruvateà 2 lactic acid 2 NADH à 2NAD+ alcohol fermentation 2 pyruvate à 2 acetylaldehyde à 2 ethanol 2 CO 2 released 2NADH à 2NAD+

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