Appendicitis Care Map. Go directly to Care Map Flowchart

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1 Appendicitis Care Map Go directly to Care Map Flowchart

2 How to Use Reference Icons Go directly to Care Map Flowchart When accessing a document, please use the browser return arrow (upper left-hand corner) to return to the Care Map Care Map Symbols Source Reference Links to more information or returns to a previous page. Decision Point Care Map Step Blue underlined text is a hyperlink Start of a Care Map Segment Stop and Evaluate Progression of care Patient Improving Education Module Hospital Policy Hospital Reference Provider Information Download File 2 Last Update: 9/26/16

3 Appendicitis Care Map Go directly to Care Map Flowchart Quick Overview: Appendicitis Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment Appendicitis Care Map Dashboard This care map document does not supersede the clinical judgment of a provider regarding the care that is ultimately ordered for a given patient. Click to see full disclaimer. Suggested Inclusion Criteria for Appendicitis Care Map Executive Summary Age > than 3 months Presenting with the chief complaint or concern of acute abdominal pain Prospective evaluation of a Clinical Pathway for Suspected Appendicitis Patient Appendicitis Education Booklet 3

4 Appendicitis Care Map Go directly to Care Map Flowchart Quick Overview: Appendicitis Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment Appendicitis Care Map Dashboard This care map document does not supersede the clinical judgment of a provider regarding the care that is ultimately ordered for a given patient. Click to see full disclaimer. Potential Reasons to Avoid Appendicitis Care Map Known Inflammatory Bowel Disease Sickle Cell DZ Chronic Steroids Immunosuppressed Executive Summary Prospective evaluation of a Clinical Pathway for Suspected Appendicitis P Patient Appendicitis Education Booklet 4

5 The Pediatric Appendicitis Scoring Grid Signs /Symptoms Points Cough/percussion/heel tapping tenderness at RLQ 2 Anorexia 1 Low-grade fever 38.0 ( 100.4) 1 Nausea/Vomitting 1 RLQ tenderness on light palpation 2 Leucocytosis (>10,000/mm3) 1 Left shift (>75% neutrophils) 1 Migration of pain to RLQ 1 Original grid sourced from: Prospective Evaluation of a clinical Pathway: Pediatrics /peds

6 Emergency Department Care: Chief Complaint = acute abdominal pain Diagnostic testing & therapies not routinely recommended: CT Scan KUB ESR Triage Nurse performs initial assessment and assigns ESI* level. Provider Evaluation: H&P, Physical Exam, CBC, BMP, UA, HCG, +/- CXR/KUB, consider pelvic ultrasound if female YES Suspected APPI NO *ESI = Emergency Severity Index TRANSFERS If a referral is called from an outside facility or from a PCP s office and the patient has a CT scan that is positive for appendicitis: 1. IF it is before 5 PM on M- Fri, page surgery PA/resident for a potential direct admission or a direct transfer to their care in ED. 2. IF after 5 PM or on weekends, proceed through triage process Assign PAPY Score Evaluate and treat as indicated Return to Page 3: Appendicitis Care Map Return to Page 4: Appendicitis Care Map 6

7 Emergency Department Care (continued) Continued from previous page 1-3 Cont Susp. Assign PAPY Score NO YES USG Diagnostic testing & therapies not routinely recommended: CT Scan KUB ESR Discharge with F/U within 24 hours Consider CONSULT SURGERY Consider CT** NEG Reassign Score POS CONS Surgery Antibiotics* NPO IVF Pain Control Antiemetics Admit to CPG/GI NEG OR Available in 1-2 hrs Admit to OR Pre-Scrub in ED** POS Admit to Surgery / Ask OR time OR Available in >2 hrs Admit to floor Pre-Scrub on floor** Admit is after 9:00 PM Admit to floor Pre-Scrub on floor** ANTIBIOTICS* Uncomplicated (Early): Cefoxitin (Pen Allergic) Zosyn Cipro/Flagvl (Severe Pen Allergic) Complicated (Late): Zosyn Cefipime/Flagvl (Mild Pen Allergic) Cipro/Flagvl (Severe Pen Allergic) 7 Last Update:

8 Radiology Criteria for CT scan (IV Contrast ONLY**) 1.If diagnosis uncertain after scoring and ultrasound 2.If requested by surgery 3. Or to assess for intra-abdominal abscess. Return to Page 7: Appendicitis Care Map 8 Last Update: 10/10/16

