Cellular Respiration. How is energy in organic matter released for used for in living systems?

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1 Cellular Respiration How is energy in organic matter released for used for in living systems?

2 Cellular Respiration Organisms that perform cellular respiration are called chemoheterotrophs Includes both eukaryote and prokaryote cells Ex. Animals, fungi, bacteria and PLANTS 2 main types of cellular respiration: Aerobic Consumes oxygen Occurs in mitochondria Large energy output (36 ATP) Anaerobic Does not require oxygen Called fermentation Small energy output (2 ATP)

3 Cellular Respiration Like photosynthesis, cellular respiration also relies on high-energy molecules NAD+ and FAD+ are electron acceptors NADH and FADH2 are electron carriers Similar to NADP+/NADPH Low-energy form High-energy form In cellular ADP/P respiration, once NADH ATP and FADH2 are produced they enter the ETC and are converted into ATP NAD+, H+, 2e- NADH 1 NADH 3 ATP 1 FADH2 2 ATP FAD+, 2H+, 2e- FADH2

4 NADH ( Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide) NAD+ is an electron acceptor it becomes reduced (accepts electrons) to become NADH FAD is an electron acceptor it becomes reduced (accepts electrons) to become FADH2 Reduction reaction (molecule is gaining electrons) NAD+ + H+ + 2e- NADH FAD+ + 2H+ + 2e- FADH2 Oxidation reaction (molecule is losing electrons) NADH NAD+ + H+ + 2e- FADH2 FAD+ + 2H+ + 2e-

5 Aerobic Respiration - introduction Is the complementing process to photosynthesis. NET aerobic respiration reaction: 1 glucose + 6 O ADP/P 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP 4 main stages: 1. Glycolysis 2. Pyruvate oxidation 3. Krebs cycle 4. ETC

6 The Mitochondria - the ATP powerhouse Inner Membrane Outer Membrane Intermembrane Space Cristae (fold of the inner membrane) Matrix (space inside the inner membrane)

7 Aerobic Respiration - 1. Glycolysis Is the first step of cellular respiration Happens in BOTH aerobic and anaerobic respiration Occurs in cytoplasm of the cell

8 Aerobic Respiration - 1. Glycolysis Glycolysis convert 1 glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules (6C) 2x (3C)

9 Aerobic Respiration - 1. Glycolysis Requires an initial investment of 2 ATP 2 2 As glucose bonds broken, the energy is used to form 4 ATP and 2 NADH NET glycolysis reaction: glucose + 2 ADP/P + 2 NAD+ 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH

10 Aerobic Respiration - 2. Pyruvate Oxidation Is the second step of aerobic cellular respiration The 2 pyruvate molecules from glycolysis are transported to the matrix of mitochondria

11 Aerobic Respiration - 2. Pyruvate Oxidation Pyruvate Oxidation converts each pyruvate into a aceytl-coa molecule Note: Since 2 pyruvate molecules are produced from 1 glucose, pyruvate oxidation and the Krebs cycle each occur 2x

12 Aerobic Respiration - 2. Pyruvate Oxidation Coenzyme A (CoA) is added to the pyruvate releasing a CO2 molecule NET pyruvate oxidation reaction: 2 pyruvate + 2 NAD+ + 2 CoA 2 acetyl-coa + 2 NADH + 2 CO2

13 Glycolysis and Pyruvate Oxidation: Have gone from a 6C molecule to two, 2C molecules. How? What high-energy molecules have we released so far?

14 Poster projects Aerobic Cellular Respiration

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16 Glycolysis and Pyruvate Oxidation: So far have gone from a 6C molecule to two, 2C molecules. How? Can you fili in the blanks? Could you write a NET equation for each step?

17 Aerobic Respiration - 3. Krebs Cycle Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria Converts acetyl-coa into ATP, NADH and FADH2 also called The Citric Acid cycle

18 Aerobic Respiration - 3. Krebs Cycle The Krebs Cycle: Acetyl-CoA (2-carbon) molecule enters cycle, is converted to Citric acid (6-carbon) Citric acid undergoes several rearrangements as high-energy bonds are replaced by low-energy bonds, until it returns to a 4-carbon state Released energy is used to form NADH, FADH2 and ATP 2 Carbons are released as CO2 gas

19 Aerobic Respiration - 3. Krebs Cycle 1 acetyl-coa produces 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1FADH2 and 1 ATP (our NET equation per 1 glucose is x2) NET Krebs cycle reaction: 2 acetyl-coa + 6 NAD + 2 FAD + 2 ADP 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP

