2 The Lipid Family Triglycerides Phospholipids Sterols
3 All types of lipids are: soluble in organic solvents such as chloroform, benzene, and ether, but not in water. Differ in their structure and functions extracted from cells using organic solvents.
4 1. TRIGLYCERIDES The most common type of lipid found in foods. The most common type of lipid found in the body. About 95% of the fats we eat and 95% of the fat stored in the body are in the form of triglycerides.
5 Structure of Triglycerides Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2011
6 Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2011
7 Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2011 A triglyceride that loses a fatty acid is a diglyceride. A monoglyceride results when 2 fatty acids are lost.
8 The carbon chains of fatty acids can vary in 3 ways: The number of carbons in the chain. The extent to which the chain is saturated with hydrogen. The shape of the chain (straight or bent) Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012
9 Carbon Chain Length Usually have between 4 and 24 carbons Long chain fatty acids = 12 or more carbon atoms Fats from beef, pork, and lamb and most plant oils are long chain. Take the longest to digest. Transported via the lymphatic system.
10 Carbon Chain Length Medium chain fatty acids = 6 to 10 carbons in length Digested almost as rapidly as glucose. Transported via the circulatory system. Coconut and palm oil.
11 Carbon Chain Length Short chain fatty acids = Less than 6 carbons in length The fat in dairy products, such as butter and whole milk are short chain. Rapidly digested and transported via the circulatory system.
12 Fatty acids can be: Saturation Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated
13 A saturated fatty acid(sfa) Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012
14 A monounsaturated fatty acid(mufa) Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012
15 A polyunsaturated fatty acid(pufa) Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012
16 Shape The shape of carbon chain varies with saturation Saturated and trans fatty acids have straight carbon chain.
17 Hydrogenation Adds hydrogen to the carbon chain of unsaturated fats.
18 Naming Fatty Acids Two systems are commonly used to name fatty acids, omega and delta. Both are based on the number of carbon atoms and the location of double bonds in a fatty acid s carbon chain.
19 Essential fatty acids (Alfa-linolenic acid and linoleic acid)must be obtained from the diet because humans cannot synthesize them. Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012
20 Food Sources of Triglycerides Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012
21 Most triglyceride-rich foods contain a mixture of fatty acids Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012
22 Visible Fats In some foods fat is visible: butter on bread, mayonnaise in potato salad, and marbling in raw meat.
23 Hidden Fats In many foods fat is hidden: fat in whole milk, cheese, pastries, cookies, cake, crackers, french fries, hot dogs, and ice cream.
24 Function of Triglycerides Provide Energy. Provide Compact Energy Storage. Insulate and Protect the Body. Aid Fat-Soluble Vitamin Absorption and Transport. Essential Fatty Acid Functions
25 Essential Fatty Acid Functions Essential fatty acids, along with phospholipids and cholesterol, are important structural components of cell walls. They also keep the cell wall fluid and flexible, so that substances can flow into and out of the cell. Eicosanoids, which are made from essential fatty acids, have over 100 different actions, such as regulating blood pressure, blood clotting, sleep/wake cycles, body temperature.
26 2. Phospholipids The structure of phospholipids is very similar to that of triglycerides, except a fatty acid is replaced with a compound that contains the mineral phosphorus and often has nitrogen attached.
27 Phospholipids Functions In the body, phospholipids have 2 major roles: cell membrane component and emulsifier, phospholipids, along with fatty acids and cholesterol, are a primary component of cell membranes.
28 Phospholipids function in a watery environment without clumping together
29 Phospholipids Functions The hydrophilic head of phosphate is attached to water, and the fatty acid tail of phospholipids is attached to fats. When placed in water, phospholipids cluster together, with their hydrophilic phosphate heads facing outward in contact with water and their hydrophilic tails extending into the cluster away from the water.
30 Phospholipids Functions A cell membrane is the double- layered outer covering of a cell that corrals the cell s contents and regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
31 Source of phospholipids Phospholipids can be synthesized by the body or supplied by the diet.
32 The last class of lipids. 3. Sterols The structure of sterols is very different from that of the long carbon chains seen in fatty acids and phospholipids. The carbons in the structure of sterol are mostly arranged in many rings
34 Sterol Functions Cholesterol, The most well-known sterol, is used in the body to make bile and steroid hormones, such as testosterone, estrogens, the active form of vitamin D hormone, and corticosteroids.