9 Criteria for Positive Ultrasound Ultrasound Diagnostic for Appendicitis Primary signs: Max outer diameter >7 mm Max wall thickness > 1.7 mm Secondary signs: Presence of periappendiceal fat Presence of a fluid collection Presence of local dilatation and hypoperistalsis Return to Page 7: Appendicitis Care Map 9

10 OR Findings Complicated Appendicitis Post Operative Care: NPO Advance Diet as tolerated IV Fluids Pain Management Monitoring IV Antibiotics* Complicated vs. Uncomplicated Complicated Appendicitis: Perforated Gangrenous Suppurative Peritonitis Abscess Uncomplicated Appendicitis Post Operative Care: Diet-advance as tolerated IV Fluids Pain Management Monitoring Labs-none IV Antibiotics- None Diagnostic testing & therapies not routinely recommended: CT Scan KUB ESR Discharge Readiness Assessment: Beginning at POD#3. continuing daily until post op discharge criteria are met: - Afebrile - Check CBC with diff - Tolerating Diet - Pain well managed - No sign of wound infection IF CBC is normal: Transition to PO antibiotics and Discharge IF CBC is Abnormal- Continue IV antibiotics and reassess daily until patient meets discharge criteria or POD #7 Discharge Criteria ( same day ): Afebrile( T< 101 F) Tolerating oral intake Pain is controlled on oral meds Post discharge Care: F/U prn or per provider order. Wound care instructions *** 10 Transition to PO antibiotics : IV + PO = 7 days total PO Augmentin IF severe Pen/ beta lactam allergy- Bactrim Discharge Criteria: Afebrile( T< 38 C) x48 hrs Tolerating Diet No sign of wound infection CBC with diff evaluation nl Pain is controlled on oral meds IF patient has not met discharge criteria by POD # 7 then reassess Post discharge Care: F/U within days Call for fever, abdominal pain, N/V, or bilious emesis 7 Day reassessment : CT scan with IV contrast CBC Off Pathway

11 Pre Op Surgical Scrub Bathe patient (shower or bath wipes) Scrub entire abdomen (sternum to pelvis, right flank to left flank) using 2% Clorhexidine wipes, paying close attention to the umbilicus - Follow instructions on the product packaging Place clean gown on patient - Instruct the patient and family to not touch the cleaned area Return to Page 7: Appendicitis Care Map 11 Last Update: 9/26/16

12 Executive Summary 12 Last Update: 9/26/16

13 Order Sets : Appendectomy Admission Return to Page 7: Appendicitis Care Map 13 Last Update: 1/18/16

14 Order Sets: Post op Appendectomy 14 Last Update: 1/18/16

15 References Adefurin A, Sammons H, Jacqz-Aigrain E, Choonara I. Ciprofloxacin safety in paediatrics: A systematic review. Arch Dis Chil[Appendectomy].2011;96(9): Lee SL, Islam S, Cassidy LD, Abdullah F, Arca MJ, 2010 American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials,Committee. Antibiotics and appendicitis in the pediatric population: An american pediatric surgical association outcomes and clinical trials committee systematic review. J Pediatr Surg [Appendectomy]. 2010;45(11): Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Bradley JS, et al. Diagnosis and management of complicated intraabdominal infection in adults and children: Guidelines by the surgical infection society and the infectious diseases society of america. Clin Infect Dis [Appendectomy]. 2010;50(2): Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Baron EJ, et al. Guidelines for the selection of anti-infective agents for complicated intra-abdominal infections. Clin Infect Dis [Appendectomy]. 2003;37(8): Seattle Children s Hospital, Ledbetter D, Mazor S, Beardsley E, Hsieh V, Magin J, Moriarty E, Leu M, Popalisky J July. Appendicitis Pathway. Available from: 2 15

16 Physician Disclaimers: Appendicitis Care Map Medical Disclaimer Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required. The authors of this Care Map have checked with sources believed to be the most current and reliable in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of publication. However, in view of the possibility of human error or changes in medical sciences, neither the authors nor East Tennessee Children s Hospital warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete, and they are not responsible for any errors or omissions, or for the results obtained from the use of such information. Readers should make every effort to confirm the information contained herein with other sources, and are encouraged to consult with other health care providers in the making of clinical care decisions. References to specific products, processes, websites, or services within this Care Map neither constitute nor imply corporate recommendation or endorsement by East Tennessee Children s Hospital. Return to Page 3: Appendicitis Care Map Return to Page 4: Appendicitis Care Map 16 Last Update: 9/26/16

17 Contact and Revisions Number For questions concerning this care map, contact: 17

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