20 Aerobic Respiration - 4. ETC Occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria Converts NADH and FADH2 from Krebs cycle into ATP = oxidative phosphorylation 1 NADH 3 ATP 1 FADH2 2 ATP

21 Aerobic Respiration - 4. ETC 1. NADH or FADH2 donates high-energy electrons to ETC 2. ETC transports H+ ions from matrix into intermembrane space 3. H+ ions accumulate in the intermembrane space creating an electrical AND chemical concentration gradient = chemiosmosis 4. ATP synthase uses the energy released as H+ moves from high to low area of concentration gradient to generate ATP from ADP and P molecules = phosphorylation 5. The low-energy electrons at the end of the ETC are released by combining with O2 and H+ to form H2O = terminal electron acceptor

22 Aerobic Respiration - 4. ETC H+ accumulate in intermembrane space creating a concentration gradient ATP synthase is powered by H+ gradient to produce ATP NADH (or FADH2) donates e- to ETC ETC transports H+ from matrix to intermembrane terminal electrons space are accepted by oxygen, forming H2O

23

24

25 Aerobic Respiration - summary NET aerobic cellular respiration reaction: 1 C6H12O6 + 6O ADP/P 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP Where do the 36 ATP come from?

26 Aerobic Respiration - summary

27 Aerobic Respiration - summary 1. Glycolysis 2. High-energy Pyruvate Oxidation bonds of glucose are broken to form 2 2 pyruvate pyruvate molecules molecules are converted into 2 acetyl-coa molecules Energy released is used to form 2 ATP and 2 NADH Energy is released forming 2 NADH 6 ATP 3. Krebs Cycle 2 acetyl-coa produce 6 NADH, 4 FADH2 and 2 ATP

28

29 Cellular Respiration Organisms that perform cellular respiration are called chemoheterotrophs Includes both eukaryote and prokaryote cells Ex. Animals, fungi, bacteria and PLANTS 2 main types of cellular respiration: Aerobic Consumes oxygen Occurs in mitochondria Large energy output (36 ATP) Anaerobic Does not require oxygen Called fermentation Small energy output (2 ATP)

30 Anaerboic Cellular Respiration In environments without oxygen the ETC stops! (O2 is the terminal electron acceptor) Glycolysis allows the cell to obtain 2 ATP for 1 glucose molecule but without the ETC there is no source of NAD+ (so no glycolysis!) Cells have evolved other ways of regenerating NAD+, one type is by fermentation... NET OUTPUT 2 ATP

31 Anaerboic Cellular Respiration Fermentation: transferring H+ molecule from NADH to organic molecules (instead of ETC) Alcohol Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation

32 Alcohol Fermentation Occurs in yeast Pyruvate (3 carbon) is converted into acetaldehyde (2carbon) NADH transfers H to acetaldehyde to form ethanol excess Carbon released as CO2 gas

33 Alcohol Fermentation What are some uses of yeast (alcohol fermentation)? Tomorrows lab will be looking at temperature as it affects rate of alcohol fermentation

34 Lactic Acid Fermentation Occurs in most animal cells Under high-energy demands cells require more ATP Lactic acid fermentation is a method of cells to quickly break down glucose to release ATP NADH transfers H to pyruvate to form lactic acid

35 Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic acid is metabolised by the liver into glucose It then can be transported back to cells (mitochondria) The increased pumping of blood and oxygen needed during exercise is experienced as increased heart rate and breathing

36 Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic Acid Threshold: Limit of exercise where production of lactic acid increases Exercising above your lactic acid threshold will cause more pain, stiffness and fatigue Rigor Mortis - stiffening of muscles after death Due to lactic acid buildup in muscles as glucose is fermented rapidly as oxygen levels drop

37 Exercise Physiology Aerobic Fitness - also called cardiopulmonary fitness Is how well your body (heart, lungs, blood) can deliver oxygen to your cells Affected by body composition (fitness) Better Aerobic Fitness = More oxygen to cells = More cellular respiration = More ATP = More energy Muscle cells have high energy demands!

38 Exercise Physiology VO2max: maximum oxygen consumption (ml/kg/min) Is a measure of the body s ability to generate the ATP needed for physical activity Measured by a treadmill test, where the person is pushed to run as fast as possible while breathing into a machine which measure oxygen consumption

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