35 Source of Sterol(Cholesterol) Cholesterol is found in foods of animal origin, such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and diary products. Food of plant origin do not contain cholesterol.
36 Recommended Fat Intake(1) The adequate macronutrient distribution range for total fat is 20 to 35% of calories for most age groups. Saturated fat intake, including trans fats, and cholesterol of should be kept as low as possible while still consuming a nutritionally adequate diet.
37 Recommended Fat Intake(2) Cholesterol intake should be limited to about 300mg daily. Fat intake recommendation are lower for those at risk of heart disease. Adequate intakes for essential fatty acids equal less than 120 calories daily for women and 170 calories for men- that s about 2 to 4 tablespoons daily of oil rich in these fatty acids
38 Recommended Fat Intake)3( Omega-6 fatty acid intake is usually plentiful, but omega-3 intakes often are lower than optimal.
40 Fat Digestion and Absorption)1( Digestion Fat digestion occurs mostly in the small intestine. The presence of fat in the small intestine triggers the release of cholecystokinin from intestinal cells. Cholecystokinin stimulates the release of bile and pancreatic enzymes.
41 Fat Digestion and Absorption(2) Digestion Bile emulsifies fats and allows enzymes to efficiently break triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Phospholipids and cholesterol are digested mostly in the small intestine.
43 Fat Digestion and Absorption)3( Absorption The lipid portion of the micelles is absorbed by the brush border of the absorptive cells lining the duodenum and jejunum sections of the small intestine. After absorption, short and medium chain fatty acids mostly enter the circulatory system. Long chain fatty acids enter the lymphatic circulation.
45 Transporting Fat in the Blood Fats are transported in the blood as lipoproteins called chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins(vldls), low-density lipoproteins(ldls), and high-density lipoproteins(hdls). Lipoproteins have a core, made of lipids, that is covered with a shell composed of protein, phospholipid, and cholesterol. The shell lets the lipoprotein circulate in the blood.
48 Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake The receptor pathway for cholesterol uptake removes LDL from the blood, breaks it down, and uses the component parts for maintaining the cell membrane or synthesizing compounds.
51 Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake Oxidized LDL is removed from the blood by the scavenger pathway for cholesterol uptake. Over time cholesterol builds up in the scavenger cell. When scavenger cells have collected and deposited cholesterol for many years at a heavy pace, cholesterol builds up on the inner blood vessel walls and plaque develops.
52 Pathways for Cholesterol Uptake HDL roams the blood stream, picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources, and donates the cholesterol to other lipoproteins for transport back to the liver to be excreted. Dr. Latifah Al-Oboudi 2012
53 Health Concerns Related to Fat Intake High Polyunsaturated Fat Intake Intakes of polyunsaturated fats greater than 10% of total calorie intake seem to increase the amount of cholesterol deposited in arteries, which raises the chances of developing cardiovascular disease. High intakes also may impair the immune system s ability to fight disease
54 Health Concerns Related to Fat Intake Excessive Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Diets that include fish rich in omega-3 twice a week can reduce blood clotting abilities and may favorably affect heart rhythm.
55 Intake of Rancid Fats Rancid fats contain compounds that can damage cells.
56 Diet High in Trans Fat Trans fatty acids raise blood cholesterol levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels, and increase inflammation in the body.
57 Diet High in Total Fat Diets high in total fat increase the risk of obesity; colon, prostate, and breast cancer; and cardiovascular disease(cvd).
58 Cardiovascular Disease(CVD) Atherosclerotic plaque is probably first deposited to repair injuries in the lining in any artery. As atherosclerosis progresses, plaque thickens over time, causing arteries to harden, narrow, and become less elastic.
59 Risk Factors for CVD Age, gender, genetics, race, blood cholesterol levels, blood triglyceride levels, hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes. All adults age 20 years or older should have a blood lipoprotein profile done every 5 years. Lifestyle changes can lower blood LDL cholesterol levels and reduce health risks.
Tools: Printer 8.5 x 11 paper Scissors Directions: 1. Print 2. Fold paper in half vertically 3. Cut along dashed lines Copyright Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Tissue in which the body
Fat Is The most concentrated source of food energy There are 9 calories in every gram of fat Fats that are liquid at room temperature are called oils. (Examples: vegetable oil, canola oil, olive oil, etc.)
Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following is TRUE about essential fatty acids? 1) A) No vegetables contain
The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids and Sterols Chapter 5 The Lipids-Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols The Lipid Family Triglycerides (fats and oils) Predominate in the body (99%) and in foods
FATS The total amount of fat you eat, whether high or low, isn't really linked with disease. What really matters is the type of fat you eat. The "bad" fats saturated and trans fats increase the risk for
ARE ABLE TO READ THE LABEL? A Consumer s Guide to Navigating Food Labels Food and Drug Safety Program Consumer and Environmental Health Services Phone: 609-826-4935 Fax: 609-826-4990 http://nj.gov/health/eoh/foodweb/
Fats 1. FAT IS The most CONCENTRATED source of food energy There are 9 calories in every gram of fat EAT SPARINGLY from the Fats & Oils Food Group Fats that are LIQUID at room temperature are called OILS.
Introduction to the Study of Lipids Factors to Consider in the Study of Biomolecules What are the features of the basic building blocks? (ex: monosaccharides, alcohols, fatty acids, amino acids) 1) General
KNOW YOUR FATS WHY DO WE NEED FAT? Fat can contribute positively to our diet, as long as we choose the right types of fats and moderate our intake to the appropriate amounts. Fat has many valuable functions
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids Is it made of carbohydrates? Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. A carbohydrate with 6 carbon atoms would have
EATING FOR A HEALTHY HEART S A R A Z O O K, R D N, C D, C P H W C ANTI-INFLAMMATORY TURMERIC SMOOTHIE The turmeric has a powerful antiinflammatory, curcumin, in it, which is more easily absorbed by our
Chapter 5 The Lipids: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids, and Sterols PowerPoint Lectures for Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies, eleventh edition Frances Sizer and Ellie Whitney ectures by Judy Kaufman, Ph.D.
DIETARY FATS OUTLINE The need for fat What is fat? Types of fats Dietary sources of the different types of fat Evidence for cardiovascular health benefit of fish omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids Possible
HEALTHY EATING to reduce your risk of heart disease Choose these more often: Fruits, vegetables and whole grains Enjoy a variety of fruit and vegetables every day and whole grains more often.* Small portions
Fats and the heart Just enough of the right sort We all need some fat in our diets, just enough of the right sort to keep our bodies and hearts healthy. In fact, a fat free diet isn t recommended because
Biological lipids are a chemically diverse group of compounds, the common and defining feature of which is their insolubility in water. By: Dr Hadi Mozafari 1 Fats and oils are the principal stored forms
BIOCHEMISTRY Organic compounds Compounds that contain carbon are called organic. Inorganic compounds do not contain carbon. Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell. Carbon can form covalent bonds with as
Chapter 1 & 2 All of the following are macronutrients except Carbohydrates Lipids Protein * Vitamins Gram per gram blank provides the most k calories Alcohol Carbohydrates * Lipids Proteins Which of the
Chapter 3: Biochemistry Adapted from PPT by S. Edwards By PresenterMedia.com CARBON COMPOUNDS CHAPTER 3 SECTION 1 By PresenterMedia.com Compounds LOOK NO Carbon!!! ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Compounds that contain
ALCOHOL NEGATIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN 1-2 DRINKS PER DAY AND THE INCIDENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SOME HAVE SHOWN THAT EVEN 3-4 DRINKS PER DAY CAN BE BENEFICIAL - WHILE OTHERS HAVE FOUND IT TO BE HARMFUL
Chemical Basis of Life 2.3 August 13, 212 Agenda General Housekeeping 2.3 Review Terminology Quiz Chapter 2 Assignments Stations Reading Building Molecules Review What is the significance of the valence
Agenda Chapter 3 The molecules of life Macromolecules --Detour into Healthy Pig Land 4. Nucelic acids Chapter 3: Macromolecules Macromolecules is just a fancy word for: Giant Molecules Made From Smaller
Energy Balance Hidden Fat Grades 9-12 TRACKS Extension Lesson I. Nutrition Education Objectives: Goal 1: Students will comprehend concepts consistent with USDA guidance related to eating and physical activity
Nutrients The food you eat is a source of nutrients. Nutrients are defined as the substances found in food that keep your body functioning. Your body needs nutrients to Provide energy. Build and repair
How to Prevent Heart Disease Introduction Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. You can reduce your risk of heart disease with healthy habits. This reference summary explains heart disease
