1 Supplemental Material Improved method for the quantification of lysophospholipids including enol ether species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry James G. Bollinger *, Hiromi Ii*, Martin Sadilek * and Michael H. Gelb* 1 Departments of * Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA USA 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed.
2 Supplemental Material Table 1. Autosampler and ESI-MSMS data collection parameters. Injection type Fill mode Pre-sample airy boundary Post-sample air boundary Post-injection wash frequency Flush time Wash time Secondary wash volume Sequential Partial loop 2 μl 2 μl 10 cycles 6 sec 15 sec 600 μl Negative Mode Positive Mode Capillary Voltage (kv) Extractor (V) 3 3 RF Offset Dwell Time (msec) Inter-Scan Delay (msec) Inter-Channel Delay (msec) Source Temp ( o C) Desolvation Temp ( o C) Desolvation Gas (L/Hr) Cone Gas (L/Hr) Collision Cell Entrance (V) -1-1 Collision Cell Exit (V) Each channel consists of all lysophospholipid species with a given polar head group (i.e. all LPG species constitute 1 channel, all LPI species constitute a second channel etc.). Data collection was carried out by cycling through the set of 89 ion reactions (negative mode). The instrument was switched to positive mode at min post injection, and a set of 27 ion reactions were monitored. In each cycle, each ion reaction was monitored for 40 msec (Dwell Time) with a 10 msec period between each reaction monitoring in which no data was collected (Inter-Scan Delay, to allow for instrument parameter changes). After collecting data for the set of ion reactions in each lysophospholipid class, there was a 100 msec period in which no data was collected (Inter-Channel Delay).
3 Supplemental Material Table 2. Extraction yields, liquid chromatography retention times, and tandem mass spectrometry parameters for lysophospholipid molecular species. Lysophospholipid 1 Extr. yield (%) 2 LC ret. time (min) Limit of quant. (fmole) 3 Parent ion 4 (m/z) Fragment ion 4 (m/z) Cone voltage 5 (V) Collision energy 5 (ev) 12:0-LPG :0-LPG :1-LPG :0-LPG d 31-16:0-LPG Int. Std :3-LPG :2-LPG :1-LPG :0-LPG :4-LPG :3-LPG :2-LPG :1-LPG :0-LPG :6-LPG :5-LPG :4-LPG :0-LPI :0-LPI :1-LPI :0-LPI d 31-16:0-LPI Int. Std :3-LPI :2-LPI :1-LPI :0-LPI :4-LPI :3-LPI :2-LPI :1-LPI :0-LPI :6-LPI :5-LPI :4-LPI :0-LPE :0-LPE :1-LPE :0-LPE d 31-16:0-LPE Int. Std :3-LPE :2-LPE :1-LPE :0-LPE :4-LPE :3-LPE :2-LPE :1-LPE
5 22:6-LPC :5-LPC :4-LPC :0-LPC :1-enyl-LPE :2-enyl-LPE :1-enyl-LPE :1-enyl-LPC :2-enyl-LPC :1-enyl-LPC :0-alkyl-LPC d 4-16:0-alkyl-LPC :1-alkyl-LPC :0-alkyl-LPC The internal standard used for enol ether LPE and LPC species are d 31-16:0-LPE and d 31-16:0-LPC, respectively (see Main Text). Other internal standards are as indicated. 2 Extraction yields were determined only for a subset of lysophospholipids as indicated. 3 Limit of quantification is defined as a signal-to-noice ratio of ~10/1, as measured with the Waters QuanLynx software. Values are given only for those lysophospholipid species which were prepared as standardized stock solutions. 4 m/z Values listed were derived from instrument tuning using a set of commercially available lysophospholipid standards (see Main Text for the list). Values for other species were obtained by subtracting or adding the appropriate exact atomic masses. Exact m/z values will vary in an instrument-dependent manner. 5 Cone voltages and collision energies were optimized for each commercially available lysophospholipid (see Main Text for the list). We used the same values across the set of molecular species in each lysophospholipid head group class. Values were derived from instrument tuning and are instrument dependent.
6 Analysis of isobars. To look for isobaric species, we considered the masses of a general set of lysophospholipids that contain either a fatty acyl sn-1 chain or an ether linked sn-1 chain (both enol ether and alkyl ether). Polar head groups included were phosphate, phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine, phosphoglycerol, phosphoinositol, and phosphoserine. We considered acyl and alkyl sn-1 chains 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, d 31-16:0, 16:1,18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 18:3, 20:0, 20:1, 20:2, 20:3, 20:4, 22:4, 22:5, and 22:6. As a first step, we ignored isobars due to different positions of the double bonds in the fatty chain. We considered all lysophospholipids that are analyzed in negative mode (LPA, LPE, LPG, LPI, and LPS) as one group, and positive mode analytes (LPC) as a second group. Isobars between these two groups are not considered to cause an issue because of the different charge polarity used to analyze ions in negative mode and in positive mode and because it is highly likely that the LC step will lead to separation of all LPC species from all other lysophospholipid species (the group of LPC species are well separated from the group of LPA species). For each of the above lysophospholipids we also analyzed the ion mass + 1 since natural heavy isotopic substitution results in a satellite peak whose intensity is about 30% of the monoisotopic peak (lacking heavy isotopes). We also considered the ion mass 1, -2, and +2 to account for the isotope distribution for the d 31-16:0 internal standard for each head group. Thus, the number of negative mode masses considered is 360 (17 fatty chains x 5 polar head groups = 85 sn-1-acyl lysophospholipids plus 16 fatty chains (all but d 31-16:0) x 5 polar head groups = 80 sn-1- ether lysophospholipids gives 165 species, which gives 330 species after consideration of the ion mass + 1 ions). We also considered 6 lysophospholipids with the sn-1 fatty acyl chains 17:0 and 17:1 since these are commonly used commercially available internal standards (17:1-LPG, 17:1-LPI, 19:2-enyl-LPE, 17:1-LPE, 17:1-LPS, 17:0-LPA). As a second independent analysis, we considered 74 positive mode masses (all of negative mode masses plus 24:0). Thus, we considered a total of 440 lysophospholipid masses. Supplemental Material Table 3 list all isobars derived from the set of 360 masses for negative mode lysophospholipids (LPA, LPE, LPG, LPI, and LPS). Supplemental Material Table 3. Isobar analysis of LPA, LPE, LPG, LPI and LPS species. 1 The table is organized as follows. The first column gives the mass at which isobaric lysophospholipid species exists. For all lysophospholipids except the perdeuterated species we considered its parent ion mass as well as the carbon-13 satelite (M+1). For the d 31 -internal standards we considered the parent ion mass (d 31 ) and the partially deuterates species (d 30 and d 29 ) as well as the carbon-13 satelite (M+1) and the additional species M+2. For example, when the [M-1] mass equals the isobaric mass, this lysophospholipid species appears in column 3. The e in e12:0-lpe designates and sn-1 ether linked fatty chain, which includes allkyl and enol ethers. We use a single designation for ethers since this table does not make a distinction between double bond regioisomers. For example, e18:1-lpc could have an enol ether or an alkyl chain with the double more distant from the ether oxygen.
