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1 9-1 Chemical Pathways (Metabolism) refers to all of the chemical that take place in an organism or cell. Each reaction may handle materials or and is catalyzed by an enzyme. Metabolism has two parts: 1. = Breaking down 2. = Building up Animal Mitochondrion Plant Animal Cells Plant Cells serves as a source of raw materials and energy for cellsslide in the body. 1 of 39

2 Cellular Respiration (Catabolism) What is cellular respiration? 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy Photosynthesis is an process, using energy from the sun to build carbohydrates ( ). Cellular respiration is a process that releases energy by breaking Slide 2 of 39 down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of (aerobic).

3 All important... GLUCOSE! Chemical Energy and Food One gram of glucose (C6H12O6), when in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 of heat energy. A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 of water degree Celsius. Note: What is reported as a calorie on food packages is actuallyslide 3 of 39 a calorie.

4 The Mighty Mitochondria! space Slide Cells don't burn glucose. Instead, they 4 of 39 release the energy from glucose and other compounds.

5 Overview of Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADH Pyruvic acid Glucose Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Glycolysis Cytoplasm Mitochondrion Glycolysis, the cycle, and the transport chain make up cellular respiration. Each of the three Slide stages of cellular respiration captures some of the 5 of 39 energy available in food molecules and uses it to produce.

6 Glycolysis Glycolysis is the first step in aerobic cellular respiration and anaerobic. During glycolysis, one molecule of glucose, a -carbon compound is broken in half, producing two molecules of acid, a -carbon compound. Slide 6 of 39

7 Glycolysis: ATP & NADH Production 2 ATP 2 ADP Steps 1 & 3 4 ADP 4 ATP Steps 6 & 9 Step 5 Glucose The Advantages of Glycolysis 1. Glycolysis is so that cells can produce thousands of molecules in a few milliseconds. 2. Glycolysis does not require. 2NAD+ 2 2 Pyruvic acid If there is oxygen (aerobic), carries electrons to the electron chain in the mitochondria membrane. Slide 7 of 39

8 1. pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO2 + NAD+ 2. pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD+ Fermentation When oxygen is not present ( ), glycolysis is followed by a different pathway. The combined process of this pathway and glycolysis is called. During fermentation, cells recycle NADH to by passing high-energy electrons back to acid (pyruvate). This action gets rid of pyruvic acid by Slide 8 of 39 turning it into either or allowing glycolysis to continue producing a steady supply of. What's the problem??

9 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvic acid produced in passes to the second stage of cellular respiration, the cycle. During the cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into in a series of energy-extracting reactions. The Krebs cycle begins when pyruvic acid enters the.

10 The Krebs Cycle Pyruvic acid enters the cycle by a transition reaction in which one carbon atom is removed, forming, and are removed, changing NAD+ to NADH. Coenzyme A joins the remaining 2-carbon molecule, forming -. This adds the 2-carbon acetyl group to a 4-carbon compound, forming acid. Citric acid

11 The Krebs Cycle The energy tally: (including the transition reaction) NADH FADH2 ATP Citric acid is broken down into a 5-carbon compound, then into a 4-carbon compound. Two more molecules of are released and electrons join NAD+ and, forming NADH and In addition, one molecule of is generated. The electron carriers go on to the transport chain where most of the is generated.

12 Electron Transport In the presence of oxygen, those high-energy electrons can be Active Art Summary used to generate huge amounts of ATP!!

13 The Totals On average, each of high-energy electrons that moves down the electron transport chain provides enough energy to produce molecules of ATP from ADP. Glycolysis produces just ATP molecules per molecule of glucose. The complete breakdown of glucose through cellular respiration, including glycolysis, results in the production of molecules of ATP.

14 Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration On a scale, photosynthesis and cellular respiration are opposites: The flows in opposite directions. Photosynthesis removes from the atmosphere and cellular respiration puts it back. Photosynthesis releases into the atmosphere and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energy from food.

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