FATS & OILS GLOSSARY Antioxidant A substance that slows or interferes with the reaction of a fat or oil with oxygen. The addition of antioxidants to fats or foods containing them retard rancidity and increases
Bell Work: Thursday, September 5 Carbon Video Why are carbohydrates important for us to consume? 1 O 2 CARBON What is it...and WY is it important? Carbon the building block of life, basis for most molecules
EDUCATOR GUIDE May 13, 2017 Data Back Ban of Artificial Trans Fats Cross-Curricular Discussion After students have had a chance to review the article Data back ban of artificial trans fats, lead a classroom
Do Now: Sort the following into the order of life from smallest to largest: organ, molecule, atom, organelle, cell, organ system, tissue, organism Correct Order: atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue,
Macromolecules 1 Organic Compounds Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. Macromolecules are large organic molecules. 2 Carbon (C) Carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell. Carbon can form covalent
Red Meat & Fat The role of red meat in a balanced diet InsIde Great Tasty Recipe EatWelshLamb.com EatWelshBeef.com MeatandHealth.com Get the facts Other meaty facts booklets in the series; red meat and
5 Dr. Nafith Abu Tarboush June 25 th 2013 Mohammad Abu Dosh Sheet 5.. Lipids ( Dr. Nafith ) : Classification of fatty acids : - they are classified depending on the existence of double bonds to : 1) Saturated
BIOLOGY 111 CHAPTER 3: Life's Components: Biological Molecules Life s Components: Biological Molecules 3.1 Carbon's Place in the Living World 3.2 Functional Groups 3.3 Carbohydrates 3.4 Lipids 3.5 Proteins
Chapter 3 Biology and Society: Got Lactose? Lactose is the main sugar found in milk. Lactose intolerance is the inability to properly digest lactose. Instead of lactose being broken down and absorbed in
Nutrition Basics Chapter 12 1 The Body s Nutritional Requirements Essential nutrients The Six Essential Nutrients: Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals, Water Defined as : Nutrients one must
Lesson Essential Nutrients By Carone Fitness 6 There are six essential nutrients that your body needs to stay healthy. 1. Water 2. Vitamins 3. Minerals 4. Carbohydrates 5. Protein 6. Fat 1 6 Of these six
1.3.1 Function of Food Why do we need food? Need to know The Function of Food Three reasons for requiring food 2 Food is needed for: 1.Energy 2.Growth of new cells and Repair of existing cells, tissues,
Canada Question Day Bank- Picnic Difficult MATERIALS 1. Why should & you SPACE: choose foods low in salt? Lorem A: Salt ipsum can increase dolor sit blood amet, pressure consectetuer and can adipiscing
Fats Can Be Good For You! Fat Quiz (True or False) 1. Excess fat in the diet is a major cause of heart disease. 2. Saturated fats raise cholesterol levels. 3. The saturated fats in butter and coconut oil
Keeping it Simple Nutrition in General: Metabolism is the sum of body processes inside living cells that sustain life and health. The registered dietician role is to carry out major responsibilities in
Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life Biology and Society: Got Lactose? Lactose is the main sugar found in milk. Lactose intolerance is the inability to properly digest lactose. Instead of lactose being broken
Chapter 11: Lipids Voet & Voet: Pages 380-394 Slide 1 Lipids Lipids are distinguished by their high solubility in non polar solvents and low solubility in H2O Diverse group of compounds including Fats,
Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes Read other booklets in the Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes series: Are You at Risk for Heart Disease? Do You Need To Lose Weight? Keep the
Nutrition Nutrition Notes website.notebook October 19, 2016 Food is any substance that is ingested ("eaten") and helps sustain life. Food categories: Meats and Alternative Dairy Products Fruits and Vegetables
Fats and oils Despite the bad hype we actually need fats and oils to maintain good health. The walls of our cells are made up of a mixture of oil and protein. So we need good quality fats and oils to keep
Healthy Living Unit #1 Healthy Eating Lesson #1 Making Healthier Food Choices Healthier Food Choices Are... follow Eating Well with, By the end of the lesson students will be able to: Apply health knowledge
Get off the SoFAS! Solid Fats and Added Sugars Sponsored by: USDA through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the School District of Philadelphia and the Department of NutritionSciences, Drexel
Macromolecules The Atoms of Life The most frequently found atoms in the body are Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorous Sulfur (sometimes) What are other elements would you expect to be on this list?