7 In the Resolution of Isobars column, chromatography means that the isobars are likely to be resolved by LC. Q3 means that they are likely to be resolved by MSMS (vs MS). calculation means that the peak area for the putative analyte peak is significantly larger than the area calculated for the isobaric internal standard-derived peak where the latter is obtained by knowing the area of the d 31 internal standard peak and the relative amounts of partially deuterated internal standard species. Unresolved means isbaric resolution cannot be made based on observations made in this study.? means no definitive statement about isobaric resolution can be made. In the Comments on Resolution column, likely means the resolution of isobar statement is based on experimental trends seen with related lysophospholipid species, experimental means that isobaric resolution is based on experimental observations made in this study. Isobaric overlaps that are difficult to resolve are flagged in red, all others are in green. Analysis of LPC isobars shows that aside from double bond regioisomers, there are no isobars as long as d 31-16:0-LPC and d 4 -alkyl-16:0-lpc are used as internal standards. If LPC species with odd carbon number fatty acyl chains are used, isobars between multiple LPC species exist. This is of course true for any particular head group; the isobars listed in Supplemental Table 3 are between two lysophospholipids that have different polar head groups. As already noted, all LPC species elute well after the region of LPA elution, and other head group species elute earlier than LPA species. As described in the Main Text, when one of the double bonds is part of an enol ether, it is possible to distinguish the species from a double bond regioisomer isobar which does not contain an enol ether.
12 Supplemental Material Table 4. Analysis of lysophospholipids in mouse serum. Runs 1-4 are independent experiments prepared with 100 μl of the same batch of mouse serum. Each sample was independently extracted and analyzed by LC/ESI-MSMS as described in the main text. We analyzed for 104 different lysophospholipids as described in the main text. Of these, discernable peaks in the selected ion chromatograms were observed for 80 species, and the levels of these are given in the table on the next page. Listed for each of the 4 runs are the LC retention time, the peak area in the selective ion chromatogram of the analyte and the internal standard, the ratio of peak area of analyte to that of the internal standard, the derived pmoles of analyte, the average pmole of the analyte for the 4 runs and the standard deviation for the 4 runs.
13 Lysophospholipid LC Ret. Time (min) Analyte Area IS Area Area Ratio Pmoles Analytes Average Std Dev 16:1-LPG :0-LPG :2-LPG :1-LPG :0-LPG :4-LPG :3-LPG :2-LPG :1-LPG
25 Supplemental Material Fig. 1. Standard curves for commercially available lysophospholipids. The Y-axes gives the area of the peak in the selected ion trace chromagram (arbitray units) and the X-axes gives the total pmole analytes injected (based on callibration of lysophospholipid stocl solutions using inorganic phosphorous analysis) (note each analyte is present in the stock solution in equi-molar concentration).
34 Supplemental Material Fig. 2. LC/ESI-MSMS detection of a standard mixture of lysophospholipids. The top panel shows positive mode detection of 24:0-LPC (1.5 pmole), 18:0-LPC (0.2 pmole), 16:0-LPC (0.4 pmole), 12:0-LPC (0.3 pmole), and 16:0- alkyl-lpc (1.0 pmole). The bottom panel shows negative mode detection of 18:0-LPE (3.8 pmole), 18:1-LPE (0.8 pmole), 16:0-LPE (2.2 pmole), 14:0-LPE (5.8 pmole), and 18:2-enyl-LPE (2.1 pmole). The X-axis is the LC retention time (min), and the Y-axis is the intensity of the ion trace peaks normalized to the largest peak.
35 Supplemental Material Fig. 3. LC/ESI-MSMS detection of quantities of lysophospholipids near the limit of quantification.
36 Supplemental Material Fig. 3 continued
37 Supplemental Material Figure 4. Distribution of coefficient of variances for the analysis of lysophospholipids in mouse serum. For each of the 80 lysophospholipid species listed in Supplemental Material Table ***, we calculated the coefficient of variance among the 4 runs (100 x (standard deviation/mean)). The coefficient of variances are displayed along the X-axis. It can be seen that most of the values are < 20%.
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