Participant Guide Keep Your Heart Healthy Session Focus Since you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, you are more likely to have problems with your heart or arteries. So it s important to keep your heart
The Structure and Function of Biomolecules The student is expected to: 9A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic
The Role of Fats Fat provides flavour and texture to foods. Fat contributes to making us feel satiated because Fats are more energy dense than carbohydrates or protein Fats take longer to digest Emulsion
Calculating Your Body Mass Index (BMI) 1. Write down your weight in pounds (example: 190) 2. Multiply that number by 703 (190 x 703 = 133,570) 3. Multiply your height in inches by itself ( 70 x 70 = 4,900)
National Cholesterol Education Program High Blood Cholesterol What you need to know Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot to do with your chances of getting heart disease.
Answering the question- Why Should You Care What You Are Eating??? Never eat more than you can lift. - Miss Piggy Portion Distortion 6 Main Nutrients Vitamins Minerals Water Carbohydrates Protein Fat Keep
Nutrition Basics Australian Institute of Fitness 1 / 10 INTRODUCTION Understanding nutrition is fundamental to good health, performance, weight loss and weight management. Fitness professionals play the
Managing Cholesterol Introduction Cholesterol is one of the most familiar medical words today. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is very important for our body but could also be very dangerous if there
Digestive System 1 Name The Digestive System Purpose: To describe how food moves through the digestive system. To identify the parts of the digestive system. Background Information: Food provides us with
Helen Jang Tara Hooley John K Rhee Case Study #4: Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease 7. What risk factors does Mrs. Sanders currently have? The risk factors that Mrs. Sanders has are high blood pressure
MACROMOLECULES The Chemistry of Life SB1c. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids). Vocabulary of the Day carbon macromolecule element
Nutrition and Dietetic Department Making Healthier Choices Your Guide to Choosing a Balanced Diet Eating a balanced diet is essential for good health. This guide explains what makes up a healthy, balanced
Macromolecules Warm Up #8 What is a carbohydrate? What is a protein? Read Macromolecules As you read the article, complete the accompanying Biomolecule Chart This chart MUST be glued into your Notebook!
314 Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Multiple Choice 1. Another name for the digestive tract is the: a. urinary tract. b. exocrine system. c. gastrointestinal system. d. muscular system. 2. The digestive
Biomolecules Organic compounds of life TEKS 9A: Students will Compare the structure and function of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids 9D: Students
Chapter 3: Macromolecules Macromolecules is just a fancy word for: Giant Molecules Made From Smaller Building Blocks Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids Macromolecules (in general) Most macromolecules
Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation Outline PART 1: NUTRIENTS (pp. 915 922; Figs. 24.1 24.3; Table 24.1) 24.1 Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins supply energy and are used as building
1 of 37 The Chemistry of Carbon The Chemistry of Carbon Organic chemistry is the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms. Carbon atoms have four valence electrons that can join with
Molecules of Life What are the molecules of life? Organic Compounds Complex Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Organic Compounds Carbon- hydrogen based molecules From Structure to Function Ø Carbon
The digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and several accessory organs. The Digestive System The Digestive System The digestive system mechanically and chemically breaks down food. Mechanical
Fact Sheet Central Adelaide Local Health Network Diabetes Education Service Fat facts Types of Blood Fats The Cholesterol Family Cholesterol is a fatty substance made by our liver and found in our blood.
5 Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are organic molecules found in every living organism. These macromolecules are large carbon based structures.
Digestive and Excretory Systems Homeostasis Q: How are the materials that enter and leave your body related to the processes that maintain homeostasis? 30.1 How is the human body organized and regulated?
Food to clean the arteries and prevent atherosclerosis Source http://melhorcomsaude.com/10-alimentos-limpar-as-arterias-prevenir-aterosclerose/ Atherosclerosis is a disease with complicated name, but which
Contain C Organic Molecules Can form 4 strong covalent bonds Ergo can form many complex, stable molecules Chemistry of life is complex, and requires complex molecules However, several kinds of molecules